I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Patricia!!!
Exam 3 Review
End of World War II
Because of the Great Depression and the fear of being involved in another European war, the United States followed an isolationist policy in the 1930s, despite the increasing militarism of Japan and the presence of Hitler and Mussolini in Germany and Italy, respectively.
By July of 1940, Hitler ruled pretty much all of western continental Europe (besides Great Britain). Germany and the Soviet Union had signed political and economic nonaggression pacts to strengthen their strategies, but in 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa. Despite having many operational successes, the German offensive was stalled just outside Moscow into a war of attrition by a Soviet counteroffensive. The failure of Operation Barbarossa was due to the German armies’ unpreparedness when a severe winter struck, and the invaders were stopped. This failure was a turning point in the success of the Third Reich, opening up the Eastern front.
The happenings of war brought Great Britain, the United States, and the USSR into a military pact called the Grand Alliance. Their strategy was to defeat Hitler and then mount an all-out attack on Japan. The Allies also adopted a principle of the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan with no unilateral treaties.
The Allies’ campaign came near to a close with D-Day on June 6 1944, the day of the Normandy landings. This initiated the Allies’ effort to free mainland Europe from Nazi Germany. It is the largest seaborne invasion in history. The Allies were able to capture the five beachheads—Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword Beach. With more than 2 million men, the Allies pushed inland and were able to break though the German lines. In August of 1944, U.S. forces liberate Paris from Nazi control.
With successful advance against the Nazis from the Soviet Union, the Soviets had all but driven the Germans from Eastern Europe, and in December, the Red Army began to cross the border into Germany. In response, Germany launched a surprise attack in December 1944 in what is known as the Battle of the Bulge. However, the trench warfare, the leadership from General Patton, and limited German resources helped to stall the Nazi attack. Eventually, the last ditch German offensives failed. On May 2, 1945, Germany surrenders. Japan follows suit three months later, after the devastating losses of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, sites of the atomic bomb droppings by the United States in August 1945. We also discuss several other topics like What are the factors that drive public opinion?
The Cold War
During WWII, The Big Three—the US, the UK, and the USSR—convened in a conference known as the Yalta Conference. Here they disputed the re-establishment of war-torn Europe and Germany’s fate. The leaders (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin) agreed to hold free elections in the liberated countries. Stalin, however, acted against this commitment after the end of the war. They cut off nearly all contacts between the West and its territories and installed communist governments. The US, in response, decided to actively oppose the spread of communism. We also discuss several other topics like What is gender inequality?
In 1945, President Truman established the Truman Doctrine, which aimed to contain communism to areas already occupied by Soviet control and aid those threatened by it. It first takes effect in Greece and Turkey. To help prevent the spread of
communism, the Marshall Plan was proposed. This offered economic and food aid to help Europe rebuild in the wake of WW2. Stalin, however, refused the plan on behalf of all of eastern Europe. On April 2, 1948, Congress voted for the plan. In 1946, Winston Churchill also played a part with his “Iron Curtain” speech, which divided Europe into two separate areas. Symbolically, the Iron Curtain was the symbolized efforts of the Soviet Union to block itself from the West. Physically, it took the form of border defenses between European countries, such as the Berlin Wall. If you want to learn more check out What is the source of communication?
These two areas were more defined when on July 24, 1948, Stalin blocked all road traffic to Berlin. In response, the Western allies airlifted tons of provisions to the West Berliners in what is known as the Berlin Airlift. After the Soviets backed down, the US formed an anti-Soviet military alliance called NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization). This increased the US’ policy of containment. In response, Stalin tightened his hold in his territories. Both the US and USSR were emerging as superpowers.
Tensions rose in Europe and the Cold War spread to Asia. In 1948, Korea was divided into Communist North Korea and anticommunist South Korea. The Korean War emerged when Communist forces of North Korea invaded South Korea in spring of 1950. President Truman sent aid to lead an alliance of 20 nations of United Nation troops led by General Douglas MacArthur to stop what he believed was a planned effort to dominate Asia. The war had limited warfare, exemplified in the use of the Yalu River, where the prohibition on US forces’ ability to cross led to many retreats. The war lasted for three years, but eventually ended in a stalemate, with each side pushing each other back and forth. In 1953, a truce was negotiated and the war ended. Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the moai heads?
In the 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies within the US government. This incited chaos and paranoia among people. The campaign against communists and the spreading of fear of their influence in America became known as McCarthyism. Many Americans were accused of being communists or sympathizers and became subjects of intense investigations in this era. Many people were victimized, some even losing their jobs or were imprisoned. These claims had followed and played on actual events of espionage, exemplified with Julis and Ethel Rosenberg, who were American citizens arrested and executed for spying for the Soviet Union, passing them information about the atomic bomb. The Rosenbergs were supplied information from Los Alamos, which was a centralized lab located in New Mexico, designed for creating an atomic bomb.
The space race is launched when the Soviets launch Sputnik, the first man-made object to orbit the Earth. The success of the world’s first satellite being built by the Soviets scares Americans and spark competition. The US launches their first satellite, Explorer, in 1958. Five months later, NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is created to lead the space race along with the Soviet Union. The race is fueled further when Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to enter space in 1961, making him an international hero. Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space in the same year, but does not achieve orbit the first time; John Glenn succeeds this in 1962. This competition for supremacy in spaceflight was seen as needed for national security and symbolic superiority. We also discuss several other topics like What is the study of human evolution, fossil remains of humans, our ancestors, and other ancient primates?
In the 1960s, the Cold War was still happening. The Truman and Eisenhower administrations hadn’t brought the US close to victory over the Soviet Union and vice
versa. A stalemate seemed inevitable. John F. Kennedy wins the 1960 election against Nixon, and takes a strong anticommunist position with his famous inaugural address. Months after his inauguration, Kennedy authorizes an invasion of Cuba in 1961. Anti Castro Cuban exiles organized by the CIA were the force invading Cuba, and they landed at the Bay of Pigs, where Castro’s forces awaited them. The invasion failed and was a huge embarrassment to the US and Kennedy; it ruined his reputation and made him appear unprincipled and incapable.
A year later, Soviet troops were discovered to be installing nuclear missiles in Cuba in what is known as the Cuba Missile Crisis. Kennedy demanded they be removed immediately and also ordered a naval blockade of the island. Rather than launch air strikes as his military advisers recommended, Kennedy employed a strategy of negotiation with the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in order to avoid nuclear war. The event lasted for thirteen days in a tense stalemate. The crisis ended when Kennedy and Khrushchev made a secret deal in which the Soviets would remove their missiles and the US would remove its own nuclear missiles from Turkey and vow not to invade Cuba. This event prompted a shift in American policy away from any direct challenges with the Soviets, instead engaging in “proxy wars”. If you want to learn more check out What is the process of creating and maintaining a fit between the organization's objective?
After WW2, nationalist independence movements in what used to be colonies reversed centuries of imperial expansion. Nationalism became a great force in India after 1945. The Indian National Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, was a political party interested in modernizing and reforming India, a characterization of the end of colonialism. The drive towards Indian independence began by Mohandas Gandhi, an Indian Hindu who studied law in Britain. Upon returning home he was able to witness discrimination and becomes an activist, calling on the British to “quit India”. Gandhi was a proponent of non-violent aggression and civil disobedience, having led a civil disobedience campaign against the British in 1920. He threatened another campaign but was arrested along with other Indian National Congress Party leaders. What once started to modernize India became part of the nationalist movement against Britain.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, an English-educated lawyer, led the Congress Party’s rival, the Muslim League. Jinnah was Muslim and feared the domination of Hindu influence of an independent Indian state led by the Congress Party, so he enlisted the help of the British government to grant Muslims and Hindus separate national states. Britain agreed, but conflicts between the Hindu and Muslim nationalists ensued. Pakistan gained independence and the two parties were able to live in separate states. India underwent major social reforms, maintained neutrality during the Cold War, and became an avid advocate of nonaligned nations.
Nationalists and communists were struggling against each other in a civil war in 1927 after expelling the Japanese postwar. Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism, founded the Chinese nationalist party Kuomintang (KMT). After Sun Yat sen’s death, leadership and power went to military leader Chiang Kai-shek, who is very anti-communist. On the other side, Li Dazhao, a Chinese intellectual, formed a circle of
Marxists and eventually co-founded the Communist Party of China. It was then when Mao Zedong joined this circle of Marxists in Beijing, where he created and led a communist revolution in China. What marked the real emergence of Mao as an acknowledged leader of the Communist Chinese was the Long March. In 1934, Chinese Communists marched from Southeast China to Northern China, fighting the KMT along the way. After much fighting, the nationalist forces fled to Taiwan, and Mao took over the People’s Republic of China in 1949.
Mao had much support from peasants, who viewed the CPC as the true nationalists of China. The Communists seized land of a minority of landlords and rich peasants and distributed the land among the poor. “Class enemies” were arrested and executed. More were deported to labor camps. This increased popularity from the peasants and destroyed any opposition. To increase economic productivity in China, Mao put into place the Great Leap Forward, focusing on small workshops and steel mills run by the peasants, public works projects, and collectivization. It instead produced an economic disaster, resulting in starvation and famine. It also resulted in the Russians cutting off economic and military aid.
Mao lost a lot of influence after the Great Leap Forward. He feared China would turn to bureaucracy and capitalism, so he launched a Cultural Revolution, aiming to establish a society where peasants and workers were equals. He purged the party and wanted to recapture the fervor of the revolution it once had. The army and the youth responded very enthusiastically, organizing themselves into squads called Red Guards. They were extremely loyal followers of Mao’s thoughts, collected in the Little Red Book. Pragmatists like Deng Xiaoping wanted China to slow down and play things safe in the economy, proposing ideas of profit incentive, more trade, and free market. Mao is very opposed these pragmatists, calling them “capitalist roaders”.
The War in Vietnam
French Indochina struggled greatly for independence. Ho Chi Minh, a nationalist and Communist guerrilla leader, declared an independent republic in 1945. This triggered France to attempt to reinstate imperial rule with help from the US. Supporters of French Vietnam and supporters of the nationalist movement fought against each other in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The French forces were defeated, and through the Geneva agreements French Indochina gained independence, being split into North and South Vietnam. There were to be elections to select a single, unified government, but South Vietnam refused to hold them. Civil war between the regions broke out. Ho Chi Minh led the North, while Ngo Dinh Diem led the South. Ngo Dinh Diem represented the wealthy elite and was very pro-Catholic. He proved to be a controversial leader and was not popular with Buddhists and peasants. This leads to the assassination by his own soldiers. Nguyen van Thieu takes over after his assassination.
The US was driven to become involved with Vietnam because of its containment policy. In 1955, they throw their support towards the South against North Vietnam, providing military aid. They continue to increase their military involvement and aid in Vietnam. In 1964, the US had employed a battleship along the coast of North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. Feeling intimidated by its presence, a fleet of North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the battleship, chasing it out to the middle of the gulf. This event is blown out of proportion by current president Lyndon B. Johnson, increasing military
presence. Most Americans believed the war was a defense against communism, but with experiencing the results of violent conflict on the television news and increasing search of the military draft incited feelings of antiwar, particularly on college campuses. The Kent State University Massacre was an example of a protest against the Vietnam and turned violent. The National Guard was sent to end the protest and it resulted in firing upon students; 4 were killed. In 1968, a surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities took place. This wave of attacks shocking US troops was known as the Tet Offensive, and heavy fighting continued on for months. Many casualties resulted and it skyrocketed support against the war in the US. Ultimately, the Communist Vietnamese proved victorious in 1975.
Japan and the Pacific Rim
In 1945, Japan was occupied by the US. General Douglas MacArthur directed the occupation, whose goals were to de-militarize and democratize Japan. The US didn’t seek retribution for their help and involvement. To de-militarize, Japan’s army and navy were taken away; instead, the US would defend them. U.S. attorneys wrote Japan a democratic constitution. This constitution was very western—it allowed women to vote and took power away from the emperor Hirohito. It also carried out educational reforms, focusing more on social studies and giving control to local communities. There was also a heavy focus on the education of science, math, and engineering. Land reform took place, distributing land more fairly. This made Japan more agricultural.
Japan experienced an economic miracle. A government policy was instituted to promote economic development by a combination of private interest working with government regulation. The Japanese also believed that with higher rates of literacy would come higher economic development. Foreign policies directed more money towards industry and technology, since the US was taking care of their military. Labor policies made management salaries more aligned with labor salaries, which bettered relationships in the workplace. People were also saving more, helping the economy even more. But what really helped the economy was Japan’s role of technology. Japan produced two main technologies: cars and electronics.
In other Pacific Rim states, economy was bettering as well. South Korea’s economy was delayed but is its own miracle. Companies like Hyundai helped build cars and in its own country, it helped build ships and was involved in civil engineering projects. This exemplified the idea of business and government working together. In Taiwan, their educational system thrived.