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SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam II Study Guide

by: Ashley

SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam II Study Guide SOCI 2013 007

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Here is a study guide for the second exam covering chapters 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10.
Introductory Sociology
Stefanie Collier
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2013 007 at University of Arkansas taught by Stefanie Collier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Arkansas.

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Date Created: 04/05/16
Sociology Exam #2 Study Guide Chapter Five – Groups and Organizations Aggregate – random group of people that may or may not have things in common Groups – a group of people that do have things in common Types of Groups o Cooley’s Group  Primary – family and friends  Secondary – coworkers o Sumner’s Group  Ingroup – whoever you feel you belong to  Outgroup – people you feel left out from or don’t get along with o Reference Group  A group of comparison  Who you compare yourself with  Can influence your behavior o Social Networks  Social media – today  Before it means where an individual fits into a huge web of connections   Facebook enhances our knowledge of our social network connections  Get to know your connections Group Characteristics o Size – diad (2), traid (3) o Leadership – influential in a group  Authoritarian   Democratic  Laissez – faire o Conformity – just going along with the majority  Formal Organizations o Normative – people join voluntarily  o Coercive – involuntarily join o Utilitarian – join in order to receive a monetary reward or benefit Bureaucracies  o Weber – Division of Labor Chapter 6 – Deviance and Crime  Functionalist Perspective o Certain amounts of deviance is a necessity for a smooth and functioning society o Anomie – when social control becomes ineffective because of loss of shared  values o Strain Theory – people turn to deviance because they don’t have the means or will to follow social norm o Opportunity Theory – based on a person’s circumstances their ability to obtain  opportunity may be through illegitimate or legitimate methods  Conflict Perspective o Power elite class holding social capital giving them the deciders of social rules on  deviant life style o Feminist Approach – there are different social norms for women, deviance  standards set by men  Symbolic Interactionist Perspective o Association with others who are deviant make your chances of being deviant  higher  Rational Choice Theory o Cost / benefit of deviance … benefits outweigh the risks  Control Theory o A group of people forcing others to perform deviant actions – peer pressure  Labeling Theory on Deviance o Socially constructed process ‘label’ people and reinforce their actions  Postmodern Perspective o Knowledge of powerful – judge and control powerless Chapter 7 – Class and Stratification in the United States  Social Stratification – hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their  control over basic resources  Life Chances  Social Mobility  IntErgenerational Mobility – family members from generation to generation  IntrAgenerational Mobility – individual moving throughout his/her own life  Class System  Perspectives on Social Class o Marx  Capitalist (bourgeoisie) own means of production and pay the working  class who must sell their body to work to stay alive  Alienation  Class Conflict o Weber  Wealth – value of all a persons or families economic assets  Prestige – respect of regard that a person or status position is given by  others  Power – ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite  opposition from others  Socioeconomic Status o Contemporary Model of Social Structure  Upper  Upper­Middle  Middle  Working  Working Poor  Under o Income o Poverty  Official poverty line  Absolute poverty  Relative poverty o Functionalists believe inequality is inevitable and necessary   Meritocracy Chapter 9 – Race and Ethnicity  Race = socially constructed reality  Ethnic group   Dominant group   Subordinate group  Prejudice – negative attitudes and beliefs based on generalizations of a specific race of  ethnic group o Stereotypes o Racism  Discrimination – individual or institutional  Symbolic interactionists belief o Intergroup contact may either intensify or reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping  and prejudice  Functionalist belief o Assimilation is the process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic  groups become absorbed into the dominant culture  Conflict Perspectives beliefs o Caste system views racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of US  society  Racial Formation  Colorblindness o Concept of treating individuals as equally as possible – this denies racism  Revers Racism  Chapter 10 – Sex, Gender and Sexuality  Primary and secondary sex characteristics  Sex implies a biological foundation  Gender is a social foundation  Sexual orientation  Intersex  Transgender  Biological characteristics vs visual representation of characteristics can be same or  different  How does gender work? o Gender roles (micro level) o Structural features of society (macro level) o Reinforced institutionally o Beliefs and attitudes o Practiced individually o Gender identity  Sexism  Contemporary gender inequality issues o Gender segregated work o Pay equity o Family equity o Un­paid work (family work)  Feminism o Conflict theory o Liberal feminism o Radical feminism o Socialist feminism o Multicultural feminism


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