BIO 181 Exam Three Review
BIO 181 Exam Three Review BIO 181
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel Hudson on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 181 at Arizona State University taught by Chakravadhanula, Farrokh, Konikoff in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biochemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Cell hierarchy and homeostasis Terms to know: anatomy, physiology, tissue, organ, gland, basal metabolic rate, conformational homeostasis, regulatory homeostasis, endotherm, ectotherm, homeotherm, heterotherm ○ Anatomy: study of an organism’s physical structure ○ Physiology: study of how those physical structures function ○ Tissue: a group of similar cells that function as a unit, there are four major kinds of tissues, connective, muscle, nervous and epithelial. ○ Organ: a structure that serves a specialized function and consists of several tissues. ○ Gland: a group of cells that secrete specific molecules or solutions. ○ Basal Metabolic Rate: BMR is the rate of consumption of energy. ○ Conformational Homeostasis: creates stability with the environment around the organism, for example, the antarctic rockfish maintains a body temperature similar to the water surrounding it. ○ Regulatory Homeostasis: creates stability with the required internal state, for example, a dog’s body will maintain its temperature no matter if it is hot or cold outside. ○ Endotherm: produce adequate heat to warm their own tissues. Ex, most animals and mammals ○ Ectotherm: rely primarily on heat gained from the environment. Ex, most fish and amphibians ○ Homeotherm: keep their body temperature constant. Mammals ○ Heterotherm: allow their body temperature to rise or fall depending on environmental conditions. Ex, most freshwater fish Know the biological hierarchy. They are levels smallest → biggest ○ Atomic/Molecular→ Cellular→ Tissue→ Organ→ Organ System→ Organism What are the four major types of human adult tissues? ○ Connective ○ Muscle ○ Nervous ○ Epithelial Know the four types of Connective Tissue, and examples of each ○ Loose: acts as a padding material, ex adipose, reticular tissue ○ Dense: has collagen fibers and connects muscles, bones and organs, ex tendons and ligaments. ○ Supporting: firm tissue that provides support and protection. Ex, bone, cartilage ○ Fluid: their major function is transport, ex blood. What are the three types of muscle tissue? Which is under voluntary control? ○ Skeletal Muscle: Voluntary control, long cells, attaches to bones and moves limbs when contracted. You choose when you wants limbs to move → voluntary. ○ Cardiac Muscle: Involuntary control, branched cells, pumps blood throughout the body, think of heart. Cardiac=heart, the heart pumps blood. ○ Smooth Muscle: Involuntary control, tapered cells, lines the walls of the digestive tract and the blood vessels. If you need help remembering this is involuntary control, just remember you cannot control how fast you digest your food. What does nervous tissue consist of? ○ Neurons and supporting cells. The neurons are made up of dendrites connected to a cell body that leads to the axon which send electrical signals throughout the brain. What are the functions of epithelial tissue? Also know that it has polarity. ○ It covers the outside of the body, lines the surface of organs, and may form glands. It forms an interface between the interior and exterior of an organ or organism and also provides protection and creates a barrier, regulating which materials pass across body surfaces. What is the relationship between animal size and BMR? Why? ○ As animal size decreases, BMR (basal metabolic rate) increases because smaller animals’ mass use more energy per volume than bigger animals. What are the three general components of homeostatic systems? Give a brief description of what each does. ○ Sensor: indicates that an aspect of the environment has changed ○ Integrator: compares the sensor input with the set point to determine if a response to adapt with the change is necessary. ○ Effector: Changes parameter to restore the desired internal condition. How do humans thermoregulate? Know the homeostatic system components for mammalian thermoregulation, as discussed in class ○ Yes, humans thermoregulate, they are endotherms (produce their own heat) and they are also homeotherms (maintain a constant body temperature) Excretory system Terms to know: electrolyte, osmolarity, osmoregulation, osmoconformation, Malpighian tubules, hemolymph, kindey, nephron Electrolyte: a compound that breaks into ions when dissolved in water, NaCl(salt) for example breaks off into Na+ and Cl when dissolved in water. Cells need to maintain a controlled concentration of electrolytes to function properly. Osmolarity: the concentration of a solution expressed as the total number of solute particles per liter. Osmoregulation: one of two ways an organism can balance their electrolyte concentration by actively regulating osmolarity. They maintain balance by taking in water and transporting electrolytes out (ex. marine bony fish) Osmoconformation: the other way an organsim can balance their electrolyte concentration by inactively regulating osmolarity to match the environment. Example, Sharks maintain high urea content, which increases electrolytes and makes blood isotonic with seawater Malpighian: Malpighian tubules form a “preurine” filtrate from hemolymph in terrestrial insects. Tubules: selective reabsorption occurs in tubules. Hemolymph: this is the circulatory fluid in animals with open circulatory systems, for examples, human's cirulatory fluid is blood and it is contained in blood vessels, insects have hemolymph, which is not confined to any blood vessels. Kidney: an organ where osmoregulation occurs in terrestrial mammals, made of nephrons. Nephron: The basic functional unit of the kidney, a nephron has four major parts, empties into a collecting duct, and is served by blood vessels. How do marine bony fish, freshwater fish, insects, and terrestrial animals gain/lose water and electrolytes ? Marine fish lose water by osmosis and gain electrolytes by diffusion. Freshwater fish gain water by osmosis and lose electrolytes by diffusion. Terrestrial animals constantly loose water to the environment and gain it back by eating, drinking and cellular respiration, electrolytes are gained through eating food and are lost through urine and feces. In terrestrial mammals, osmoregulation occurs primarily through what organ? The kidney What is the functional unit of the kidney? A nephron What is the sequence of filtrate flow in the kidney ? Renal Corpuscle > Proximal Tubule > Loop of Henle > Distal Tubule > Collecting Duct Describe the structures and functions of the following: renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct 1. Renal Corpuscle: blood enters in through here and forms a "preurine" filtrate containing ions, nutrients, wastes and water. It is made of two parts, a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule that surrounds it. The small pores in the glomerulus force water and small molecules out of the capillaries and into the Bowman's capsule. 2. Proximal Tubule: has epithelial cells that reabsorb nutrients, valuable ions, and water from the filtrate into the bloodstream. 3. Loop of Henle: establishes a strong osmotic gradient in the interstitial fluid surrounding the loop. Osmolarity increases as the loop descends. The osmotic gradient is maintained because water leaves the descending limb and salt leaves the ascending limb. A vasa recta is a network of blood vessels that surround the loops and remove water and solutes that leave the loop to continue the gradient. 4. Distal Tubule: tubule between the loop of Henle and the Collecting Duct that collects water. 5. Collecting Duct: leaks urea – the solute that is most responsible for the steep osmotic gradient in the space surrounding the nephron. How do humans get rid of nitrogenous waste safely and efficiently ? through urine What forces water and small molecules out of the glomerulus and into Bowman’s capsule ? Blood pressure forces these things through the poors if the glomerulus. What is the function of ADH? Aldosterone ? Both hormones help regulate electrolyte balance. Aldosterone is released by adrenal glands when Na+ concentrations are low and activates pumps so Na+ is reabsorbed. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released by the brain when dehydration occurs and facillitates in water reaborpion and triggers insertions of aquaporins into the collecting duct. Digestive system Terms to know: food, nutrients, digestion, mucus, peristalsis, proteases, bile salts, lipase 1. Food: any material that contains nutrients 2. Nutrients: substances an organism needs to stay alive, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes 3. Digestion: the breakdown of food into small enough pieces to allow for absorption of nutrients. There are two different kinds of digestion, 4. Mucus: salivary glands create mucins, when these come in contact with water, they create mucus, which aids in the ability to swallow food. 5. Peristalsis: a wave of muscle contractions that is an automatic reaction to swallowing. It is also the movement that pushes partially digested food into the small intestine. 6. Proteases: a pancreatic enzyme that is different for each kind of polypeptide. They are inactive while in the pancreas but active once they are moved into the small intestine. Pancreatic enzymes are activated by another enzyme known as enterokinase. 7. Bile Salts: these are produced in the liver and act as an emulsifying agent, helping to break down large fat globules into small fat l that can be digested by lipase. 8. Lipase: digests small fat globules into monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Enzymes to know: lingual lipase, pepsinogen, pepsin, carbonic anhydrase, enterokinase, salivary amylase, trypsinogen, trypsin 1. Lingual Lipase: begins to break down lipids 2. Pepsinogen: produced by cheif cells, converted to pepsin upon contact with the acidic environment of the stomach. 3. Pepsin: prevents destruction of proteins in the cells where it is synthesized. 4. Carbonic Anhydrase: located in parietal cells, it catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid, which dissociates into a proton and the bicarbonate ion. H+ formed by the dissociation of carbonic acid are actively pumped into the lumen of the stomach. 5. Enterokinase: activates the pancreatic enzymes. 6. Salivary Amylase: begins the breakdown of carbohydrates 7. Trypsinogen: located in the pancreas. 8. Trypsin: the active form of trypsinogen that is located in the small intestine, that triggers activation What four processes are necessary to obtain energy and nutrients from food? 1. Ingestion: taking in food 2. Digestion: breaking down food into smaller pieces 3. Absorption: uptake of nutrients 4. Elimination: Disposal of wastes. What are the different food capturing strategies? Briefly describe each. 1. Suspension feeders: filter small organisms or bits of organic debris from water, by means of cilia, mucuslined “nets,” or other structures. (sponges) 2. Deposit feeders: swallow organicrich sediments and other types of deposited material. (earthworms) 3. Fluid feeders: suck or lap up fluids. (hummingbirds) 4. Mass feeders: seize and manipulate chunks of food by using jaws, teeth, beaks, or special toxininjecting organs. (most animals) Compare and contrast the complete vs. incomplete digestive tract . 1. Complete Digestive Tract: have two openings, the mouth for ingestion, and the anus, for elimination of wastes. In addition to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, auxiliary components contribute to the digestion process. Example: humans have a mouth to take in food and an anus to expel wastes. 2.Incomplete digestive tract: have one opening for both ingestion of food and elimination of wastes. Digestion takes place in a gastrovascular cavity. Example: sea anemones have one opening that takes in the food and expels the wastes. Be able to identify the structures and functions of the human GI tract and its accessory organs. Also be able to tell what is part of the GI tract and what is an accessory organ. GI Tract: Mouth > Esophagus > Stomach > Small intestine > large intestine > appendix > anus Accessory Organs: Salivary Glands > Liver > Gall Bladder > Pancreas. An accessory organ is not part of the tract itself, but secrete substances into the tract at specific points. Where does carbohydrate digestion begin? Protein digestion? Lipid digestion ? Carbohydrate Digestion: starts in the mouth Protein Digestion: begins in the stomach Lipid Digestion: digested in the small intestine Stomach epithelium: Know the functions of chief cells, parietal cells, mucous cells 1. Chief Cells: secrete pepsinogen. 2. Parietal Cells: secrete HCl, which denatures proteins. 3. Mucous Cells: secrete mucus, which protects against HCl damage. Why does the small intestine have an enormous surface area? What is the function of the large intestine ? The enormous surface area maximizes absorption of nutrients, the function of the large intestine compacts the remaining waste from the small intestine and absorbs enough water to form feces. How do insulin and glucagon help maintain blood glucose levels ? Insulin (which is produced in the pancreas) causes cells to increase their rate of glucose uptake, which decreases blood glucose levels. If blood glucose levels fall too much, cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon, which raises the blood glucose levels by telling the liver to make glycogen and produce glucose. What do the pancreas secrete? What are the functions of these enzymes ? Insulin and glucagon (mentioned above), proteases in the small intestine digest polypeptides into monomers, the pancreas also produce enzymes for digestion of nucleic acids (nucleases) and carbohydrates (pancreatic amylase), also bile salts which are used to break big globules of fat.
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