Introductory Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide
Introductory Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide Soci 20213
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Michelle Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Intro Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide Julia Machuga RACE: What can we look at to determine what race a person is? – Skin color, facial features, style, hair style/textures, accent, cultural norms Sociologists argue that race is not measured biological Social Construction of Race: means that we construct what race means socially & that this construction is contingent on social & historical processes The Changing Legal Definitions of Race: In the US, when segregation was legal & marriage between different races was forbidden, there were different definitions of “black” Example: Kentucky = anyone with ¼ or more “Negro” blood was black… Louisiana = 1/16 of more “Negro” blood was black, etc. Ethnicity: has to do with shared cultural heritage (ex. language, customs, views) People often talk about one’s “origin” or “ancestry” as a way of referring to ethnicity Race vs. Ethnicity: Racism: belief that members of separate races (or ethnicities) possess different & unequal traits, can be overt or subtle, can result in prejudicial views or discrimination Prejudice: an unjustified & negative judgment of a person, situation, or thing based on limited or incorrect information Discrimination: act of unfair treatment directed against individual or group Individual (“taste-based”) discrimination: when an individual intentionally discriminates against another individual or group of individuals (people identifying Muslims as terrorists) Statistical Discrimination: when decision makers (often employers) use average group characteristics (or stereotypes) as “Rational” proxies to evaluate individual job candidates Institutional Discrimination: denial of opportunities & equal rights to individuals & groups that result from the normal operation of society (aka institutional racism) White privilege: white people have privileges because of their racial identity, including the privilege of not having to think about race much at all White people typically pay no price for dismissing claims of racism because of power differences Why race continues to be important in the U.S… White people typically have advantage of knowing that their perceptions of the world are the ones that define the norm for everyone else White people tend to be treated as individuals. They don’t have to represent the whole group & can avoid being stigmatized by the actions of others who just so happen to fall within the same racial group EDUCATION: Education: process through which academic, social & cultural ideas are developed Theoretical perspectives on higher education: Functionalism: sees education as essential for an orderly & efficient society - Socialization & other functions, official & hidden curriculum - Manifest (intended) function: teaching reading, writing, arithmetic, job skills, etc. - Latent (unintended) function: socializing students to accept dominant cultural values (ex. be respectful, be on time) - Functions: encourage social solidarity, teach social rules contribute to the division of labor Conflict Theory: sees educational system as perpetuating social inequality - Prestige hierarchy of schools, cultural capital - Cultural Capital: symbolic & interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations (more capital = more power) o Examples: skills, tastes, posture, clothing, mannerisms, material belongings, credentials - Credentialism: 50 years ago, high school diploma was a minimum requirement for entry into the paid U.S. labor force. But, many argue that the minimum is a college diploma o Educational credentials are more important as status symbols rather than actual indicators or achievement of skill Symbolic Interaction: sees education as interaction in the social setting of the school - Labeling, self-fulfilling prophecy - How can we explain students’ educational outcomes? - Teacher-student impacts: how do teachers’ expectations of students impact their achievement? - Peer-to-peer impacts: how do students’ peers impact their educational outcomes? Trends in education: increase in people graduating from high school & college, greater annual earnings from workers with bachelor’s degree of more Inequality in education: whites value a college degree more and non-whites more commonly feel that it wouldn’t make a difference since they aren’t white - Higher class students tend to obtain more years of schooling, get better grades - Completing a college degree is where differences between race appear - More women than men enroll in college - “Boys crisis?” – increasing number of men & women enrolling in college, increase is bigger for women. Gender gap between college- age middle-class white males & white females is smaller than the difference for black college students & Hispanic college students Affirmative Action: policies that take factors like race, color, religion, sex, & national origin into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group - A workplace that has an affirmative action would be actively trying to recruit types of people that aren’t traditionally represented in that environment - Arguments in favor of AA: o Increases the # of minority applicants & admitted students (more representative) o Improves diversity which provides an educational advantage for all students o Makes up for centuries of racial, social & economic oppression - Arguments opposed to AA: o Causes reverse discrimination (possibly stigmatizes minority groups) o Lowers standards (GPA, SAT scores) o Helps primarily middle & upper-class minorities FAMILIES: Sociological definition of family: primary group of people (related by ancestry, marriage, adoption) who form a unit, care for each other, consider their identity to be attached to the group & who are committed to maintaining the group over time Who counts as family? Example: under the Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA), one’s spouse, son, daughter or parent counts as “family”. Siblings, in-laws, grandparents etc. aren’t covered. FMLA: employers must provide eligible employees job-protected & unpaid leave (12 weeks) for qualified medical & family reasons o Examples: personal/family illness, military leave, pregnancy, adoption or foster care placement of a child The “right” kind of family: nuclear family (mom, dad, & kids) o Normative view: what family should look like o Existing realities: what it actually is, there’s no “typical family” o Traditional nuclear family is NOT a timeless/universal concept What do people think about these shifts? Rejecters: feel that these trends are bad for society (groups that have contradicting beliefs/values) Accepters: feel that these trends make no difference to society (many people who rarely attend religious services) Skeptics: they share most of the views of accepters but express concern about the impact of these trends on society Marriage/family trends can vary by location, religious beliefs, poverty, etc. Men tend to be threatened by women who are their intellectual & educational equals, preferring to be with much younger, less accomplished women = FALSE RELIGION: What do religions have in common? They each have a set of rituals that reinforce beliefs o Examples: rites of passage (surround major life transitions), prayer, worship services, related to daily life like diet, hygiene, or sexual practices People typically have difficulty looking at other religions from a sociological perspective (importance of cultural relativism) Differing views on religion: Functionalist perspective: o Religion as a source of social integration & unification o Religion as a source of social support for individuals o Religion unifies or integrates people in a society (social cohesion, social control, providing meaning & purpose) o Emilie Durkheim: finds both purpose & power in modern religious belief How is a religion dysfunctional? o Can lead to ethnocentrism, conflict, intolerance, & violence between different groups o Can promote solidarity & order, but at the expense of oppressed minority groups o Can be used to justify or rationalize the use of violence against others Conflict perspective: o Karl Marx: called religion the “opiate of the masses” Max Weber: showed religious ideas as independent forces in their own right, to find out what drives social action you should put yourself in another’s shoes & imagine their intentions & meanings Pluralism: presence & engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society Sacred canopy: Peter Berger’s term for entire set of religious norms, symbols & beliefs that express the most important thing in life Evangelicals: members of any denomination distinguished by four main beliefs: bible is without error, salvation comes with belief in Jesus Christ, personal conversion is the only path to salvation, & others must also be converted Fundamentalists: religious adherents who follow a scripture sing literal interpretation of its meaning
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