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AU / History / HIST 1020 / what happen after world war II?

what happen after world war II?

what happen after world war II?

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School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: World History and exam review
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 1020 Exam 3 Review
Description: This is a full review for Exam 3. Please email me if you have any questions!
Uploaded: 04/06/2016
5 Pages 8 Views 19 Unlocks
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Ellis D'Amore IV (Rating: )

I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Patricia!!!



Exam 3 Review


what happen after world war II?



End of World War II

Because of the Great Depression and the fear of being involved in another  European war, the United States followed an isolationist policy in the 1930s, despite the  increasing militarism of Japan and the presence of Hitler and Mussolini in Germany and  Italy, respectively.

By July of 1940, Hitler ruled pretty much all of western continental Europe  (besides Great Britain). Germany and the Soviet Union had signed political and economic  nonaggression pacts to strengthen their strategies, but in 1941, Germany invaded the  Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa. Despite having many operational successes, the  German offensive was stalled just outside Moscow into a war of attrition by a Soviet  counteroffensive. The failure of Operation Barbarossa was due to the German armies’  unpreparedness when a severe winter struck, and the invaders were stopped. This failure  was a turning point in the success of the Third Reich, opening up the Eastern front.


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The happenings of war brought Great Britain, the United States, and the USSR  into a military pact called the Grand Alliance. Their strategy was to defeat Hitler and  then mount an all-out attack on Japan. The Allies also adopted a principle of the  unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan with no unilateral treaties.  If you want to learn more check out How much required reserve does this bank have?

The Allies’ campaign came near to a close with D-Day on June 6 1944, the day of  the Normandy landings. This initiated the Allies’ effort to free mainland Europe from  Nazi Germany. It is the largest seaborne invasion in history. The Allies were able to  capture the five beachheads—Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword Beach. With more  than 2 million men, the Allies pushed inland and were able to break though the German  lines. In August of 1944, U.S. forces liberate Paris from Nazi control.

With successful advance against the Nazis from the Soviet Union, the Soviets had  all but driven the Germans from Eastern Europe, and in December, the Red Army began  to cross the border into Germany. In response, Germany launched a surprise attack in  December 1944 in what is known as the Battle of the Bulge. However, the trench  warfare, the leadership from General Patton, and limited German resources helped to stall  the Nazi attack. Eventually, the last ditch German offensives failed. On May 2, 1945,  Germany surrenders. Japan follows suit three months later, after the devastating losses of  Hiroshima and Nagasaki, sites of the atomic bomb droppings by the United States in  August 1945.


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The Cold War

During WWII, The Big Three—the US, the UK, and the USSR—convened in a  conference known as the Yalta Conference. Here they disputed the re-establishment of  war-torn Europe and Germany’s fate. The leaders (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin) agreed to  hold free elections in the liberated countries. Stalin, however, acted against this  commitment after the end of the war. They cut off nearly all contacts between the West  and its territories and installed communist governments. The US, in response, decided to  actively oppose the spread of communism. Don't forget about the age old question of math 229 usc

In 1945, President Truman established the Truman Doctrine, which aimed to  contain communism to areas already occupied by Soviet control and aid those threatened  by it. It first takes effect in Greece and Turkey. To help prevent the spread of

communism, the Marshall Plan was proposed. This offered economic and food aid to  help Europe rebuild in the wake of WW2. Stalin, however, refused the plan on behalf of  all of eastern Europe. On April 2, 1948, Congress voted for the plan. In 1946, Winston  Churchill also played a part with his “Iron Curtain” speech, which divided Europe into  two separate areas. Symbolically, the Iron Curtain was the symbolized efforts of the  Soviet Union to block itself from the West. Physically, it took the form of border  defenses between European countries, such as the Berlin Wall.

These two areas were more defined when on July 24, 1948, Stalin blocked all  road traffic to Berlin. In response, the Western allies airlifted tons of provisions to the  West Berliners in what is known as the Berlin Airlift. After the Soviets backed down,  the US formed an anti-Soviet military alliance called NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty  Organization). This increased the US’ policy of containment. In response, Stalin  tightened his hold in his territories. Both the US and USSR were emerging as  superpowers.

Tensions rose in Europe and the Cold War spread to Asia. In 1948, Korea was  divided into Communist North Korea and anticommunist South Korea. The Korean War emerged when Communist forces of North Korea invaded South Korea in spring of 1950.  President Truman sent aid to lead an alliance of 20 nations of United Nation troops led by  General Douglas MacArthur to stop what he believed was a planned effort to dominate  Asia. The war had limited warfare, exemplified in the use of the Yalu River, where the  prohibition on US forces’ ability to cross led to many retreats. The war lasted for three  years, but eventually ended in a stalemate, with each side pushing each other back and  forth. In 1953, a truce was negotiated and the war ended.  If you want to learn more check out esrm 150 uw

In the 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed there were large numbers of  Communists and Soviet spies within the US government. This incited chaos and paranoia  among people. The campaign against communists and the spreading of fear of their  influence in America became known as McCarthyism. Many Americans were accused  of being communists or sympathizers and became subjects of intense investigations in  this era. Many people were victimized, some even losing their jobs or were imprisoned.  These claims had followed and played on actual events of espionage, exemplified with  Julis and Ethel Rosenberg, who were American citizens arrested and executed for  spying for the Soviet Union, passing them information about the atomic bomb. The  Rosenbergs were supplied information from Los Alamos, which was a centralized lab  located in New Mexico, designed for creating an atomic bomb.

The space race is launched when the Soviets launch Sputnik, the first man-made  object to orbit the Earth. The success of the world’s first satellite being built by the  Soviets scares Americans and spark competition. The US launches their first satellite,  Explorer, in 1958. Five months later, NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space  Administration) is created to lead the space race along with the Soviet Union. The race is  fueled further when Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to enter space in 1961,  making him an international hero. Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space in  the same year, but does not achieve orbit the first time; John Glenn succeeds this in 1962.  This competition for supremacy in spaceflight was seen as needed for national security  and symbolic superiority. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the wavelength of the waves?

In the 1960s, the Cold War was still happening. The Truman and Eisenhower  administrations hadn’t brought the US close to victory over the Soviet Union and vice

versa. A stalemate seemed inevitable. John F. Kennedy wins the 1960 election against  Nixon, and takes a strong anticommunist position with his famous inaugural address.  Months after his inauguration, Kennedy authorizes an invasion of Cuba in 1961. Anti Castro Cuban exiles organized by the CIA were the force invading Cuba, and they landed  at the Bay of Pigs, where Castro’s forces awaited them. The invasion failed and was a  huge embarrassment to the US and Kennedy; it ruined his reputation and made him  appear unprincipled and incapable.  

A year later, Soviet troops were discovered to be installing nuclear missiles in  Cuba in what is known as the Cuba Missile Crisis. Kennedy demanded they be removed  immediately and also ordered a naval blockade of the island. Rather than launch air  strikes as his military advisers recommended, Kennedy employed a strategy of  negotiation with the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in order to avoid nuclear war.  The event lasted for thirteen days in a tense stalemate. The crisis ended when Kennedy  and Khrushchev made a secret deal in which the Soviets would remove their missiles and  the US would remove its own nuclear missiles from Turkey and vow not to invade Cuba.  This event prompted a shift in American policy away from any direct challenges with the  Soviets, instead engaging in “proxy wars”. Don't forget about the age old question of sdsu biology

Indian Nationalism

After WW2, nationalist independence movements in what used to be colonies  reversed centuries of imperial expansion. Nationalism became a great force in India after  1945. The Indian National Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, was a political party  interested in modernizing and reforming India, a characterization of the end of  colonialism. The drive towards Indian independence began by Mohandas Gandhi, an  Indian Hindu who studied law in Britain. Upon returning home he was able to witness  discrimination and becomes an activist, calling on the British to “quit India”. Gandhi was  a proponent of non-violent aggression and civil disobedience, having led a civil  disobedience campaign against the British in 1920. He threatened another campaign but  was arrested along with other Indian National Congress Party leaders. What once started  to modernize India became part of the nationalist movement against Britain.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, an English-educated lawyer, led the Congress Party’s  rival, the Muslim League. Jinnah was Muslim and feared the domination of Hindu  influence of an independent Indian state led by the Congress Party, so he enlisted the help  of the British government to grant Muslims and Hindus separate national states. Britain  agreed, but conflicts between the Hindu and Muslim nationalists ensued. Pakistan gained  independence and the two parties were able to live in separate states. India underwent  major social reforms, maintained neutrality during the Cold War, and became an avid  advocate of nonaligned nations.

Chinese Nationalism

Nationalists and communists were struggling against each other in a civil war in  1927 after expelling the Japanese postwar. Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese  nationalism, founded the Chinese nationalist party Kuomintang (KMT). After Sun Yat sen’s death, leadership and power went to military leader Chiang Kai-shek, who is very  anti-communist. On the other side, Li Dazhao, a Chinese intellectual, formed a circle of

Marxists and eventually co-founded the Communist Party of China. It was then when  Mao Zedong joined this circle of Marxists in Beijing, where he created and led a  communist revolution in China. What marked the real emergence of Mao as an  acknowledged leader of the Communist Chinese was the Long March. In 1934, Chinese  Communists marched from Southeast China to Northern China, fighting the KMT along  the way. After much fighting, the nationalist forces fled to Taiwan, and Mao took over  the People’s Republic of China in 1949.  

Mao had much support from peasants, who viewed the CPC as the true  nationalists of China. The Communists seized land of a minority of landlords and rich  peasants and distributed the land among the poor. “Class enemies” were arrested and  executed. More were deported to labor camps. This increased popularity from the  peasants and destroyed any opposition. To increase economic productivity in China, Mao  put into place the Great Leap Forward, focusing on small workshops and steel mills run  by the peasants, public works projects, and collectivization. It instead produced an  economic disaster, resulting in starvation and famine. It also resulted in the Russians  cutting off economic and military aid.

Mao lost a lot of influence after the Great Leap Forward. He feared China would  turn to bureaucracy and capitalism, so he launched a Cultural Revolution, aiming to  establish a society where peasants and workers were equals. He purged the party and  wanted to recapture the fervor of the revolution it once had. The army and the youth  responded very enthusiastically, organizing themselves into squads called Red Guards.  They were extremely loyal followers of Mao’s thoughts, collected in the Little Red Book.  Pragmatists like Deng Xiaoping wanted China to slow down and play things safe in the  economy, proposing ideas of profit incentive, more trade, and free market. Mao is very  opposed these pragmatists, calling them “capitalist roaders”.

The War in Vietnam

French Indochina struggled greatly for independence. Ho Chi Minh, a nationalist  and Communist guerrilla leader, declared an independent republic in 1945. This triggered  France to attempt to reinstate imperial rule with help from the US. Supporters of French  Vietnam and supporters of the nationalist movement fought against each other in the  Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The French forces were defeated, and through the Geneva  agreements French Indochina gained independence, being split into North and South  Vietnam. There were to be elections to select a single, unified government, but South  Vietnam refused to hold them. Civil war between the regions broke out. Ho Chi Minh led  the North, while Ngo Dinh Diem led the South. Ngo Dinh Diem represented the wealthy elite and was very pro-Catholic. He proved to be a controversial leader and was not  popular with Buddhists and peasants. This leads to the assassination by his own soldiers.  Nguyen van Thieu takes over after his assassination.  

The US was driven to become involved with Vietnam because of its containment  policy. In 1955, they throw their support towards the South against North Vietnam,  providing military aid. They continue to increase their military involvement and aid in  Vietnam. In 1964, the US had employed a battleship along the coast of North Vietnam in  the Gulf of Tonkin. Feeling intimidated by its presence, a fleet of North Vietnamese  torpedo boats attacked the battleship, chasing it out to the middle of the gulf. This event  is blown out of proportion by current president Lyndon B. Johnson, increasing military

presence. Most Americans believed the war was a defense against communism, but with  experiencing the results of violent conflict on the television news and increasing search  of the military draft incited feelings of antiwar, particularly on college campuses. The  Kent State University Massacre was an example of a protest against the Vietnam and  turned violent. The National Guard was sent to end the protest and it resulted in firing  upon students; 4 were killed. In 1968, a surprise attack by the Vietcong on South  Vietnamese towns and cities took place. This wave of attacks shocking US troops was  known as the Tet Offensive, and heavy fighting continued on for months. Many  casualties resulted and it skyrocketed support against the war in the US. Ultimately, the  Communist Vietnamese proved victorious in 1975.

Japan and the Pacific Rim

In 1945, Japan was occupied by the US. General Douglas MacArthur directed  the occupation, whose goals were to de-militarize and democratize Japan. The US didn’t  seek retribution for their help and involvement. To de-militarize, Japan’s army and navy  were taken away; instead, the US would defend them. U.S. attorneys wrote Japan a  democratic constitution. This constitution was very western—it allowed women to vote  and took power away from the emperor Hirohito. It also carried out educational reforms,  focusing more on social studies and giving control to local communities. There was also  a heavy focus on the education of science, math, and engineering. Land reform took  place, distributing land more fairly. This made Japan more agricultural.

Japan experienced an economic miracle. A government policy was instituted to  promote economic development by a combination of private interest working with  government regulation. The Japanese also believed that with higher rates of literacy  would come higher economic development. Foreign policies directed more money  towards industry and technology, since the US was taking care of their military. Labor  policies made management salaries more aligned with labor salaries, which bettered  relationships in the workplace. People were also saving more, helping the economy even  more. But what really helped the economy was Japan’s role of technology. Japan  produced two main technologies: cars and electronics.

In other Pacific Rim states, economy was bettering as well. South Korea’s  economy was delayed but is its own miracle. Companies like Hyundai helped build cars  and in its own country, it helped build ships and was involved in civil engineering  projects. This exemplified the idea of business and government working together. In  Taiwan, their educational system thrived.

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