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Exam 1 study guide

by: Heath Fienman

Exam 1 study guide PSY - 0010

Heath Fienman
GPA 3.69
Introduction to Psychology

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exam 1 study guide
Introduction to Psychology
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heath Fienman on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY - 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Lausberg in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 193 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/15
Heath Fienman Psychology Chapter 2 Vocabulary Biological Perspective Biopsychology 1 Nervous system Network of cells that carries info to and from all parts of the 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 body Neuroscience A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons nerves and nervous tissues Biological psychology or Behavioral Neuroscience branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes behavior and learning Neuron Specialized cell in the nervous system that receives and sends messages within the system Dendrites Part of the neuron that receive messages from other cells Axon fiber attached to the soma and its job is to carry out messages out to other cells Axon Terminals responsible for communicating with other nerve cells end of axon Glial Cells cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around deliver nutrients to neurons produce myelin to coat axons clean up waste products and dead neurons in uence info processing and during prenatal development in uence the generation of new neurons Myelin fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate protect and speed up the neural impulse Nerves Bundles of axons in the PNS myelin Diffusion Process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Resting Potential The state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse Action Potential The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon AllorNone referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all Synaptic Vesicles Saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals Neurotransmitters Chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell Synapse or Synaptic Gap Microscopic uidfilled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell Receptor Sites 3dimensional proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters Excitatory Synapses Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Inhibitory Synapses Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing Antagonist Chemical substances that block or reduce a cell39s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters Agonist Chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell Reuptake Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles Enzymatic Degradation Process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor Central Nervous System Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord Spinal Cord Afferent Sensory Neurons Efferent Motor Neurons Interneurons A long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast lifesaving re exes Re ex Arc The connection of the afferent neurons to the intemeurons to the efferent neuron resulting in a re ex action Neuroplasticity The connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neuron resulting in a re ex action Stem Cells Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear PNS All nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself Somatic Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body ANS Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles organs and glands Sensory Pathway Nerves coming form the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons Motor Pathway Nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles consisting of efferent neurons Sympathetic Division Fight or ight Part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal Parasympathetic Division Part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible of the organs and glands Endocrine Glands Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream Hormones Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Pituitary Gland Gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and in uences all other hormonesecreting glands also known as the master gland Oxytocin hormone released the posterior pituitary gland that is involved in reproductive and parental behaviors Pineal Gland Endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum secretes melatonin Thyroid Gland Endocrine gland found in the neck regulates metabolism Pancreas Endocrine gland controls the levels of sugar in the blood Gonads Sex glands secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction Ovaries The female gonads Testes Male gonads Adrenal Glands Endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress regulate salt intake and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during Lesioning insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire CT Scan Brainimaging method using computercontrolled Xrays of the brain MRI Brainimaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain Electroencephalograph Machine designed to record the electroencephalogram EEG A recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull most often using scalp electrodes PET brain imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color coded image of the activity of the brain FMRI MRIbased brainimaging method that allows for functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation Medulla The fist large swelling at the top of the spinal cord forming the lowest part of the brain which is responsible for lifesustaining swallowing and heart rate Pons The larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep dreaming leftright body coordination and arousal Reticular Formation An area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention alertness and arousal Cerebellum Part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary rapid fine motor movement Limbic System A group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning emotion memory and motivation Thalamus Part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area Sensory Switchboard Olfactory Bulbs Two bulblike projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose Hypothalamus Small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep hunger thirst and sex Hippocampus Curved structure located within each temporal lobe responsible for the formation of longterm memories and the storage of memory for location of objects Amygdala memory of fear Cortex higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input Cerebral Hemisphere The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain Corpus Callosum Thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres Occipital Lobe visual Parietal Lobes Touch taste and temperature Somatosensory Cortex Area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch temperature body position and possibly taste Temporal Lobes hearing and speech Frontal Lobes decision making and production of uent speech Motor Cortex Section of the frontal lobe located at the back responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system Mirror Neurons Neurons that fire when a animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes that same action being performed by another Broca s Aphasia Ability to speak Wernicke s Aphasia Comprehension of language Spatial Neglect Condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field Cerebrum The upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them


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