Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide PHL 264-01
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHL 264-01 at La Salle University taught by Joseph A Volpe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
2-1 What is Good Reasoning? 1) Validity: - Reasoning/an argument is valid when and only when the relationship between the reasons/premises and the conclusion is such that if the reasons/premises were true, then the conclusion would have to be true or the truth of the conclusion would be overwhelmingly likely - The statements could even be false but in the argument diagrams make the reasons to appear true to the likelihood of that conclusion is to be appearing s true as well. 2) Soundness: - Reasoning/an argument is sound when and only when Reasoning/an argument is valid to a high degree The reasons/premises are true or are likely to be true - Validity + Truth But of what? 3) Degrees of Validity - Deductively Valid: highest degree of validity If the reasons were true, then the truth of the conclusion follows. - Strong: beyond a reasonable doubt If the reasons are true, then there is a mere possibility for the conclusion to be true Rare to see - Moderate: if the reasons are not true, then the conclusion are more likely than not true - Weak: even is reasons are not true, they are only relevant to the possible truth - Nil: no relations with reasons and conclusions Is rare to see Not even relevant to the possible truth of the conclusion 4) The Magic Question - Supposing those reasons to be true, is it possible for that conclusion to be false? Can you imagine a logical way for the truth of the conclusion to follow? 5) Quantifiers - Words that have to do with quantities Examples: All, Some, Most 2-2 Semantic Clarification 1) Vague: - Make a word as specific as possible [Clarification of a term] 2) Ambiguous: - Words with more than one meaning attribute the meaning of that word in the statement to make the statement true - Example: > Only Man is Rational + No woman is a man 2 Nil (if seen by two meanings) Deductively Valid (if seen as the same meaning) No Women is rational (1) Man= human beings (2) Man= Gender
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