BIOL 201, Plant Lecture Test 1
BIOL 201, Plant Lecture Test 1 BIOL 201
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 201 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Ari Jumpponen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Organismic Biology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Exam 4 Study Guide Updated March 25, 2016. These are questions to guide your efforts to explore the material that we have discussed about. In addition to your lecture notes, use your textbook’s index and glossary to find answers. This will work best if you write down your answers to these questions. Prokaryotes: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Genomes: How many genomes in bacterial cells, in animal cells, in plant cells? 1,2,3 What is extrachromosomal DNA? What are the pan and core genomes? What is the human microbiome? Why is it important? 10x greater abundance of bacterial cells than eukaryotic cells in human bodymedical application or consequences The three domains: what are those? Bacteria, Archaea, Eucaryota How is the bacterial genome organized? Circular DNA as nucleoid, ribosomes, membranes, plasmids How do bacteria feed? Absorption and photosynthesis How do bacteria multiply (reproduce)? How quickly can they do this under favorable conditions? Dominantly asexual by fission, 1020 min What is Horizontal (Lateral) Gene Transfer? Bacteria share genetic elements readily boo you whore How do drug resistant bacteria evolve (e.g., MRSA)? How do bacteria share genetic information? Conjugation: DNA transfer through pili; transformation: living cells acquires DNA that’s released from dead cells; transduction: DNA transferred by viruses How do we classify bacteria morphologically, physiologically, biochemically, genetically? Cocci, bacilli, spirilli, locomotion or lack thereof, presence of sheath, appendages, endospores, pili, flagella, colony color, reaction of cell walls to dye How do some bacteria (e.g., Bacillus) respond to stress or lack of resources? Form endospores How do Bacteria differ from Archaebacteria (cell wall structure, habitat)? True bacteria have muramic acid in cell walls, tRNA, metabolism, habitat (?) What are potential bacterial functions in an ecosystem? Why is Bacillus thuringenesis important to human food production? Insecticide that transformed into plants for heritable insect pest resistance What is Staphylococcus aureus and why should you know about it? Antibiotics overuse (pathogens resistant to most antibiotics) Why does livestock carry antibiotic resistant bacteria? What is Agrobacterium tumefaciens, why is it important to humans (GMOs)? Infects plants causing crown gall tumorsused in biotech for genetic engineeringtransfers DNA into the host What is Esherichia coli, why is it important to humans? It’s a gut microbeproduces K12 vitamin What are Salmonella spp, why are they important to humans? Motile, facultative anaerobefound in gut of many organismscauses food poisoning for us What are Actinobacteria, why are they important to humans? Filamentouscommon in soil and fresh waterdecompose organic mattermetabolites explored for pharmaceuticals What are Cyanobacteria, why are they important to humans, why are they important to biogeochemistry on our planet? Simplest photosynthetic bacteriaoxygenate atmosphere, accumulate lipidscyanobacteria and chloroplasts have a single CA, carbon fixation and aerobic nitrogen fixation Endosymbiosis How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ? Mainly nucleus, need to know more(?) What are the differences of plant and animal cells? Plants also have chloroplast, large central vacuole, cell wall What are the primary differences in Oxygenic and Anoxygenic photosynthesis? Oxygenic: takes carbon dioxide + water [> (light) < (mitochondrial respiration)] ch2o + o2; Anoxygenic: carbon dioxide + h2s(or h2 or fe) > (light) ch2o + so4 How and when did the oceans and atmosphere become oxygenated? How did this happen? Describe serial endosymbiosis: how did eukaryotes acquire mitochondria and chloroplasts? What pieces of evidence support the endosymbiosis theory? Mitochondria and chloroplasts have genomes, inherited during fission, current species of ancient mitochondria divide like bacteria, outer (inner) membrane of the two are biochemically similar to golgi (prokaryotes), ribosomes are prokaryotic like, no introns in genes, plastids appear, Primary endosymbionts are double membrane bound Refer also to Kleptoplasy as an example of serial and continuous acquisition of photosynthetic pigments. Lower FUNgi – chytridiomycetes and zygomycetes What does the polyphyly of lower fungi mean? What does the monophyly of higher fungi mean? What are the monophyletic Glomeromycota; why are they important? Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; (?) Are the Fungi more closely related to plants or animals; why? Animals because glycogen What are the traits that the common ancestor for Kingdoms Animalia and Fungi had? Chitin, glycogen, posterior flagellum Describe the character evolution in Fungi. Ancestral traits above; loss of flagella; dikaryotic stage (septate mycelium); ascospores; basidiospores, dolipore, clamp connections What defines the lower fungi and how are they different from higher fungi? Where do fungi in Chytridiomycota occur? Terrestrial and some marine/aquatic What defines the Chytridiomycota and how are they different from rest of the fungi? Only fungi with motile cells at some point in their life; uniflagellate (posterior); septa are absent (infrequent/ present only at the base of the reproductive organ); ; *my note*many algae and lower plants have biflagellated motile sperm Describe a general chytridiomycete lifecycle (Allomyces example) note the haploid and diploid thalli. What defines the Zygomycota and how are they different from rest of the fungi? Eat insects; help plants grow; cause human diseaseif septa present they lack pores Describe a general zygomycete lifecycle: pay attention to importance of the mating types, where meiosis and fertilization occur, and whether or not there is an asexual dispersal cycle (Note: Bidlack and your Atlas do a very decent job in describing the life cycle). Where do Zygomycetes occur, how do they make a living (obtain their carbon)? Soil, dung, fruit, grain, plant tissues, animal tissues; conjugation(?) What is Pilobolus and how is it adapted to life with herbivores? Inhabits dung/ soil and takes in carbon compounds What is Entomophthora and what is its importance for insects? Specialized insect parasites/potential biocontrol agent Basidiobolus – what does it do and what are its prime targets? Causal agent of human infections What are the Zygomycetes that are important to humans? Human disease = zygomycosis Who are the most likely humans to develop zygomycosis? immunocompromised What is a mycorrhiza? fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic relationship ***95% of plants belong to the mycorrhizal family What do arbuscular mycorrhizas do to the plants – morphologically, nutritionally? Formed from glomeromycota phylum; Why are the mycorrhizas important? Higher FUNgi – ascomycetes and basidiomycetes What defines the higher fungi and how are they different from lower fungi? What is a dikaryon or a dikaryotic stage? Why is regular septation necessary for this? 1n + 1n; otherwise it just looks haploid How are the septa different in lower and higher fungi? Higher: septate; lower: coenocytic What defines Ascomycota as a group? Sac fungi; sexual reproduction by ascospores (born in the ascus) What are the main differences between the lower (primitive) ascomycetes and higher (filamentous) ascomycetes? Lower: simple micropore septum; higher: simple Woronin body septum (dense peroxisome derived body) Describe a generalized life cycle for higher (filamentous) ascomycetes. Can an ascomycete survive on mitosporic/asexual cycle alone; where do the fertilization and meiotic events take place; where is the dikaryophase; what are the diploid parts of the life cycle; what is the dominant part of the lifecycle? (Note: your Atlas does a marvel of a job in describing the sexual cycle and reproduction in the filamentous ascomycetes). ***Ascomycota have haploid, dikaryotic, diploid phases What defines Basidiomycota as a group? Club fungiproduction of the basidiospores in a basidiumpresence of a complex dolipore in the septum Describe a generalized life cycle for basidiomycetes. Can basidiomycetes survive on mitosporic/asexual cycle alone; where do the fertilization and meiotic events take place; where is the dikaryophase; what are the diploid parts of the life cycle; what is the dominant part of the lifecycle? (Note: your Atlas does a marvel of a job in describing the sexual cycle and reproduction in the filamentous ascomycetes). Chlorophyllum molybdites – what is it and why is this organism important in KS? Mushroommushroom poinsoning; common in lawns; large and attractive (kids eat); easy to ID (annulus, green spores, fracles on cap) Agaricus bisporus – what is its monetary and dietary importance in the US? Mushroom on pizzas; 90% of production; >$1 billion annually; 2.2 lbs per person per year How do you cultivate Agaricus bisporus? Spawn incubated at 24C, added to compost, poof mushrooms ***Basidiomycota have haploid, dikaryotic, diploid phases Multicellular Evolution Which domains have multicellular organisms? All 3 Why is cell size so tightly confined? Are there any exceptions to the optimal cell sizes? How do we explain these exceptions? Yes What are the ecological pressures that drive evolution of multicellularity – that is, the three fundamental problems that multicellularity solves? Resource competition, resource concentration, predation avoidance Why are the Volvocine algae a superb model for evolution of multicellularity? (?) nearly identical genomes with Chlamydomonas ***aggregation = keg party What are the three mechanisms that likely lead to multicellularity (give examples of each!)? symbiosis(); aggregation(); cellularization() Why is multicellularity important for plants? Compartmentalization (separation) of functions (photosynthesis/CO2 acquisition; nutrient/h2o uptake); requires tissue differentiation (transport functions); symbioses(mycorrhizae); complex architectures; vascular tissues; support(metabolicallylignin) (structurally collenchyma/sclerenchyma); specialized tissues to solve issues; protection from desiccation; protection from herbivory (spines/thorns/dermal tissue systems); storage(root/stem) What does complex canopy architecture mean for plants? Why is it important? How is evolution of lignin biosynthesis connected to this issue? How about tissue and organ differentiation and division of functions between different parts of the plant? Compare the life cycles of Dictyostelium and Chondromyces. What are their differences/similarities? Describe the filamentous morphology of Anabaena. Pay attention to the functional specialization of some cells in the filaments… Compare the life cycles of Dictyostelium and Myxomycetes. What are their differences/similarities? Glossary Exam 4 Updated March 25, 2016 This is your helpful glossary for the first exam. To make best use of the long list of words, write the definitions for each of the words and do not merely assume that you know the terms. Use your textbook glossary and index as well as the lecture notes to find words that you are not already familiar with. Yep, it has 147 words, but most of these you should be familiar with anyways… Amyloplast – colorless, starchforming plastid found in roots and involved in gravity perception Animalia Annulus (in Fungi) – specialized layer of cells around a fern sporangium; aides in spore dispersal through springlike function; membranous ring around the stipe of a mushroom Antheridium – male gametangium of certain algae, fungi, bryophytes, vascular plants other than gymnospores and angiosperms Apothecium Archaebacteria Ascocarp Ascogenous hyphae Ascogonium Ascoma Ascomycota phylum Ascospore Ascus – one of (usually) frequent fingerlike hollow structures in which the fusion of 2 haploid nuclei followed by meiosis; row of ascospores (usually 8) is ultimately produced in each ascus on or within the sexually initiated reproductive bodies of cup (sac) fungi Asexual – reproduction without the union of gametes Autotroph – description of organism capable of sustaining itself through conversion of inorganic substances to organic material Bacilli (Bacterial) Basidiobolus ranarum Basidioma Basidiomycota Basidiospore – spore produced on a basidium Basidium – one of usually numerous frequently clubshaped hollow structures in which the fusion of 2 haploid nuclei is followed by meiosis, 4 resulting nuclei becoming externally borne basidiospores; basidia are produced on/within sexually initiated reproductive bodies of the club fungi (mushrooms) Capsule (Bacterial) – dry fruit that splits in various ways at maturity, often along or between carpel margins; main part of a sporophyte in which different types of tissues develop Chitin – *primary element in plant cell walls Chlorophyceae Chlorophyllum molybdites Chloroplast – organelle containing chlorophyll, found in cells of most photosynthetic organisms Chromoplast – plastid containing pigments other than chlorophyll; pigments yellow to orange Chytridiomycota Cocci (Bacterial) Coenocytic – multinucleate; nuclei not separated by crosswalls, as in hyphae of water molds Conidiospore Conidium – asexually produced fungal spore formed outside the sporangium Conjugation (Algal) – process leading to the fusion of isogametes Conjugation (Bacterial) – “ also how certain bacteria exchange DNA Conjugation (Fungal) – “ Dikaryon – 1n + 1n; pair of nuclei in each cell or type of the mycelium in club fungi Diploid – 2 sets of chromosomes in each cell; characteristic of the sporophyte generation Dolipore septum Elaioplast Endospore (Bacterial) Entomopathogen Eucarya Eukaryote – cells having distinct membranebound organelles, including a nucleus with chromosomes Exit/Discharge papillae Extremophile Fertilization – formation of a zygote through the fusion of 2 gametes Filamentous – (filament) threadlike body of certain bacteria, algae, fungi; stalk portion of a stamen Firmicutes Fission (Bacterial) – division of cells of bacteria and related organisms into 2 new cells Flagellum – fine, threadlike structure protruding from a motile unicellular organism or the motile cells produced by a multicellular organism; locomotion Fungi Gametangium – any cell or structure in which gametes are produced Gamete – sex cell; 1 of 2 cells that unite; form a zygote Gametophyte – haploid gameteproducing phase of the life cycle of an organism that exhibits Alt of Gen Gametothallus Glycogen Gram+/ (Bacterial) Halophile Haploid – one set of chromosomes per cell (in gametophytes) Hymenium Karyogamy Lamellae (Basidiomycetes) Leucoplast – colorless plastid commonly associated with starch accumulation Mating type Meiosis – process of 2 successive nuclear divisions through which segregation of genes occurs and a single diploid cell becomes 4 haploid cells Micropore (Ascomycota) Mitochondrion – organelle containing enzymes that function in the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain of aerobic respiration Mitosis – nuclear division; usually accompanied by cytokinesis, during which the chromatids of the chromosomes separate and 2 genetically identical daughter nuclei are produced Monophyletic MRSA Multicellular Multinucleate Mutualism Mycelium – mass of fungal hyphae Mycorrhiza – symbiotic association between fungal hyphae and a plant root Naked ascus Nucleoid (Bacterial) Nucleus – organelle of a living cell that contains chromosomes and is essential to the regulation and control of all the cell’s functions; core of an atom Parasite Phylum Pileus Pilus (Bacterial) – equivalent of conjugation tube in bacteria Plantae Plasmid – one of usually 30 – 40 small circular DNA molecules usually present in bacterial cells Plasmogamy Plastid – organelle associated with the storage or manufacture of carbohydrates Polyphyletic Polyploid – having more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes per cell Protista Ribosome – granular particle composed of 2 subunits consisting of RNA and proteins; lack membranes; sites of protein synthesis; numerous in living cells Saccharomyces cerevisae Saprobe – organism that obtains its food directly from nonliving organic matter Saprobic – cellulose and keratin decomposers Septal pore Septate Septum crosswalls Spirilli (Bacterial) Sporangium – structure where spores are produced; uni or multi cellular Sporophyte – diploid sporeproducing phase of the life cycle in Alt of Gen Sporothallus Starch Sterigma Stipe – supporting stalk of seaweeds, mushrooms, (stationary), etc. Suspensor cells Symbiosis – intimate association between 2 dissimilar organisms that is mutualistic or parasitic (harmful to 1) Terrestrial Thallus – multicellular plant body that’s usually flattened and not organized into roots, stems, or leaves Thylacoid – (thylakoid) coinshaped membranes that contain chlorophyll; arranged in stacks that form the grana of chloroplasts Transduction (Bacterial) Transformation (Bacterial) – transfer DNA from 1 organism to another Unicellular Vacuole – pocket of fluid that’s separated from the cytoplasm of a cell by a membrane; may occupy 99% of space of cell’s volume (plants); food storage or contractile pockets within cytoplasm of unicellular organisms Woronin body Yeast Zoosporangium Zoospore – motile spore occurring in algae and fungi Zygomycosis Zygomycota Zygospore – resting spore Zygote – product of the union of 2 gametes NOTES: Naked asci – no Ascoma structure; no protection around them; < lower fungi Lower fungi polyphyletic – more than 1 ancestor; multiple origins Fungi and animals closer! – glycogen; chitin biosynthesis – all; posterior flagellum (zygo, gomer, asco don’t have any/chitridiomycites only ones with) Chitridiomycites dominant: haploid and diploid phase; equally dominant basically Chitomycites “ : haploid; haploid; diploid; dominant: Zygomycites: haploid dominant Ascomycites: haploid dominant (dikaryotic produced at some point [only]) Basidiomycites: vegetative state is dikaryotic (thousands yrs); 1 diploid cell type and it goes through meiosis Multicellularity makes the test so it will talk a little about cell structure… Cellulose molecules wrapped up in lignin creates “scaffold, large compartments” Aebana (?) – cytobacteria; ex cellularization; long filaments; heterocysts fix nitrogen vs fix carbon Cytomycetes – basidiobullus… cause of cytomytosis: healthy people don’t get it (immunocompromised people) Ascomycete: athletes foot Serial endosymbiosis: failure to digest amoeba Serial photosynthesis: … Examples of bacteria we talked about and their kingdom, phylum, class, order, etc. Differences between dicto and other: no meiosis, no mitosis, vegetative almost identical, very similar otherwise, meiotic division, Fungal life cycles*** True slime molds / plasmodial mold life cycle*** Other molds life cycle*** Water mold caused black potato famine in Ireland – 20% of US have Irish blood Septal pores: ascomycetes; dolipore in basidiomycetes Check for 2014 exam 1 genome in bacteria
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