IR Midterm study guide
IR Midterm study guide POL203
Popular in Political Science
Popular in Political Science
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maayan Sachs on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL203 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Skendaj in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Political Science in Political Science at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Theory Collective goods problem how to provide something that bene ts all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it Collective goods are easier to provide to smaller groups It is particularly acute in international affairs because each nation is sovereign with no central authority However in domestic policies a government can force individuals to contribute in a way that doesn t involve their selfinterest such as taxes How to solve a Dominance Solves it by establishing power hierarchy where top controls bottom Fighting over dominant position has rules to minimize harm in icted on group members Advantage forces members of a group to contribute to common good and minimizes open con ict within group Disadvantage stability comes at a cost of constant oppression and resentment by lower ranking members Con ict over position in hierarchy can harm the group s stability and wellbeing b Reciprocity Rewards behavior that contributes to the group and punishes behavior that purses selfinterest at the expense of the group Can be enforced without central authority forms the basis of most norms Advantage you scratch my back scratch yours Disadvantage an eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth can lead to both sides punishing what it believes to be negative acts c ldentity Doesn t rely on selfinterest members of an identity community care about interests of others in community enough to sacri ce their own interests for bene ts of others Individual members will accept solutions to problems that don t give them the best deal individually because it bene ts all the family Plays an important role in overcoming dif cult coective goods problems How can a group serve its collective interests when doing so requites its members to forgo their individual interest Realism Explains international relationships in terms of power The exercise of power by states toward each other is sometimes called reapoitik or power politics Developed in response to idealism Moral reasoning isn t useful to state rulers faced with armed and dangerous neighbors Power transition theory Largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy when a rising power is surpassing the most powerful state Most dangerous time for war is when powers are distributed equally When a rising powers status diverges from its actual power the rising power may suffer from relative deprivation Hegemonic stability theory Hegemony provides some order similar to a central government in the international system reducing anarchy deterring aggression promoting free trade and providing a hard currency that can be used as a world standard Can help resolve or at least keep in check con icts among middle powers or small states In order to avoid collective goods problem one state dominates and enforces rules Hegemons are the largest international traders so they have an inherent interest in the promotion of integrated world market Hegemons use their power to achieve free trade and political stability that supports free trade Balance of power theory One or more states power being used to balance that of another state or group of states Can also refer to the process by which counterbalancing coalitions have repeatedly formed in history to prevent one state from conquering an entire region Argues that counterbalancing occurs regularly and maintains the stability of the international system The system is stable in that its rules and principles stay the same state sovereignty doesn t collapse into a universal empire ln post cold war era of US dominance this theory would predict closer relations among Russia china and Europe to balance us power Liberalism Sees the rules of IR as slowly evolving through time and becoming more peaceful This results from reciprocity and identity Works when peace depends on internal character of government Republics that can keep monarch in check will be more peaceful Trade promotes peace relies on presumption that trade increases wealth cooperation and global wellbeing States achieve cooperation fairly often because it s in their interest to do so Cooperation when it comes to reciprocity cooperation contains possible hostility if both sides are being annoying tittat Coordinating regimes comes into existence to overcome collective goods dilemmas by coordinating the behavior of individual states States continue to seek their own interests they create frameworks to coordinate their actions with those of other states if and when such coordination is necessary to realize selfinterests Constructivism Approach that asks how states construct their interest through their interactions with one another It s described as an approach rather than a theory Lessons are about nature of norms identity and social interactions can provide powerful insights Draws heavily on identity principle States decide what they want based on material needs as well as social interaction Strands of constructivism How states interests and identities are intertwined How identities are shaped by interactions with other states Shared history and alliances and norms form relationships State identities are complex and changing Institutions regimes norms and changes in identity are explanations for intertwined identities between European nations Believe that what societies consider dangerous is not universal or timeless pirates Constructivists act in a logic of appropriateness how should I behave in this situation rather than a logic of consequences what will happen to me if I behave a certain way Collective goods problem Countries change policies in response to international norms Critique of constructivism Realists norms are covers for state or personal interests Liberals scholars are paying too little attention to the formal institutions and the politics within them Both too difficult to tell when a person s identity is genuine or strategic Vocab Powerthe ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done or not to do what it would have done A variation on this idea is that actors are powerful to the extent that they affect others more than others affect Problem with this is that we seldom know what a second actor would have done in the absence of the rst actor s power Anarchy lack of a central government that can enforce rules In domestic society within states government can enforce contracts deter citizens from breaking rules and use their monopoly on legally sanctioned violence to enforce a system of law Security dilemmasituation in which states actions taken to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states The dilemma is a prone cause of arms races in which states spend large sums of money on mutually threatening weapons that don t ultimately provide security It s a negative consequence of anarchy in the international system If a world government could reliably detect and punish aggressors who arm themselves states would not need to guard against this possibility Balance of powers refers to the general concept of one or more states power being used to balance that of another state or group of states It can refer to any ratio of power capabilities between states or alliances or it can mean only a relatively equal ration Can refer to the process by which counterbalancing coalitions have repeatedly formed in history to prevent one state from conquering an entire region Bandwagoning states don t always balance against the strongest actor smaller states will bandwagon off of the most powerful state Containment sought to halt the expansion of soviet in uence globally on several levels at once military political ideological economic US maintained extensive network of military bases and alliances worldwide All of US foreign policy in subsequent decades came to serve goal of containment Deterrence uses a threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action If it works its effects are almost invisible Its success is measured in attacks that didn t occur Advocates believe that con icts are more likely to escalate into war when one party to the con ict is weak Compellance used after deterrence fails refers to threat of force to make another actor take some action rather than refrain from taking an action It s harder to get another state to change course compellence than it is to get it to refrain from changing course deterrence Absolute gains what international actors look at in determining their interests weighing out the total effects of a decision on the state or organization and acting accordingly Relative gains actions of states only in respect to power balances and without regard to other factors Collective security grows out of liberal institutionalism and refers to the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor Example is League of Nations or UN Democratic peace democracies almost never ght each other This is because they tend to be capitalist states whose trade relations create strong interdependence Or because they don t see each other as enemies Stateterritorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population Nationall or part of a population that shares a group identity Level of analysisa perspective on IR based on a set of similar actors or processes that suggests possible explanations to why questions 1 Individual concerns perceptions choices and actions of individual human beings 2 Domestic concerns interest groups pol Organizations government agencies of individuals within states that in uence state actions in the international arena 3 Interstate concerns the in uence of international system upon outcomes Focuses on interactions of states themselves without regard to their internal makeup or particular individuals who lead them 4 Global seeks to explain international outcomes in terms of global trends and forces that transcend the interactions of states themselves Prisoner s dilemma captures the kind of collective goods problem Negative peacerealisms understanding that military con icts are normal temporary absence of war Positive peace resolves underlying reasons for war not just a cease re but transformation of relationship Democratic Peace depends on states becoming republics with legislatures to check the powers or those in charge to wage war Ethnocentrism in group bias the tendency to see ones own group in favorable terms and an outgroup as unfavorable Sometimes causes members of a group as disunited because they see their own divisions up close No minimum criterion of similarity or kin relationship is needed to evoke the group identity process lngroup bias is stronger when people look or sound different Wartime causes extreme dehumanization This can be overcome by education International ordanizations Most international con icts not settled by military force States refrain from taking max shortterm advantage of each other States work with other states for mutual gain and take advantage of each other only at the margin The rules that govern most interactions in IR are rooted in norms Genocide systematic extermination of ethnic or religious groups in whole or in part to destroy groups or rivals Rwanda Hutus and Tutsis Sudan Muslim vs Christian Multilateralists presidents who favored US leadership and activism in world affairs the practice of promoting trade among several countries through agree ments concerning quantity and price of commodities as the common market and sometimes restrictive tariffs on gods from outsiders Collective security formation of broad alliance of most major actors in international system Purely for purpose of jointly opposing aggression by other actor Success depends on 2 things 1 Members must keep alliance commitments to group 2 Enough members must agree on what constitutes aggression Model of bounded reality it takes into account the costs of seeking and processing information Instead of optimizing people satis ce Groupthink tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences because individual members go along with the ideas they think the others support A common technique to manipulate decisionmaking is to control a groups formal decision rules and controlling the agenda thereby structuring the terms of debate Military industrial complex refers to a huge interlocking network of governmental agencies industrial corporations and research institutes working together to supply nations military forces A response to the growing importance of technology Occurred a lot during cold war The race to create arms created a lot of roles for scientists and engineers Eisenhower was concerned that militarization could erode democracy Encompasses constituencies which all have interests in military spending Corporations produce goods for military pro t from government contract Military of cers careers advance by building bureaucratic empires around new weapons systems Universities and institutes receive military research contracts Rational model decision makers set goals evaluate relative importance calculate the costs and bene ts of each possible course of action then choose the one with the highest bene ts and lowers costs May be complicated by uncertainty Organizational process model foreign policy decision makers skip laborintensive process and rely on standard operating procedures lmplies that much of foreign policy results from management by muddling though Government bargaining model foreign policy decisions result from the bargaining process among various government agencies with divergent interests in the outcome Foreign policy decisions re ect a mix of the interests of state agencies Cognitive bias systematic distortions of rational calculations based not on emotional feelings but on limitations of the human brain in making choices Cognitive balance and cognitive dissonance refer to the tendency people have to maintain mental models of the world that are logically consistent An implication is that decision makers place greater value on goals that they ve put a lot of effort into achieving the justi cation of effort Wishful thinking which is an overestimate of the probability of a desired outcome also adds to cognitive balance Cognitive balance leads to a hardened image of enemy Mirror image refers to 2 sides maintaining similar enemy images of each other Historical analogies is another form of cognitive bias but since each historical situation is different it can be misleading Misoerceptions and selective perceptions decisionmaking processes must reduce and lter incoming info on which a decision is based but ltration is biased Information screens are subconscious lters Misperception can affect the implementation policy by lowlevel of cials as well as highlevel of cials Rationality of individual cost bene t calculations undermined by emotions that the decision maker feels while thinking about the consequence of the actions This is called affective bias and it contributes to info screening Hegemonic wars war over control of the entire world order aka the rules of the international system as a whole Also known as world war global war general war systematic war Cannot occur without destroying civilization Total war warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another Goal is to reach the capital force surrender of government Begins with the massively destructive Napoleonic wars which introduced conscription and geared the entire French economy toward war effort Evolved with industrialization Limited war military actions carried out to gain some objective short of surrender and occupation of the enemy A characteristic of border wars Civil wars war between factions within a state trying to create or prevent a new government for the entire state of some territory of it Seem to be among the most brutal wars Guerilla war warfare without frontlines Irregular forces operate in midst of civilian populations Purpose not to directly confront enemy army by to harass and punish it Used often by rebels Weapons of mass destruction Comprised of 3 general types nuclear chemical biological The purpose is to deter attack by giving state leaders the means to in ict great pain against a would be conqueror Nuclear weapons Fission weaponssimpler less expensive and fusion weapons Fissionable are easy to make but the obstacle is getting the ssionable material Fusion weapons are expensive and technically demanding Chemical and biological weapons Use of chemical weapons in war has been rare Chemical weapons convention ban the production and possession of chemical weapons has been signed by all the great powers and nearly all other states with a few exceptions States admitted to having secret chemical programs which are now being dismantled Biological weapons resemble chemical ones but use deadly microorganisms or biologically derived toxins Development production and possession of biological weapons are banned under the biological weapons convention Ethnic groups Share ancestral language cultural or religious ties and common identity Selfdetermination characterized by all of the following except that Most nations desiring selfdetermination have achieved it Ethnic con ict Quite possibly the most important source of con ict in the numerous wars now occurring throughout the world