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Philosophy 22 Midterm Study Guide

by: Elizabeth Manela

Philosophy 22 Midterm Study Guide Philosophy 22

Marketplace > Harvard University > PHIL-Philosophy > Philosophy 22 > Philosophy 22 Midterm Study Guide
Elizabeth Manela
Harvard University

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About this Document

This study guide includes everything covered on the midterm exam.
Philosophy of Psychology
Prof. Guven Guzeldere
Study Guide
Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Philosophy of Psychology

Popular in PHIL-Philosophy

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Manela on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Philosophy 22 at Harvard University taught by Prof. Guven Guzeldere in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Philosophy of Psychology in PHIL-Philosophy at Harvard University.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
- Monist view o Everything is made up of one thing - Graham’s Dualist Argument o P1: The mind and the brain are identical (one and the same) P2: The mind survives bodily death P3: The brain does not survive bodily death o Cannot all be true o Substance dualism: drop P1, accept P2, P3 o Conclusion: the mind and the brain are distinct - Leibniz’s Principle o Identity necessarily implies indistinguishability  One and same-ness implies all properties shared o At least one property (P) that belongs to X and not Y proves that X and Y are not identical o 1. Identity implies indiscriminability o 2. Indiscriminability implies identity - Descartes God Res Extensa Res Cogitans (physcial, (thinking things, extended things, non-physical bodies) mind) o Mutually exclusive and all inclusive set of all things besides God - Descartes’ Dualism o Minds and bodies are different but related (substance dualism) o Material objects are spatial, mental objects are not o Epistemological distinction  The knowledge we have of our own state of mind is direct and unchallengeable in a way that our knowledge of material objects is not  Transparency: if you are in a particular state of mind, you know you are in that state  Incorrigibility: if you believe that you are in a particular state of mind, you are in that state o There is no overlap in the properties possessed by mental and material substances o (continued in Graham Chapter 2) - Arguments for Dualism o Religious belief o Introspection o Irreducibility o Parapsychological phenomena - Arguments against Dualism o Ockham’s Razor  The simpler explanation is usually better o Explanatory impotence o Neural dependence o Evolutionary history - Substance Dualism Problems o Ontological distinctness  Possibility of afterlife o Causal interaction  In principle, impossible (physical things impacting the non- physical world and vice versa) - Causal interaction vs. common cause explanation - The Knowledge Argument o P1: Pre-release Mary knows P (all physical facts about color perceptions) P2: Post-release Mary learns R (what it’s like to see red) C: Mary learns a non-physical fact o Valid?  Yes, if you accept that R is not included in P o Substance or Property Dualism?  Property dualism is more likely, but it doesn’t necessarily rule out substance dualism  Eliminates physicalism  Everything is physical - Molecular copy of the same person—would they share the same mind? o Descartes would say that it would be a physical body with no mind (no res cogitans) o Limited behavior, similar to animals - Emergence o Property dualist quality (epiphenomenalism and interactionist) o Properties that come about when lots of parts in a system work together in a certain way - Reduction o Ontological reduction  Parts of wholes  Any given system of parts is nothing greater than all of tis parts summed together o Theoretical reduction  Explanation  Can you explain the behavior of the ant colony by explaining the behavior of each ant?  If not, there’s an emergent property - REVIEW VALIDITY/SOUNDNESS - Identity Theory o For any mental state M, there’s always a brain state B such that M=B o Ex. Pain= c-fibers firing (A) & pain in my leg this morning= c- fibers firing at T (B) Not possible for A to be true and not B (type not token) It is possible for B to be true and not A (token not type) - Types and Tokens o Type: kind, token: instance - Churchland’s Argument from Evolutionary History o Mental creatures evolved from non-mental creatures  Creates an argument that denounces property and substance dualism  P1: Evolution started with solely physical materials P2: minds evolved physically C: substance and property dualism are false - Causal Closure o Sensory input  BRAIN  behavior o No other input influencing behavior (closed) - Epiphenomenalism is compatible because mental states don’t influence behavior - 2 major physicalist theories of mind o Identity Theory and Functionalism o Agree on token identification of mental status o Disagree on type identification o Main challenge: given some mental state (M) how can we identify it in physical terms? - Major arguments against… o Identity theory  Argument from introspection (distinctness of mental properties) o Functionalism  Absent Qualia Argument  Inverted Spectrum Argument - Intentional property: knowing something in a certain capacity o Knowing superman to be a hero


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