Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 2- Study Guide
Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 2- Study Guide Mus 22121
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Mus 22121 at Kent State University taught by Andrew Shahriari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Music as a world phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Music as a World Phenomenon -1 Unit 2: Study Guide Vocabulary A cappella o only voices Adhan o call to prayer Afrikaners o a South African of Dutch decent Animism o spirits in all things Aparteid o segregation between blacks and whites in South Africa Arabic Modal improvisation o from Turkey. uses free rhythm, music is viewed as illigitimate if it isn't used in worship or does not serve a function Balalaika o Russia, has a polka feel so it's very catchy, the domra was outlawed in russia by the tzar of 1648. Bira o ceremony connected with mbira (Zimbabwe) Byzantine Chant o Greece, male voices only and it's a liturgical chant. Sung in Greek Orthodox church Call and Response o Solo first and then group responds Classical o classical underground, Iran (Dastgash - Santur & voice) Dance o Egypt has "belly" dance music Daskah-santur and voice o Iran. melancholy melisma, it's considered classical underground Dhikr o ritual performed by Sufi Muslims in which believers chant the names of Allah with the goal of entering a spiritually ecstatic state (Turkey) Flamenco o Spain, the tempo variations change the mood, it has a gypsy influence Hajj o the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia Harmony o simultaneous combination between three or more pitches Highland pipes o Scotland, the pipe has an airbag made usually from a goats stomach, strident with constant drone, it's a symbol of scottish identity Hurdy Gurdy o Hungary, it's a cranked chordophone and buzz drone rhythm, gypsy influence. liturgical cantillation o Isreal. speech rhythm, read out of the torah which is the first five books of the bible Music as a World Phenomenon -2 Unit 2: Study Guide Indigenous o native to a particular area Iscathamiya o means "to walk like a cat", describes mbube choir, Ladysmith Black Mambazo Islamic call to prayer o melismatic male voice, a form of heightened speech, muslims use a book called the koran. Jali o oral historian, Senegal-Gambia Jali with Kora o Senegal-Gambia, uses syllabic singing, praise-singing sometimes called "spraying" Ladysmith Black Mambazo o isicathimiya group (a capella) from South Africa Mandinka o Senegal-Gambia Master Drummer o in Ghana, polyrhythmic ensemble Mbube Chior o a choral style of typically all-male vocal groups from South Africa Mbube vocal choir o South Africa, puts emphasis on the lower range, all male, they have Mbube competitions Mecca o central city of Islam; Located in Arabia; birthplace of Muhammad; must face toward this place for prayer; pilgrimage occurs here; location of the ka'bah. Islamic holyland. Melismatic o more than one pitch is sung per syllable Melody o an organized succession of pitches forming a musical idea Mihrab o window facing east toward Mecca Minaret o a tall tower of a mosque, used for the Islamic call to prayer Monophony o music with a single melodic line Muezzin o a person who calls Islamic people to worship 5 times a day Oral Tradition o Music is not written down and you spend more time with the teacher (African music) palm wine "highlife" song o Ghana, polyrhythmic melody and percussion with interlocking guitar motives, sometimes musicians were payed for gigs with palm wine at nice places Polyphony o The juxtaposition or overlapping of multiple lines of music; the three types of polyphony are homophony, independent polyphony, and heterophony. Polyrhythm Music as a World Phenomenon -3 Unit 2: Study Guide o multiple rhythms o Dance is also important in some African cultures. Polyrhythmic Ensemble o more than one rhythm in a group o Ghana. uses polyrhythm and call and response, its played in formal and informal contexts Pygmy music o Central Africa, uses minimal percussion, the instruments they use are portable and they have animistic beliefs Sufi o "mystical" branch of Islam, noted for their woolen (suf) robes, most common in Turkey and Pakistan, monasteries and dervish Sufi hymn o Turkey, melismatic voice, ney and "takht" instruments, music is used as a spiritual ladder Syllabic o a text setting in which only one pitch is sung per syllable Takht Ensemble o type of rhythmic ensemble (Egypt), Melody: ud, kemanja, kanun, ney and Rhythm: riqq and tabla (darabukka/dombak) o Egypt. Belly dancing usually accompanies it. The ud, kemanja, kanun and ney hold the melody. Tarab o state of emotional transformation of ecstasy through music Unison o all together Vocal Polyrhythm o pygmy music Women's chorus o Bulgaria, all female choir, was considered peasant music. Zakirler o a specialist group of male vocalists who perform metered hymns in unison during Sufi ritual Ethnic Groups Shona ethnic group o From Zimbabwe Mbuti ethnic group o pygmy Zulu ethnic group o South Africa Music as a World Phenomenon -4 Unit 2: Study Guide Instrument Classifications Aerophone o air is vibrating (flutes, reeds, trumpets) Membranophne o stuck with hand, struck with a stick or other device, "rubbed" or "singing" membranes Idiophone o thing itself is vibrating (plucked, struck, or shaken) Lammellophone o idiophone with a tongue Instruments Lute/ harp o a type of chordophone (harp played in Zimbabwe) Bells, Drums, Rattles o poly-rhythmic ensemble in Ghana Santur o A hammered zither from the Persian classical tradition. Often cited as the origin of hammered zithers found throughout Asia, northern Africa, Europe, and the Western Hemisphere. (Iran) Kora o a harp-lute or bridge-harp, Senegal-Gambia Mbira o lamellophones found in Africa (Zimbabwe) Talking Drums o pitched drums used for communicating o Ghana, surrogate speech, it's said that drums give words more power Ud, Kanun, Ney, Darabukka (tabla) o -Ud: fretless plucked pair-shaped lute o -Kanun: plucked zither o -Ney: flute o -Darabukka: goblet shaped hand drum Kamanche o Violin Akadinda Xylophone o Uganda, triple interlocking patterns, it's a royal instrument Union bagpipes o Ireland, made as dance tunes, played at pubs and sessions Mbira dza vadzimu o Zimbabwe, polyrhythmic music box, music is protected property Music as a World Phenomenon -5 Unit 2: Study Guide Images Santur Kora darabukka Music as a World Phenomenon -6 Unit 2: Study Guide Takht Ensemble Talking Drums Ney Music as a World Phenomenon -7 Unit 2: Study Guide o ud - lute o kanun - zither Questions how do sufi's use music and how is it different? o sufi's seek union with Allah through musical trance, music is essential for them to connect with Allah. Suni's and Shii's think music is secular and that is distracts from the divine how is history of European music influenced by the middle east? o Bulgaria- tuning system and shared musical instruments and rhythm complexities blended with European harmonies Spain- gypsies brought improvised dense noted on the guitar, decorated melodies, rhythmic complexities and vocal is very melismatic how is polyrhythmic music created in Sub-Saharan Africa o there are three layers in the Ghana polyrhythmic ensemble, the master drummer who signals everything that happens, the support drums, and the bell that plays timeline pattern for rhythm. Highlife music creates polyrhythm with 2 guitars and percussion what are the linguistic elements that make the drums talk? o tonal languages, master drummer also matches rhythm of speech what defines music as classical or folk in European context? o classical in paneuropean but folk is usually specific to one culture, biggest influence classical has on folk is tonal harmonies, folk provided a wealth of melodies and dance rhythms for classical why are Muslim and Jewish chanting not considered music? o it's a form of heightened speech and it done out of respect for G-d and the holy texts
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