SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam II Study Guide
SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam II Study Guide SOCI 2013 007
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SOCI 2013 007
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2013 007 at University of Arkansas taught by Stefanie Collier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Sociology Exam #2 Study Guide Chapter Five – Groups and Organizations Aggregate – random group of people that may or may not have things in common Groups – a group of people that do have things in common Types of Groups o Cooley’s Group Primary – family and friends Secondary – coworkers o Sumner’s Group Ingroup – whoever you feel you belong to Outgroup – people you feel left out from or don’t get along with o Reference Group A group of comparison Who you compare yourself with Can influence your behavior o Social Networks Social media – today Before it means where an individual fits into a huge web of connections Facebook enhances our knowledge of our social network connections Get to know your connections Group Characteristics o Size – diad (2), traid (3) o Leadership – influential in a group Authoritarian Democratic Laissez – faire o Conformity – just going along with the majority Formal Organizations o Normative – people join voluntarily o Coercive – involuntarily join o Utilitarian – join in order to receive a monetary reward or benefit Bureaucracies o Weber – Division of Labor Chapter 6 – Deviance and Crime Functionalist Perspective o Certain amounts of deviance is a necessity for a smooth and functioning society o Anomie – when social control becomes ineffective because of loss of shared values o Strain Theory – people turn to deviance because they don’t have the means or will to follow social norm o Opportunity Theory – based on a person’s circumstances their ability to obtain opportunity may be through illegitimate or legitimate methods Conflict Perspective o Power elite class holding social capital giving them the deciders of social rules on deviant life style o Feminist Approach – there are different social norms for women, deviance standards set by men Symbolic Interactionist Perspective o Association with others who are deviant make your chances of being deviant higher Rational Choice Theory o Cost / benefit of deviance … benefits outweigh the risks Control Theory o A group of people forcing others to perform deviant actions – peer pressure Labeling Theory on Deviance o Socially constructed process ‘label’ people and reinforce their actions Postmodern Perspective o Knowledge of powerful – judge and control powerless Chapter 7 – Class and Stratification in the United States Social Stratification – hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources Life Chances Social Mobility IntErgenerational Mobility – family members from generation to generation IntrAgenerational Mobility – individual moving throughout his/her own life Class System Perspectives on Social Class o Marx Capitalist (bourgeoisie) own means of production and pay the working class who must sell their body to work to stay alive Alienation Class Conflict o Weber Wealth – value of all a persons or families economic assets Prestige – respect of regard that a person or status position is given by others Power – ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others Socioeconomic Status o Contemporary Model of Social Structure Upper UpperMiddle Middle Working Working Poor Under o Income o Poverty Official poverty line Absolute poverty Relative poverty o Functionalists believe inequality is inevitable and necessary Meritocracy Chapter 9 – Race and Ethnicity Race = socially constructed reality Ethnic group Dominant group Subordinate group Prejudice – negative attitudes and beliefs based on generalizations of a specific race of ethnic group o Stereotypes o Racism Discrimination – individual or institutional Symbolic interactionists belief o Intergroup contact may either intensify or reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice Functionalist belief o Assimilation is the process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture Conflict Perspectives beliefs o Caste system views racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of US society Racial Formation Colorblindness o Concept of treating individuals as equally as possible – this denies racism Revers Racism Chapter 10 – Sex, Gender and Sexuality Primary and secondary sex characteristics Sex implies a biological foundation Gender is a social foundation Sexual orientation Intersex Transgender Biological characteristics vs visual representation of characteristics can be same or different How does gender work? o Gender roles (micro level) o Structural features of society (macro level) o Reinforced institutionally o Beliefs and attitudes o Practiced individually o Gender identity Sexism Contemporary gender inequality issues o Gender segregated work o Pay equity o Family equity o Unpaid work (family work) Feminism o Conflict theory o Liberal feminism o Radical feminism o Socialist feminism o Multicultural feminism
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