SPAU 3305: Exam 3 Review
SPAU 3305: Exam 3 Review spau 3305
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to spau 3305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by E. Touchstone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
READING COMPREHENSION “Meeting of the Minds” - Writers must create text that allows the reader to interpret the material as it was intended. (reading to learn) 5 Levels of Representation: Surface-code level: reading (or hearing) and remembering what you read/heard verbatim ((Ex: reading directions, studying, etc.)) Textbase level: not the exact syntax, but what are the important facts you have to know; the big points Situation model: “refers to the people, the spatial setting, the actions and events of a mental micro world that is constructed inferentially through interaction between explicit texts and backward world knowledge.” ((Ex: Classic Books)) » You can remember the overall topic, maybe not the main details » Having some frame of reference will heightened the experience of reading Communication level: the reader represents the author’s communicative intent; the reader guesses what the author is going to do (i.e., mystery + thriller novels) Text-genre level: readers should be able to categorize certain types of texts with ease (newspaper, fiction; what are you reading?) Structural Aspects of Comprehension: Memory-related o Role of working memory (sodoku & test we did in class) Knowledge-related o Schema-mental representation/experience Topic knowledge – world knowledge Schemata for narrative vs. expository texts Narrative o Entertainment o Characters, setting, plot/storyline, conflict/resolution, point of view Expository o Informative (our textbook) o Examples? o Writing styles facilitate schematic for expository texts Signaling devices (Step 1, Step 2, etc.) Processes for Comprehension: Orienting Processes: approach every reading occurrence with goals Coherence-forming processes: make inferences to make sense of the text Reading Strategies: learned, then improved with practice (get better/easier with age); explicitly taught in elementary school To Be Successful in Reading Comprehension, the Reader… - Sets goals for understanding - Has knowledge of the topic - Recognizes different types of texts - Has adequate linguistic knowledge (semantics included) - Employs processes and/or strategies when needed 2.23 CLASS ACTIVITY Reading comprehension strategies Summarizing Sequencing Inferencing Comparing and Contrasting Drawing conclusions Finding the maid idea, important facts, supporting details Writing Environment - Types of writing and reasons for it. - Apply the invitation method again: o Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Characteristics of the Individual Writer: Motivational Factors/Aspects of Writing o Writing is goal-directed o Fostering positive attitudes? (will have a lasting effect) Knowledge structures in long term memory o Task-schemas o Topic knowledge o Know your audience o Knowledge of genre o Knowledge of language o Age is a factor in all areas (not just age, but experience will change over time) Writing-Specific cognitive processes o Text interpretation o Reflection (coming up with a plan on how to execute) cognitive process o Text production (writing out your intent) Components of working memory o For writing: Formulation (planning) – remembering the content language enough to get/write it down ((mental process)) Execution (translation) – act of writing ((muscle memory)) Monitoring (revising) – hardest (we are all bad monitors) **Again, age is a factor** Motivational Aspects of Writing Neuroscience Basis Brain research Writing deficits in adults with brain injury: (writing is affected the most) o Word retrieval o Grammatical function o Memory o Handwriting o Visual field cuts DYSLEXIA - “is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction…” Core concepts: o Language based specific learning disability o Reading accuracy and fluency o Spelling/writing o Phonological processing Core deficits: o Difficulty with written language is unexpected o Occurs along a continuum o Persists throughout the lifetime; not a developmental delay, it can get better over time but still have weaknesses Prevalence & Comorbidities - Most common learning disability (1:5 people struggle with reading, studies estimate 5 – 17.5% are dyslexic) - Most common in boys than girls… Boys tend to be more often referred - Found in all languages and cultures Genetic and environmental factors Genetic: o Runs in families (up to 50% chance) o Neurobiological differences Environmental: o Interest/Motivation o Family literacy – how often parents read with children, number of books in home **Both genetic and environmental are important factors Signs & Symptoms Phonological level: Phonological Awareness » Rapid Naming (fast naming of objects), related to reading ability » Deletion o Say “cat” without saying “k” o Say “blimp” without saying “b” Word level: » Decoding – single words i.e. Bob books, word recognition-irregular words, common words » Spelling Connected text: » Fluency – how many words read? How many errors? » Comprehension – often (but not always) a relative strength o Visual tracking and attention – less efficient at visual screening o Sequencing – first, then last Inversions 314/413, on/no o Dictionality – p/q/b/d/m/w o Characteristics – phonetic spellings, inconsistencies, substitutions, reversals Language and attention: Oral language problems – late talkers, mispronunciations, word retrieval problems Attention – primary ADHD, secondary – effortful reading drains attention Diagnostic Models: Traditional methods – IQ reading discrepancy, low achievement Alternative methods – dynamic assessment, response to intervention Types of dyslexia: Acquired dyslexia o Visual word form dyslexia – analyzing visual features, the actural form of the word o Central dyslexia – later processing (phonology, semantics) occurs after brain processes the visual features of the word Developmental dyslexia o Deep “phonological” dyslexia – trouble sounding out words o Surface “orthographic” dyslexia – reading irregular/sight words Central vs. Visual Word Form Neurological Differences and Patterns - Non-impaired vs. dyslexic o Posterior reading systems critical for fluent, skilled reading o Under-activation of these systems considered hallmark of reading disability How is it treated? NPR report: 5 areas of effective instruction 1. PA 2. Phonics 3. Vocabulary 4. Fluency 5. Comprehension Explicit, multisensory instruction is key Role of repeated practice Treatment outcomes Closing the gap – with treatment, many reading skills do improve, word level reading skills, less robust improvements in fluency Treatment resisters SPELLING Successful Spellers & Reasons for Error: First, a few refresher definitions: o Phoneme – sound o Grapheme – symbol/letter(s) o Morpheme – smallest meaningful unit in a language o Semantics – word knowledge Signs/Symptoms - Problems learning the letter sounds in a language (phonological processing) » Receptive Phonological Skills o Ability to recognize sounds and typical sound patterns of native language when listening to another speaker o Four levels: Phoneme, syllable, word, prosody » Productive Phonological Competence o Produce phonemes; combine sounds to create syllables, words, and multi-word expressions **Spelling is all production Apel’s 5 Blocks: Phonemic Awareness (PA) o Ability to hear, isolate and manipulate speech sounds » Omission/addition of phonemes (usually omit) Consonant clusters: “sop” stop, “sping” spring Vowel-only syllables: “relize” realize, “ida” idea » Letter reversal Liquids (l, r): “flod” fold, “brid” bird Nasals (n, m, ng): “pnut” punt Orthographic Pattern Awareness – will show up in early spellers o Orthographic = letter/spelling constraints o Poor awareness of the alphabetic principle, rules for combining letters, rules for base words and positional constraints o Examples: “cas” catch, “kry” cry, “chrip” trip Base words: “ran” rain, “lader” ladder Positional constraint: “ckow” cow Mental Graphemic Representations (MGR’s) o IT DOESN’T LOOK RIGHT! o Inconsistently incorrect o Spelling phonetically when shouldn’t o Examples: “cidy” city, “reng” rang/ring, “whil” wheel “stopd, stopt, stoppd, stoppt, stopped” “leep” leap, “jeap” jeep Morphological Awareness o Ability to consider morphemes and their specific spellings, know how addition of morphemes changes root word spelling, find connections between root words and extensions o Examples: “carried” carried, “chopt” chopped “flurrys” flurries, “ponys” ponies, “leafs” leaves, “daies” days “buies” buys, “hopping” hoping “drumr” drummer, “musishun” musician Semantic Awareness - *the most common error for more advanced spellers o Think about the effect of spelling on word meanings, rely on context o Examples: One/won, allowed/aloud Conscious/conscience/cautious Discreet/discrete Principle/principal