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Study Guide for Test Three

by: Shanavia Bates

Study Guide for Test Three KNES 2169

Shanavia Bates

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It's a study guide on the things that is going to be on the next test. Just make sure you stick to the information on the study guide and not go to in depth on the information.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Mike Turner
Study Guide
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanavia Bates on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KNES 2169 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Mike Turner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Kinesiology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 04/05/16
KNES 2160 UNC Charlotte – Department of Kinesiology Dr. Michael J. Turner Study Guide for Exam Three Respiratory System 1. Describe the different functions of the respiratory system. a. Ventilation-air and out of the lungs – breathing in air and breathing air out of the lungs b. External respiration - gas exchange between the lungs and the blood c. Internal respiration – gas exchange between the blood and the tissues - nasal cavity d. Respiration – gas exchange ; capillaries and alveoli 2. Be able to explain the different anatomical structures and landmarks for the respiratory system, including nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and tracheobronchial tree. a. Nasal cavity a. Vestibule – most anterior portion of nasal cavity b. Hard palate – bony plate on roof of the mouth c. Nasal septum – bone/cartilate separating left and right nostril d. Conchae – bony shelves in nasal cavity b. Pharynx a. Nasopharynx – closest to the nasal cavity – mucus move up b. Oropharynx – larynx c. Laryngopharynx – mouth – mucus move out c. Larynx – d. Tracheobronchial tree - 3. Describe the different functions of the nasal cavity. What would happen if any of these functions were no longer working? a. Functions i. Passageway for air ii. Cleans the air iii. Humidifies, warm air iv. Smell v. Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech b. If we didn’t have the nasal cavity, we would not be able to breathe, or breathe properly. The air that we take in, it wouldn’t be cleared out or humidifies. 4. Cartilage and smooth muscle are an important part of the trachea. What are their functions and how would the come into play if you were having an asthmatic attack? a. Cartilage – maintain structure b. Smooth – flow of air c. Asthmatic attack - you can’t get carbon dioxide(CO2) out, the alveoli collapse 5. Explain the process of inspiration and expiration. a. Inspiration- the diaphragm is contracting (passive contraction b/c lungs move it down), creating negative pressure in the lungs causing air to go in, breathe in O2; external intercostal b. Expiration- the diaphragm relaxes, causing the air inside the lungs to compress, this creates positive pressure inside the lungs causing air to go out; internal intercostal Inspiration Expiration Gas Exchange O2 CO2 Muscles used  External Internal  Breathe b/c pressure is.. Negative (Lower)  Positive (Higher)  Diaphragm  Goes down Goes up  6. What are pleura and how does it work to assist in ventilation? a. Pleura are membranes that surround the lungs inside the pleural cavity b. Consists of visceral layer which lies against the lungs and the parietal layer which lies against the internal space of the ribs, and is connected to the diaphragm c. Pleural fluid – this is the fluid inside the pleural cavity which prevents makes friction/irritation against the membrane and the ribs 7. Describe the differences in pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries. a. Pulmonary arteries i. Circulates to re-oxygenate blood and exchange gas (respiration) b. Bronchial arteries i. Systemic circulation to supply the tissues with nutrients to fuel the lungs 8. Elaborate on what surfactant does for the lungs and how it functions relative to alveolar elasticity. a. Prevents surface tension and stops from collapsing b. Allows for the cell to pop back open if it were to collapse 9. Explain the different lung volumes. What is happening if vital capacity is decreased in an individual? a. Lung volumes i. TV= 500mL ii. IRV= 3000mL iii. ERV= 1100mL iv. RV=1200mL v. VC= IRV+TV+ERV=4600mL vi. FAC=ERV+RV=1100+1200mL vii. IC=TV+IRV=500+300=350mL 10. Describe minute and alveolar ventilation relative to dead space. How does a change in respiratory rate influence ventilation? a. Minute ventilation – how much air moves into the lungs per minute b. Alveolar ventilation – amount of air moving into the alveoli c. If you don’t have alveoli in the lungs it’s anatomical dead space d. If you have more respiration, you have more ventilation 11. Be able to define partial pressure, explain how it is calculated and why it is important with gas exchange. a. Partial pressure - % of individual gas add all together and you get total pressure in the air b. Standard sea level i. Pressure of all of air at sea level 760mmHG ii. % of gas in the air iii. Dalton’s law which is the law of partial pressure iv. Think of shot glass when you think about sea level v. Total air pressure – decimal form of how much gas you have vi. Think of mountain, think of tall beer vii. When you are on the mountain, you are at a higher altitude, higher volume and lower pressure c. Higher altitude, you lose your breath more so your body has to work harder to get the correct amount of oxygen it needs to function properly. You need more O2, and muscles have to contract harder to maintain pressure gradient d. At higher pressure, partial pressure of O2 would go up and if partial pressure is low, have to breathe more and chemoreceptors are activated e. Partial pressure is the percent of individual gases that together make up the total pressure in the air f. Gas percentages i. Nitrogen (79%) ii. Oxygen (21%) iii. Carbon dioxide (.03%) g. Total pressure x percent of gas = partial pressure h. As blood travels through arteries and arterioles, no gas exchange occurs because of the differences in partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the systemic capillaries and the body cells, oxygen diffuses from the blood and into the cells while carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the blood 12. Describe the four factors that influence gas exchange. How would gas exchange be altered if you were to change any of the four factors? a. Membrane thickness – the thicker the membrane the less diffusion will be able to occur and it gets thicker with age b. Diffusion of coefficient of gas – for example, CO2 diffuse 20 times faster than oxygen c. Surface area – the greater the surface area, the more diffusion can occur, the lower the surface are, and the lower of gas exchange d. Partial pressure differences – normally, partial pressure of O2 is higher in alveoli than in blood. Opposite usually true for CO2 (refer to question 11 for more information) 13. How does alveolar ventilation and pulmonary capillary perfusion influence gas exchange? If one were to be altered how would gas exchange differ? a. Pulmonary perfusion – gas exchange between the air and the blood (pulmonary capillaries) b. Alveolar ventilation – movement of air in and out of the alveoli c. If alveolar ventilation decreased, there will be less oxygenated air to be exchanged with blood during pulmonary capillary perfusion and vice versa 14. Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in blood. a. O2 moves from alveoli into the capillaries during inspiration b. Breathe in O2 > oxygen in alveoli > O2 diffuse into the capillaries (of the pulmonary circulation) – O2 into capillaries (of the systemic circulation) – O2 into the working cell/tissue c. CO2 expiration – working tissue/cell – capillaries (systemic circulation) – capillaries (pulmonary circulation) – alveoli – breath out CO2 d. Explain the oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve describes the % of hemoglobin saturated with O2 at any give PO2 e. The lower the PO2, the less saturated the hemoglobin is with oxygen. The higher the PO2, the more saturated the hemoglobin is with oxygen. (four hemoglobin) 15. Explain the oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve with an understanding of how hemoglobin saturation changes with high and low PO 2. a. The Bohr Effect is just how high pH alters hemoglobin saturation. The more acidic, the less hemoglobin will attach on to oxygen. This is because with the release (or increase) of H+ ions, they bind to hemoglobin and changes its shape so that it is unable to bind to oxygen as well. b. Hemoglobin is more attracted to the free floating H ions than oxygen and this will cause less hemoglobin to bond to O2 which leads to less saturation. (hemoglobin holds 4 oxygen, each oxygen bind to an iron ion) 16. Discuss the Bohr Effect with oxygen transport and the oxy- hemoglobin dissociation curve. a. Medullary respiration water i. Dorsal –stimulates diaphragm inspiration, causing diaphragm to contract. Rely on dorsal group more when at rest or sleeping. ii. Ventral – intercostal, abdominal muscles additional inspiration, little expiration. Rely on ventral when involved activities requiring more work levels such as exercise iii. Pontine respiratory group – involved with switching between inspiration and expiration. If damaged, breathing rhythm would be distorted. Communications with the medullary respiratory system to start muscle contraction, or cease muscle contraction – (in time of expiration) 17. Discuss the control of ventilation relative to the different regions of the brain and the changing chemical content of the blood. a. Effects of exercise on ventilation i. Ventilation increases abruptly 1. At onset of exercise 2. Movements of limbs has strong influence 3. Learned component ii. Ventilation increases gradually 1. After immediate exercise, gradual increase occurs 2. Anaerobic threshold: highest level of exercise without causing significant change in the blood pH b. Chemical Control of ventilation i. Effect of carbon dioxide – small change in carbon dioxide in blood triggers a large increase in rate and depth of respiration 1. Hypercapnia – excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream; typically caused by inadequate respiration 2. Hypocapnia – known also as hypocarbia, the state of reduced carbon dioxide in the blood. Usually result from deep or rapid breathing, known as hyperventilation. ii. Effect of oxygen – carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors respond to decreased PO2 by increased stimulation of respiratory center to keep it active despite decreasing oxygen levels iii. Hypoxia – deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues c. Other modifications i. Activation of touch, thermal and pain receptors affect respiratory center ii. Sneeze reflex, cough reflex iii. Increase in body temperature yields increase in ventilation Digestive System 1. Describe the anatomy of the digestive system. a. Mouth b. Pharynx c. Esophagus d. Stomach e. Small intestines f. Large intestines g. Anus 2. Explain the functions of the digestive system. a. Indigestion (mouth) – mastication – propulsion (bulk movement) – mixing – secretion (bile and enzymes) – digestion (the breakdown of large organic molecules into their component parts (ex. Carbohydrates and monosaccharides) – absorption (large intestine) – elimination (anal canal) 3. Discuss the participants regulating the digestive system. a. Nervous regulation i. Local: Enteric Nervous System 1. Coordinates peristalsis and regulate local reflexes ii. General: 1. Coordination with the central nervous system 2. May initiate reflexes b. Chemical regulation i. Product of hormones 4. List and describe the anatomical structures of the mouth. a. Oral cavity – everything between the teeth b. Lips and cheeks – mastication and speech c. Palate and palatine tonsils d. Tongue e. Teeth f. Salivary glands 5. Explain the processes of mastication and swallowing. a. Swallowing i. Buccal phase – voluntary ii. Pharyngeal phase – reflex. Controlled by swallowing center in medulla oblongata iii. Esophageal phase –reflex. Stretching of the esophagus causes enteric NS to initiate peristalsis of muscles in the esophagus iv. Pharynx – oropharynx and laryngopharynx v. Esophagus – transport food to the stomach vi. Sphincters – upper (striated) and lower (smooth) b. Mastication- i. Incisors and canines – biting or cutting off food ii. Molars – grinding food iii. Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, later pterygoid 6. List and describe the anatomical structures and secretions of the stomach. Anatomical structures a. Openings – gastroesophageal (cardiac), pyloric b. Parts – cardiac, fundus, body, pyloric (atrium and canal) c. Greater and lesser curvatures d. Sphincters – cardiac and pyloric (acid reflex or heartburn) i. Older we get the weaker the sphincters get e. Layers (from outside in) i. Serosa or visceral peritoneum ii. Muscularis: three layers – outer longitudinal, middle circular, inner oblique iii. Submucosa - iv. Mucosa – protects v. Rugae – ridges produced from folding inner lining vi. Endocrine 1. Enterochromaffin – like cells –secrete 2. Gastrin – containing cells - 3. Somatostatin – containing cells Secretions f. Chyme – g. Mucus – protection and lubrication h. Intrinsic factor: parietal cells – i. HCl (strong acid): parietal cells – helps convert pepsinogen to pepsin j. Pepsinogen – packaged in zymogen granules released by exocytosis. Pepsin catalyzes breaking of covalent bonds in proteins. From chief cells. Break down to amino acids 7. Explain how the stomach works as part of the digestive process. a. Cephalic Phase – before food enters stomach b. Gastric Phase – when food enters stomach and accounts for 2/3 of secretions c. Intestinal Phase – when food enters duodenum d. Combination of mixing waves (80%) and peristaltic waves (20%) e. Both esophageal and pyloric sphincters are closed 8. List and describe the anatomical structures and secretions of the small intestine. Anatomical structures a. Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption (intake) of nutrients and water b. Divisions – i. Duodenum – 1. curves to the left ; head of the pancreas in the curve 2. Major and minor – duodenal papillae, openings to ducts from liver and or pancreas 3. Villi 4. Microvilli 5. Cells and glands of the mucosa a. Absorptive cells b. Goblet cells c. Endocrine cells d. Granular cells (Paneth cells) 6. Intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn) tubular glands in the mucosa at bases of villi 7. Duodenal glands (Brunner’s glands) tubular mucous glands of the submucosa. Open into intestinal glands ii. Jejunum 1. Gradual increase in diameter, thickness of intestinal wall, number of circular fold and number of villi the farther away from the stomach 2. Nutrient absorption 3. Peyer’s patches iii. Ileum – longest 1. Ileocecal junction – ileocecal sphincter and ileocecal valve – at the end of the small intestines Secretions c. Fluid primarily composed of water, electrolytes and mucus d. Mucus e. Digestive enzymes : bound to the membranes of the absorptive cells i. Disaccharides – carbohydrates ii. Peptidases – proteins iii. Nucleases – fats f. Duodenal glands – stimulated by vagus nerve (parasympathetic: relaxation), secretin, chemical or tactile irritation of duodenal mucosa 9. Explain how the small intestine functions as part of the digestive process. a. Mixing and propulsion over short distances b. Segmental contractions mix c. Peristalsis propels d. Ileocecal sphincter remains slightly contracted until peristaltic waves reach it; it relaxes, allowing chyme to move into cecum e. Cecal distention causes local reflex and ileocecal valve constricts 10. List and describe the anatomical structures of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. a. Liver –cleans the blood i. Porta: on inferior surface. Vessels, ducts, nerves,, exit/enter liver 1. Hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, hepatic nerve plexus enter 2. Lymphatic vessels, two hepatic ducts exit ii. Ducts 1. Right and left hepatics unite to form 2. Common hepatic 3. Cystic 4. Common bile iii. Connective tissue septa branch from the porta into the anterior 1. Divides liver into lobules 2. Nerves, vessels, and ducts follow the septa iv. Lobules: portal traid at each corner 1. Three vessels: hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, hepatic duct 2. Central vein - v. Central veins unite to form hepatic veins that exit liver and empty into inferior vena cava vi. Hepatic cords 1. Hepatocytes vii. Hepatic sinusoids 1. Hepatic phagocytic cells viii. Bile canaliculus ix. Hepatocyte functions 1. Bile production – 600-1000 mL/day 2. Storage – vitamins, fat, copper, iron, glycogen 3. Interconversion of nutrients – amino acids to energy producing compounds, hydroxylation of vitamin D 4. Detoxification – hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea 5. Phagocytosis – get rid of things 6. Synthesis of blood components – heparin, clotting factors, fibrinogen, albumins, globulins b. Gall bladder i. Sac lined with mucosa folded into rugae, inner muscularis, outer serousa ii. Bile (surround fat, help absorb fat) store iii. Stimulated by cholecystokinin (CKK) (useful for fat potassium) and vagal stimulation (the greater the vagal stimulation, the more the digestive process) iv. Bile exits through cystic duct then into common bile duct v. Gallstones c. Pancreas i. Endocrine and exocrine (head, body, and tail) ii. Endocrine: pancreatic islets iii. Exocrine: groups acini iv. Intercalated ducts lead to intralobular ducts lead to interlobular ducts lead to pancreatic duct v. Pancreatic duct joins common bile duct and enters duodenum at the hepatatopancreatic ampulla controlled by the hepatopancreatic ampulla sphincter vi. Enzymatic portion: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipases, deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases What is the importance of each of the sections from these tissues? d. 11. List and describe the anatomical structures and secretions of the large intestine. Anatomical structures a. Extends from ileocecal junction to anus b. Consists of cecum, colon rectum, anal canal (sit for hours and then start moving, vagal stimulation) c. Movements sluggish; chyme converted to feces d. Absorption of water and salts, secretions of mucus (protection and lubrication) extensive action of microorganisms e. Cecum – blind sac, vermiform appendix f. Colon – ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid i. Tenaie coli ii. Haustra iii. Omental appendages – absorption of fluid and salt iv. Crypts g. Rectum – straight muscular tube, thick muscular tunic h. Anal canal i. Internal anal sphincter (involuntary) ii. External anal sphincter (voluntary) 1. Hemorrhoids – inflammation of the external anal sphincter Secretions i. Mucus j. Pumps: bacteria produce acid and the following remove acid from the epithelial cells that line the large intestine i. Exchange of bicarbonate ions for chloride ions ii. Exchange of sodium ions for hydrogen ions k. Bacteria actions produce gases l. Bacteria produce vitamin K which is then absorbed m. Feces 12. Explain how the large intestine functions as part of the digestive process. a. mass movements b. local reflexes i. gastrocolic ii. duodenocolic c. defecation i. defecation reflexes 13. Where in the digestive system are carbohydrates, fats and proteins digested and absorbed. Explain these digestive and absorptive processes. a. Carbohydrates b. Fats c. Proteins Metabolism 1. What are carbohydrates and explain their uses within the body? a. Most carbs come from plants b. Monosaccharides – simplest form i. Simple sugars c. Disaccharides – carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides d. Polysaccharides – chain of monosaccharides i. Complex carbohydrate e. Use in the body i. Digestion ii. Produce ATP (energy) iii. Converted to glycogen (store the carbs) iv. Converted to fat v. Part of DNA, RNA, and ATP, glycoproteins, glycolipids 2. What are lipids and explain their uses within the body? a. Triglycerides (95%): used for energy i. Saturated fats – all bonds in fat are single bonds ii. Unsaturated fats – at least one bond in fat has a double bond (monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat) 1. Mainly from plant sources b. Cholesterol – chemical used in cell membranes and various chemical reactions i. Too much believed to be unhealthy c. Phospholipids – lipid bound to a phosphate group i. Found in cell membranes d. Linoleic acids: essential fatty acids – the human body cannot make it from other foods e. Uses of lipids to the body i. Produce ATP (energy) ii. Storage iii. Insulation iv. Component of plasma membranes, can be modified to form bile salts and steroids (cholesterol) v. Involved in inflammation, blood clotting, tissue repair, smooth muscle contraction vi. Part of plasma membrane and used to construct the myelin sheath vii. Part of bile 3. What are proteins and explain their uses within the body? a. Chains of amino acids i. Types 1. Essential – the human body cannot make it from foods 2. Nonessential – can be made in the human body b. Complete proteins: contain all necessary amino acids c. Functions: use in the body i. Protection ii. Regulation iii. Structure iv. Muscle contraction v. Transportation 4. What are vitamins and explain their uses within the body? a. Functions as coenzymes – help run reactions (within the body) b. Organic molecules that exist in minute quantities in food i. Essential vitamins ii. Provitamins c. Classifications i. Lipid soluble: A D E K , can be stored in fatty tissues to the point of toxicity (right into the cell or get stored) ii. Water soluble: B C, and all others (they cannot get stored) d. Antioxidants i. Prevent formation of free radicals 5. What are minerals and explain their uses within the body? a. Inorganic – nonliving b. Necessary for normal metabolic functions c. Functions: within the body i. Resting membrane potentials ii. Action potentials iii. Strength – muscle contraction (calcium) iv. Buffers – balancing (pH) v. Osmotic balance – influence by sodium, potassium, etc. - fluid balance vi. Components of coenzymes, vitamins, hemoglobin 6. Describe ATP synthesis and utilization a. ATP Synthesis i. Carbohydrate – glycolysis – glucose ii. Lipid – triglycerides to free fatty acids iii. Protein – amino acid b. ATP Utilization i. Aerobic respiration – low intensity energy production – want to use fat 7. Explain Aerobic Respiration. a. Breakdown of glucose in presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (diffuse), water, 38 ATP molecules i. Most of ATP molecules that sustain life are produced this way b. Phases i. Citric acid cycle, electron-transport chain 8. How do the interconversion of nutrients occur and why is this important? a. Glycogenesis – to make glycogen b. Lipogenesis – to make lipids c. Glycogenolysis – to break down glycogen d. Gluconeogenesis – to make new glucose 9. Explain metabolic rate relative to its different components. a. Total amount of energy produced and used by body per unit of time i. Estimated by amount of oxygen used per minute b. Components i. Basal metabolic rate – amount of energy I need to stay alive a day ii. Thermic effect of food – the energy I use to digest the food iii. Muscular activity – using energy during exercise iv. Other heat loss, etc. – hot outside or cold outside – if you are shivering, using energy to keep your body temperature regulated (body temperature regulation) v. Its healthier to have a higher metabolic rate but you have some people that have higher metabolic rate and not be healthy 10. How does metabolism influence body temperature? a. Free energy: total amount of energy liberated by the complete catabolism of food (use for metabolism) b. A balance must be maintained between heat gain and loss i. Radiation – when heat transmitting from one object to another or lowering heat ii. Conduction – transmitting heat through contact iii. Convection – moving of temperature of air and water iv. Evaporation – transmit heat – temperature and humidity c. Set point – 98.6 degrees – the body want to stays at a set point, but when you are exercising, the body is trying to find the set point, stable temperature but once you stop exercising, your set point goes back to normal


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