Exam 2 Notes
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Reuben on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 311995 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Daniel Alvarez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Exam 2 Notes Reuben, Ashley Victoria ▯ Sociology Exam 2 Notes ▯ ▯ Chapter 8 ▯ ▯ Social Stratification Involved hierarchical differences with o Economic positions o Social status o Political power People at the top have a better hierarchical decision and more power Social stratification has a significant effect on how valuable resources are allocated in society We can think of many resources (land, knowledge, food) but we will focus on income and wealth ▯ ▯ Social Class Refers to economic position in the stratification system based on income and wealth Income – the amount of money a person earns Wealth – total amount of a person’s financials assets, loess total liabilities; usually property, savings and incomes producing assets, such as stocks ▯ ▯ Karl Marx Upper class are the Bourgeoisie who own the means of production Lower class are Proletariat, the workers Those at the top have more prestige and more power ▯ ▯ Dimensions of Class ▯ ▯ Income inequality Politically charged issue Since the 1970s there has been a substantial increase in income inequality in many countries, including in the U.S. Global inequality has been decreasing As you approach 1 the more unequal a country gets Reasons: o Deindustrialization and technological advances (since the 1950s) o Tax cuts, and shift in tax policies to favor long-term capital gains (Bush) o Incomes for executives and superstars in sports and entertainment have skyrocketed CEO vs. a common worker within a company o As far as taxes, if you make more you will pay more Wealth in equality is much greater than income inequality ▯ ▯ Wealth Inequality The wealthy have access to many forms of power and control that are not accessible by others This can be seen in how the wealthy can manipulate the political sphere by funding political parties Democracy – “government of the people, by the people, and for the people.” But if governments respond only to a fraction of the people, can the system still be called a democracy? ▯ ▯ Declining middle class creates problems for a society Less financial resources Less hope in the future Less hope in the system ▯ ▯ These translate into more conflict between the upper and middle classes and into more political instability. ▯ ▯ Apart from the declining middle class, there is problem of poverty Absolute poverty – lack of basic needs for survival (objective) Relative poverty - lack of needs relative to a society’s standards (subjective) Poverty line – income level set by the government to count the poor o Figured by the social security administration ▯ ▯ Who is more at risk? Race African Americans and Hispanics Gender – Women Family Patterns – single mothers Region – South and the West ▯ ▯ Structural/Functional (macro-level approach) All societies need to be stratified Certain positions require more education and expertise and have more responsibility For society to fill such positions, more wealth and prestige have to be attached to them The implication is that without high rewards, high-level positions would remain understaffed or unfilled ▯ ▯ Conflict/Critical Argue that stratified social structures promote equality Focus on the control that those in the upper class levels exercise over culture, and how the development of cultural ideas serve to perpetuate an unequal system Question whether high-level positions are less pleasant than lower- level positions Accept that some positions require more education than others, but they argue that some lower level positions are more important than some higher level positions o Feminists focus on gender as the determinant of social stratification o Critical theories of race argue that race is the determinant of position in the system of stratification o ▯ Sociology Exam 2 Notes ▯ ▯ Chapter 8 ▯ ▯ Genie Coefficient – number between 0 and 1. Closer to 1 the more unequal it is; wealth is more concentrated on a single individual ▯ ▯ Africa has a very low density; poor region of the world Regions like North America are completely bright at night A person lives approx. on average to 70-80 years In Africa people live 45-60 years Greater wealth is associated with lower infant mortality rates .7% of people own approx. 40% of the wealth in the world (?) Some countries do better than others, as far as wealth, because… Different resources (focuses on the country itself) Imperialism (focuses on the relationship with other countries) Modernization Theory Focuses on the country itself o Durkheim and Weber concepts Society’s naturally evolve from society’s development o Evolutionary process that has to occur Theory was born after WWII During the 1960s, Rostow, came up with a model consisting of 5 stages o Traditional o Transitional o Take off o Drive to maturity o High mass consumption (final stage of maturity) Kuznets (?) Curve o Agriculture o Industrialized o Services Theory was also institutional o Elderly figures who was highly respected in Mayan society (traditional) Individuals also had to become modern o Traditional values to modern values o Had to have a scientific view of the world Success Competition An individual has to be open to new experiences An individual has to be independent from authority An individual had to believe that nature is in control An individual has to be ambitious in their careers An individual has to engage in the long term effects of their life An individual has to be active in their society ▯ World Trade ▯ World Bank ▯ International Monetary Fund Helped countries get to their desired stage of development These organizations are highly criticized Quotas – given to institutions depending on how much money they make Richer countries have higher quotas ▯ ▯ World Systems Theory (know the two reasons) ▯ ▯ 3 different types of countries ▯ ▯ Notes from PowerPoint… ▯ ▯ Why is the world divided into rick countries and poor countries? Answer depends on your theoretical framework and ideological assumptions Two general views: o Modernization Theory o World Systems Theory ▯ ▯ Modernization Theory Roots in theories of Durkheim and Weber Main argument – societies naturally go through different stages of economic development o From traditional to modern societies Rostow’s Model – the stages of economic development o 1. Traditional Society subsistence, barter, agriculture o 2. Transitional Stage specialization, surpluses, infrastructure o 3. Take Off Industrialization, growing investment, regional growth, political change o 4. Drive to Maturity diversification, innovation, less reliance on imports, investment o 5. High Mass Consumption consumer oriented. Durable goods flourish, service sectors become dominant According to Rostow, development requires substantial investment in capital. For the economies LDC’s to grow the right conditions for such investment would have been created. If aid is given or foreign direct investment occurs at Stage 3, the economy needs to have reached Stage 2. If Stage 2 has been reached, then injections of investment may lead to rapid growth ▯ ▯ Kuznet’s Curve ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Modernization Theory Occurs at different levels o Economic – from agricultural economy to industrialization and services o Institutional – Bureaucratic apparatus to guarantee the rule of law o Personal – from “traditional” values to “modern” values; emphasis on scientific view of the world. Competition, economic success Modern Personality o 1. Open to new experiences, trying new activities o 2. Independent from authorities, not controlled by parents, rulers o 3. Value science and believe human beings can control nature o 4. Mobility orientation – ambitious in their careers o 5. Long-term planning, plan ahead o 6. Active in community, volunteer organizations After WWII, several institutions created aid in the development of underdeveloped countries o World Trade Organization (WTO) – rules of trade o World Bank (WB) – loans o International Monetary Fund (IMF) economic surveillance WTO meets and decides rules of trade; Country X decides to apply for a loan for development projects; WB gives the loan at a specific interest rate and the country agrees to follow the rule established by WTO Criticisms: o Eurocentric, disregards local cultures as “traditional” o Ignores historical context of so-called underdeveloped countries (especially, the history of colonialism) o Ignores the impact of economic relationships between countries o Loans create tremendous burdens from debt o Incongruence between what institutions say they do and what they actually do ▯ ▯ WTO and Decisions Meets at least once every two years In theory, decisions are the outcome of consensus among members In reality, “Green Room” decisions: o Always favor industrialization regions such as Europe, Canada, Japan, and the U.S. ▯ ▯ IMF Quotas and Voting Power depends on positions of each member in the global economy ▯ ▯ Development Criticism of Structural Adjustment Plans from the 1990s SAPs were part of the so-called “Shock Therapy” designed by the IMF and the WB ▯ ▯ World-Systems Theory Developed by Immanuel Wallerstein Roots in Marx Main arguments: o World must be studied as a single unit of interdependent countries o Poverty in low-income comes from exploitation of high-income countries and corporations based in those high-income countries The world is divided as a system based on an international division of labor o Core Industrialized countries; high-skill; capital-intensive production (Japan, United States, Western Europe) o Semi-Periphery Semi-industrialized; middle-income countries (Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile) o Periphery Largely agricultural countries; low-skill; labor-intensive production (throughout Africa, Latin America and Asia) Periphery exports raw materials to the Core Core sells back gods with added value at a higher proce to the Periphery ▯ ▯ Consumption and Global Stratification Fair Trade – an alternative way of organizing highly unequal global trade, with the aim of mitigating global inequalities Fair Trade Example: Coffee o Guarantees farmers a minimum price, higher than the one previously established by the International Coffee Organization o Requires farmers to be part of a cooperative o Requires farmers to meet certain environmental and employment regulations Critics argue that fair trade is using consumption to fight inequality which fuels the consumer culture o It is also, sometimes, difficult or companies to make sure regulations are being met and to get governments to enforce them if they are not Criticisms: o Diminishes role of local economic and political elites in perpetuating poverty and inequality o Difficult to classify countries in practice because they have characteristics that could fit into any of the categories o Too much emphasis on an eventual “crisis” of the system and not so much on alternatives to the model ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Sociology Exam 2 Notes ▯ ▯ Chapter 10 ▯ ▯ Concepts of Race and Ethnicity ▯ What is race? Race – is a social definition based on some real or presumed physical, biological characteristic, such as skin color or hair texture, as well as a shared lineage o A symbolic category, based on phenotype or ancestry, and constructed according to specific social and historical contexts, that is misrecognized as a natural category Symbol – anything that stands for something else Something physical or family-related that is associated to the category of race Characteristics associated with race change over time Naturalization – when something created by humans is mistaken as something dictated by nature ▯ ▯ Samuel Morton (1789-1851) – American physician, correlated skull size with innate intelligence and classified races accordingly Grouped humans into 4 categories o Europeans o Asians o Native Americans o Africans ▯ ▯ In reality, race is a myth. ▯ There is more genetics diversity within racial categories between them. However, people classify other people into racial categories with real consequences Therefore, we say that race is a sociological reality Ethnic groups – in contrast, are socially defined on the basis of some real or presumed difference in cultural characteristics, such as language, religion, tradition, and cultural practices But, this is relative. In some contexts outside the U.S., cultural characteristics can be markers of race ▯ ▯ Racism – discriminatory practices based on the belief of the superiority of one race over another ▯ ▯ Stereotype – generalization about an entire category of people ▯ ▯ Prejudice – involved preconceived attitudes, beliefs, feelings toward minorities (usually negative) ▯ ▯ Discrimination – the unfavorable treatment arising from negative stereotypes associated with prejudice ▯ ▯ Two types of racism Interpersonal racism – direct discrimination based on race Institutional racism – race-based discrimination that results from the day-to-day operation of social institutions and social structures and their rules, policies, and practices It is racism that is systemic within a society The “invisibility” of institutional racism: for subtler than individual acts and thus far more difficult to eradicate ▯ ▯ Distinguishes between race and ethnicity Includes national identities as race Lumps Hispanics, Latino, and Spanish together o Hispanic – ties to Spain and Latin America o Spanish – ties to Spain o Latino – Ties to people who speak languages derived from Latin (French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian), but in the U.S. people from Latin America ▯ ▯ Hate groups Most hate groups in the U.S. are white supremacist groups who believe that minorities of all kinds are a threat to national identity Examples include Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and neo-Nazi skinheads In 2012, the Southern Poverty Law Center identified 1,0007 active hate groups in the U.S. Historically, ethic and racial identities have been closely tied to nation-states With the increase in globalization and the corresponding decline of the nation-state, some sociologists argue that national identities have been diluted Many ethnic and racial groups live in diaspora Argue that globalization is not a threat to racial and ethnic identity Not as fragile because it is part of core identity Globalization can actually reinforce ethnic and racial identities Transnationalism – the separation of ethic or national identity from any specific geographic territory Ethnic conflict – can lead to expulsion, ethnic cleansing, or even genocide
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