Chapter 7 and 8 Notes
Chapter 7 and 8 Notes HLTH 4330
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Jackson on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 4330 at Clayton State University taught by Julane Ruth Contursi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
HLTH 4330 Study Guide Chapters 7 and 8 Chapter 7 1. Be able to differentiate the two classes of vitamins w/respect to their properties (p.191) Water-soluble vitamins -Only a short-term supply available with little storage; daily intake recommended. -Excess intake usually detected and excreted by the kidneys -Deficiency symptoms appear relatively quickly -lower risk of toxicity -Easily absorbed into the blood; travel freely in the blood -dissolves in water -less stable in food handling and processing Most B vitamins share similar roles; vitamin C serves many different roles in the body Fat Soluble vitamins -Long-term storage available in the body tissues; regular intake recommended -Excess intake tends to be stored in fat storage sites -Deficieny symptoms are slow to develop -Higher risk of toxicity -Like lipids, absorbed into lymph; many require protein carriers if they are to travel in the blood -dissolve in lipids -Staple in food handling and processing -Each has unique roles in the body 2. Know what function the following vitamins are involved in: Folate, Thiamin, B6, Vit C, Vit K, Vit D, Vit A and be able to recognize good food sources of each. -Folate- needed for the formation and maintenance of health red blood cells. Good food sources of folate is avocado, romaine lettuce, peanuts, etc. -Thiamin-Helps enzymes release energy from carbohydrate supports normal appetite and nervous system function. Good food sources are meat, pork, liver, fish, enriched breads, cereals, and grain products, nuts, and legumes. -B6 (pyridoxine)- Protein and fat metabolism; formation of antibodies and red blood cells; help convert tryptophan to niacin. Good food sources are meat, fish, shellfish, legumes, seeds, citrus fruits, melons, enriched breads, etc. Vitamin C- synthesis of collagen (helps heal wounds, maintains bone and teeth strength blood vessels walls); antioxidant strengthens resistance to infection; helps body absorb iron. Good food sources are citrus fruits, cabbage-type veggies, tomatoes, potatoes, dark-green veggies, peppers, lettuce, cantaloupe, strawberries, mangoes, and papayas. -Vitamin K- synthesis of blood clotting proteins and a blood protein that regulates blood calcium. Good sources are bacteria synthesis in digestive tract, liver, green leafy and cabbage-type veggies, soybeans, milk, vegetable oils. -Vitamin D- calcium and phosphorus metabolism (bone and tooth formation); aids body’s absorption of calcium. Good sources is self-synthesis with sunlight, fortified milk, fortified margarine, eggs, liver, and fish. Vitamins A- Helps with vision; growth and repair of body tissues; maintenance of mucous membranes; reproduction; bone and tooth formation; immunity; hormone synthesis; antioxidant. Good food sources are beta-carotene: spinach and other dark leafy greens, broccoli, deep orange fruits, and vegetables (squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin). Also, retinol: fortified milk and margarine, cream, cheese, butter, eggs, liver). 3. Know which food groups contribute to a higher risk for cancer and current recommendations for lowering cancer risk (i.e., high pro, low pro, high fat, low fat, high in Vit C, etc.) and what the American Institute of Cancer Research recommend for cancer prevention. -Cruciferous vegetables is a group of vegetables that contain nutrients and non-nutrients that protect against cancer. These veggies are cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussel sprouts. -High protein intake maybe associated with increase risks of certain kinds of cancer, but no evidence confirms it. However, with low levels of the B vitamins means you have a high level of the protein-related compound homocysteine, which enhance blood clot formation, which can damage your arterial walls. -High and low fat intake are associated with cancers such as heart disease, ovaries, colon, and prostate. -Vit. C- may help prevent the formation of cancer- causing agents, and protects against cancers of the esophagus, and stomach. -Calcium- Low calcium intake has been associated with the incidence of colon cancer. -Fiber speeds up the passage of all materials through the colon, so the walls are not exposed to cancer-causing agents for long. The American Institute of Cancer Research just recommends that people should aim to be healthier. Examples would be physical activity 30 minutes or more each day, aim to be a healthy weight throughout life, choose mostly plant foods, limit red meat and avoid processed meat, and for the greatest protection, combine all three. 4. Know which nutrients are needed for good blood health. Folate, Vitamin B6 and B12, and vitamin K 5. Know what components are classified as cancer initiators. -Cancer is initiated by a carcinogen causes cancerous alterations in previously healthy body cells. Ex. Ultraviolent light/radiation, cigarettes, and environmental toxins (pollution and contaminants) 6. Be able to define free radicals and how they behave in the body. -Free radicals are highly toxic compounds created in the body as a result of chemical reactions that involve oxygen. If left unchecked, these compounds can cause severe call injury and ultimately may contribute to the development of chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. 7. Know the relationship of B Vitamins and homocysteine and consequences of high homocysteine levels. Low intakes of Vitamin B (Folate, B6, and B12) may be linked to an increase risk of fatal heart disease for both men and women. Also, this tends to mean with low blood levels of these B vitamins, you have an increase blood level of the protein related compound homocysteine. High levels may enhance blood clot formation, and damage to arterial walls. 8. Be familiar w/Figure 7.4 – the impact of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on cancer - stats listed. Free radicals, which are unstable oxygen molecules, can be formed by sunlight, cigarette smoke, and environmental pollution. As a result, many normal chemical reactions involving oxygen in the body. They steal electrons from healthy molecules to stabilize themselves, which damages the cell and tissue in the body. Also, can cause damage to the body’s enzymes, cell membranes, and nuclear DNA, or it can result in the formation of oxidized LDL-cholesterol in the arteries. On the other hand, the antioxidant team involves vitamin C, E, the carotenoids, selenium, and many naturally occurring non-nutrients, called phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. They prevent free radicals from attacking cells, and causing damage by neutralizing the free radicals and converting them back into stable oxygen molecules. 9. Be familiar w/the cancer risk and a high intake of cured foods as well as the best food choices & prep method for reducing Cancer risk. (Know the “Nutrition & Cancer Prevention section well – the “Spotlight” section, pgs. 220-226). -Factors that increase risk of cancer- alcohol, salt, and salting, red meat, total and saturated animal fats, obesity and smoking tobacco. -Factors that decrease risk of cancer- Vegetables, fruits, fiber, and physical activity - Foods may be cured using nitrites or nitrates. These act as preservatives to prevent food from spoiling, and they also add color to the meat. Processed meat is generally considered unhealthy. It has been linked with diseases like cancer and heart disease in numerous studies. There is no doubt that processed meat contains many harmful chemicals that are not naturally present in fresh meat. -Fresh vegetables and fruits are the best food choices and methods to use to prevent cancer. Chapter 8 1 Be aware of nutrient(s) that work w/insulin -Sulfur, Zinc and Chromium works with insulin Sulfur- chief role is the component of certain amino acids, part of biotin, thiamin, and insulin. -Zinc- part of insulin and many enzymes; involved in making genetic material and proteins, immunity, vitamin A transport, taste, wound healing, making sperm, fetal development -chromium- associated with insulin needed for release of energy from glucose 2 Know what foods contain heme & nonheme iron and which is most absorbed by body as well as nutrient(s) that help to absorb iron. -Heme iron is bound into the iron-carrying protein such as hemoglobin in meats, poultry, and fish. -Nonheme iron is in both plants and animal foods. Heme iron is much more reliable absorbed than nonheme iron. Absorption of nonheme iron is affected by many factors including the amount of vitamin C consumed in meals. 3 Know the nutrients involved in healthy blood development and healthy bone development. -For healthy bone development you would need the nutrient vitamin D which directs a large bone-making and bone-maintenance team composed up of several nutrients and other compounds including vitamin C, and vitamin K; hormones; the protein collagen; and the minerals calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride. -For healthy blood development, along with the vitamins, you would need minerals iron, zinc, and copper. 4 Be aware of risk factors for osteoporosis and gender/ethnic differences & why one gender/ethnicity may be at higher risk than other. -Women generally have less bone mass than men -Woman typically have lower calcium intakes than men -Woman more often use weight-loss diets which tends to be low in calcium and lead to bone loss -Bone loss begins earlier in women because of women’s different hormonal makeup, and loss is accelerated at menopause, when their protective estrogen secretion declines. -Pregnancy and lactation decrease the calcium reserves in bones whenever calcium intake is inadequate -Women live longer than men, and bone loss continues with aging Those of British, northern European, Chinese, Japanese, or Mexican American background, or Hispanic people from Central and South America are at higher risk. African American women tend to have denser bones and are at lower risk. 5 Be familiar w/lifestyle habits most conducive for lower risk for HTN (hypertension). Lifestyle changes can be: -adopt an eating pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, legumes, and low-fat dairy products with reduced saturated-fat content. -Maintain normal weight; lose weight if you’re overweight -Keep your sodium intake at or below recommended levels; not more than 2,300 mg a day, or not more than 1500 mg a day if you are 51 or older, or African American -Pursue a physical active lifestyle -If you drink, do so in moderation, no more than one drink a day for women, and two drinks a day for men -Don’t smoke! 6 Be familiar w/nutrient that aids in growth development. Some minerals that aid in growth development are: -calcium, chloride, zinc, and manganese -calcium helps prevent stunted growth in children -chloride helps prevent growth failure in children also. -zinc helps with the prevention of growth failure in children -manganese helps with poor growth 7 Know the functions of fluoride and best sources. -Fluoride helps in the formation of bones and teeth, and helps with teeth resistant to decay. Deficiency symptoms would be susceptibility to tooth decay. Toxicity symptoms would be fluorosis or discoloration of teeth; vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea. Best sources are drinking water (if fluoride containing or fluoridated), tea, and seafood.
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