PubH3190FinalExamStudyGuide PubH 3190
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Will Block on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PubH 3190 at George Washington University taught by Professor LaPuma in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Renewable Energy and the Environment in Public Health at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
o Readings and Assignments 0 Personal Energy Use Personal Energy Assessment 0 Built Environment Movie How the Earth was Madequot 0 Climate Change WHO Protecting Health from Climate Change Hansen Climate Change Urgency 19 min clip Pike Science Behind Climate Change 4 min clip Cooney Climate and Infectious Disease UN The Implications of Climate Change on Water Arroyo Climate Solutions 10 min clip 0 Water and Food I Hoerling Past Peak Water in the Southwest I Gilmer Nevada s Water Fight I Ted Talk by Dr Lance Price I Personal Food Assessment Project Transportation 0 Group Presentations Modular Nuclear reactors Rising Sea Levels in Bangladesh Contaminants in the Potomac Coal Fired Power plants Health Impacts Offshore Wind 0 Learning Objectives 0 Personal Energy Use 1 2 3 List the three largest energy consumers in residential and commercial buildings List the order of the LEED colors not the point structure Explain the concept of a passive solar home design 0 Built Environment 1 4 Match a process description to one of the five phases of the life cycle assessment framework Explain the importance of life cycle assessment LCA in alternative energy decision making Discuss the links between building efficiency and environmental human health Explain ways that the build environment impacts health and fitness 0 Climate Change 10 Explain the greenhouse effect and the in uence of shortwave and longwave radiation Characterize the major greenhouse gases and their relative in uence on climate Identify the current C02 concentration and the preindustrial C02 concentration Identify the temperature and C02 concentration cap agreed to in Copenhagen 2010 by the US and the European Union Know the general environmental and health implications of climate change Distinguish between mitigation and adaptation efforts Discuss takeback effects and the importance of health in making sustainable choices Explain carbon capture and sequestration Know what Scope 1 2 and 3 means in GHG emissions for federal organizations Explain strategies in how public health professionals can play a major role in shifting behavior to abate climate change reduce energy water consumption and live a healthier lifestyle 0 Water and Food 1 Explain the two primary ways water is used in a thermal power generation plant Explain the environmental implications of cooling tower water discharges Explain how N0x emissions impacts the Chesapeake Bay and create dead zonesquot Know that once through cooling hydropower and energy crops are the highest water consumers in making electricity Explain the link between the 0gallala Aquifer and sustainable food production Explain the environmental health issues with industrial farming and dependency with fossil energy 0 Transportation 1 2 3 Explain the difference between hybrids PHEV and BEV Know the various charging station levels and how they will be used Compare the average US household electricity use with charging an EV Explain how much energy density impacts vehicle range 5 Describe the relative mix of vehicle types in the US cars trucks motorcycles and the average age of a car in the US 6 Explain how the economy has affected driving miles and car sales in the US and BRIC countries 7 Broadly understand the various feedstocks processes and energy outputs 8 Explain the challenges in biofuels and implications of annual versus perennial agriculture 0 Group Presentations I Modular Nuclear Reactors 0 Name some advantages and disadvantages of Small Modular Reactors SMRs as discussed in the presentation I Rising Sea Levels in Bangladesh 0 Know the impacts from pumping groundwater in Bangladesh relative to their vulnerability to sea level rise 0 Explain the health effects and any other consequences to the coastal ooding Bangladesh is experiencing I Contaminants in the Potomac o Relatively speaking how many chemicals in drinking water are tested compared to the number of chemicals in the US marketplace o What are some potential impacts of endocrine disrupting compounds to the aquatic ecosystem or possibly to humans I Coal Fired Power Plants Health Impacts 0 Why is PM25 more hazardous to humans than larger particles 0 Be familiar with regulatory trends on greenhouse gas emissions from coal I Offshore Wind 0 Explain pros and cons of offshore wind compared to land based wind Class Notes March 4th 0 40 of energy consumed in the US is from buildings 0 Half commercial 0 Half residential 0 Building thermal envelope efficiency of oor walls ceiling to hold temperature 0 Rated by R Values 0 Thermal imaging helps view the thermal envelope of a building 0 Windows on North facing side of house should be minimized 0 Windows should be placed on south side of house with overhang 0 Passive Solar Design 0 Summer sun is at higher angle so overhang can be used to block sun in hot summer months but let heat in during the winter months control Windows on south side aperture Thermal mass oor Stone or tile that can hold heat of the day Absorber Distribution OOOOO Orient ridgeline of house to face TRUE south parallel to true eastwest line 0 Life Cycle Assessment LCA o 5 Phases I Raw Material Acquisition I Material Manufacture I Product Manufacture I Product Use I Product Disposal o Miners Water Energy gt Air emissions solid waste wastewater 0 Most americans tend to only focus on the product use phase Built Environment 0 Rare earth metals are necessary to produce green systems 0 Recycling is metal dependant 0 Iron recycles easily 0 Aluminum builds up impurities and degrades the metal quality 0 Lighter cars mean more high qualityquot aluminum demand 0 What have humans done in the past 50 years with our 400 million year oil quotdowryquot Tata Nano The People s carquot 0 World s cheapest car at 2500 60 mpg 0 Tata motors of India 0 Many in China can afford them too 0 First came out in 2009 0 Fossil Energy allows humans to live in areas that are otherwise uninhabitable ex Las Vegas Nevada 0 The Obesogenic environment 60 of US population reports little or no regular physical activity Relative risk of coronary heart disease is similar to that of smoking 000 Cost of inactivity is 24 billion per year 0 Diseases of the af uent o More convenience often means more energy and less human energy expended 00000 0 Heating a home used human calories just 4050 years ago by splitting wood Vending machines fast food Car garage door openers Increasing number of TVs US households wcomputerinternet access Commute shifted from walkbiketransit to cars 0 Food trends 0 0 Years ago everyone had a garden Now we have hand foodsquot gt things you can eat in a car 0 Modifying the build environment to promote fitness 0 0000000 Parking lots further from buildings Mass transitbike racks near buildings Stairs as primary feature in lobby areas Bike walk lanes that are safe and inviting Showers at the workplace Gyms paths Automatic doors only for the disabled No drive through windows Idling also produces a lot of emissions 0 Vitamin D deficiency soars in the US sunshine vitaminquot O 0 We spend 90 of our time indoors I 36 of Americans are vitamin D deficient Supplements diet are not nearly enough if you re not getting outside 0 Gardening 0 We depend on very large farms that often require more resources 0 Individuals can garden with limited land even in an urban environment 0 Advantages of gardening I Stored food gt disaster preparedness I Diversified water consumption I Reduce energy consumption I Lower transportation miles I Increase time outdoors o In the 1970s 24 of US population were farmers now 16 are farmers Climate Change 0 US is really the only place where climate change is divisive O O 98 of scientists agree about climate change We put up 34 gigatons of C02 equivalent each year o The planet is warming 0 Global Warming s Six Americas Edward Maibach s study showed 6 viewpoints on global warming 0 Six Viewpoints I Alarmed 18 strongly active and changing own behavior Concerned 33 not actively engaged Cautious 19 will harm but not for a while Disengaged 12 lower socioeconomic status SES Doubtful 1 1 might be happening but not a real issue I Dismissive 7 it s not happening very active 0 In tough economic times people are less active on climate change 0 The dismissive group is active and has an interest in denying climate change a lot of shady big money interests 0 Increased C02 concentrations are from fossil fuels Best global C02 measurements are taken at Mauna Loa Hawaii 0 Pre Industrial age C02 was about 300 ppm 0 Now it s at about 400 ppm 0 Cyclical nature of C02 is from vegetation I In the spring the field is empty fall the field has full stalks collects C02 from atmosphere to make proteins sugars etc o In the last 20 million years there s been an ice age every 100000 years 0 90000 years of ice age 10000 year warming period 0 Temperature and C02 are well correlated o a warmer ocean releases C02 a colder ocean absorbs C02 0 In the past it may have been the temperature in uencing C02 instead of C02 in uencing temperature For the last 650000 years C02 has never been above 300 ppm About 450 ppm is theorized to be the point of no return even if we were to stop all emissions 0 Europe did decently with Kyoto protocol 0 China and US did not sign 0 US didn t sign because China wouldn t agree to outside inspectors for verification o Copenhagen climate change summit 0 Only agreement was that warming must be capped at 2 degrees celsius gt 36 degrees fahrenheit 0 We ve already warmed about 07 degrees celsius 2 degrees celsius equates to 450 ppm in atmosphere and about 1000 gigatons of C02 emissions 0 At current emission rate we are 30 years away from point of no return 0 Annual increase of 3 per year gives us just 20 years 0 Annual 3 reduction gives us much more time 0 Rise to come if we don t change 0 Above 700 ppm by 2100 if we don t change our emissions 0 Annual average temperatures 0 Climate deniers claim that there s been a 15 year pause in warming 0 Deniers are just using land data and exclude the arctic and antarctica o This pause is made up 0 Faster warming when you include arctic 0 Most warming has happened in oceans 0 Global and continental temperature change 0 Models have gotten dramatically better 0 Models using natural forcings vs models using natural anthropogenic forcings I These two models are diverging in almost every continent 0 Oxygen isotopes in ice cores are used to tell historic temperatures I This also shows historical C02 concentrations I Better representation of temperature than satellite imagery o More of the sun s energy is let through the atmosphere than is allowed to leave greenhouse effect 0 UV and visible radiation pass through atmosphere I radiative window allows it to come through 0 Short wavelengths come in from sun 0 Long wavelengths are put out by earth like infrared I GHGs block this open window and stop radiation from leaving earth 0 Global GHG emissions by sector 0 Most of the C02 comes from energy consumption 0 Land use change is also a large contributor 0 Agriculture contributes a huge amount of methane o 18 of GHG is from deforestation 135 is from transportation 0 C02 emissions from fossil fuels 0 Coal petroleum natural gas 0 Different foods have different farm to fork lifecycle GHG emissions 0 Red meat has higher lifecycle GHG emissions by far 0 A lot of N20 from fertilizers o Cornfed cows lead to more methane cows aren t meant to eat corn 0 Vostok Ice Core Data 0 Vostok Antarctic ice core drilling began in 70s 0000 We can drill about 225 miles worth of ice coring This gives us about 440000 years of data Lake Vostok is underground Ice core data also shows skyrocketing methane I We re now over 1000 parts per billion Lifecycle perspective is critical in all evaluations O O O 0 Some methane is lost during well development in natural gas hydrofracking If leakage rate is over 1 natural gas is no better than coal in terms of GHG emissions I EPA says leakage rate is currently around 2 I NOAA says leakage rate is around 910 at some wells I Hydrofracking industry is exempt from CAA and CWA so instead EPA had to regulate VOCs Pipelines have venting to reduce pressure Pipelines are old and have leaks DC alone has 1200 natural gas leaks Future change in extreme summer drought and precipitation shifts o Wetter in wet areas drier in dry areas 0 California is having recordsetting droughts Hottest years in recorded history have been in 1998 and 20012013 0 Women in some cultures get up at 4am to walk long distances and carry 50 pounds of water 0 Since women and children tend to find water and scarce wood for cooking their education suffers and they are more vulnerable to criminal activity like rape and murder Fire frequency is increasing globally 0 Seeds detect frequency changes In droughts vegetation is more ammable and burns hotter In severe fires even fire resistant trees are killed seedlings in ground are also destroyed Without tree cover soil washes away and forrest cannot regrow Tree has growth crown at top so it can stay alive if bark gets a little burnt Southern pine needles can move north because of warming and then kill trees which become prime for fire 2010 was hottest year in Russia on record in 130 years gt Causing unprecedented wild fires 0 Grain prices shot up and raised food prices in Egypt 0 Riots broke out in Egypt and became catalyst for the protest that triggered O the Arab spring In Russia an estimated 56000 people died from the heat wave 0 Rate of Natural Disasters Increasing O O 0 Increase in number of destructive meteorological storms Natural catastrophes on the rise Warmer atmosphere can hold more water leading to more violent hurricanes and more extreme rainfall events I The 23 year storm will occur every 23 years Derecho land winds land hurricane sort of I Derechos are fueled by heat waves which will occur more frequently w climate change and fuels itself with heat Superstorm Sandy Over 60 billion in damages 85 million without power new york subway ooded o More frequent heat waves 0 O O 0 Kill more people than tornadoes oods hurricanes and lightning combined Heat waves require higher peak electricity Increased tropospheric ozone USDA updated its plant hardinesszone mapquot in 2006 and 2012 to re ect warmer northern climates 0 Polar Vortex 0 Looks like a hurricane but isn t It mainly cycles around itself and is held in place by the next major cell The zone where these two cells meet is the jet stream Arctic oscillation gt Polar vortex is wobbling way off and spilled over much of the US causing extreme cold Arctic is warming faster than the rest of the planet which means that the difference between hot and cold is weakening 0 Potential for disease migration 0 O O Malaria and dengue fever are moving poleward Warmer oceans favor natural vibrio cholerae cholera in the environment Some experts suggest that the global rise in asthma is an early health effect of climate change Deaths due to climate change are worse in sub saharan Africa than anywhere else 0 Maslow s hierarchy of human needs 0 Climate change compromises physiological needs which leads to con ict ex water wars 40 of the world39s oil ows through the strait of Hormuz 20 miles wide and between Iran and Saudi Arabia 0 India is building a 2000 mile border fence around Bangladesh because of climate refugees 1 meter rise in sea level means 20 of bangladesh would be underwater 0 Sea level rise 0 Ice that s oating and melts doesn t raise sea level I Arctic ice melting won t directly raise sea level but Greenland and antarctic will I Ice is less dense than water 0 Arctic ice melt is exceeding all predictions I This could indicate that something s wrong with our models I 2012 greenland ice melt is largest in 30 years I 2012 arctic melt shattered all records 0 The major component in sea level rise is the expansion of water I 90 of the earth s warming has happened in oceans o Doomsday scenario 30 foot rise if Antarctic ice sheet breaks off 0 In many parts of the world glacial melt provides water through drought seasons 0 Disappearing glaciers threaten many in south america and africa 0 Snow packed on Rockies helps colorado 0 Snow pack is important to western US 0 Himalayas provide a lot of water to rivers in china and is origin of rivers 0 Women s rights related to water 0 About a billion people have to walk hours and hours to collect water primarily women 0 This prevents women from getting educated Similar occurrence with collecting wood which is also needed to boil water 0 The number of things funneling water into ocean in Antarctica are vastly increasing 0 They re going underneath and through the ice 0 This undermines the structure of the ice and is causing threat of ice shelves breaking off also in greenland 0 There are differences in sea level height worldwide volumetric differences 0 ex Virginia will rise more than northern california 0 Gas hydrates Fire in the Ice 0 As methane mixes with cold water under pressure it forms a slushy mix trapping the methane into water crystalline cages 0 There are more gas hydrates in the arctic and siberia than all the oil coal and conventional natural gas combined 0 This ice can be lit on fire If the oceans keep warming there s concern that the gas hydrates will be released Great Ocean Conveyor Belt 0 Ocean currents distribute heat throughout the world 0 Glacial melt adds fresh water so the current could slow and accelerate an ice age 0 Greenland is releasing a lot of fresh water which cools warmer water and prevents it from sinking US emissions aren t increasing or decreasing by much 0 European emissions are slightly decreasing 0 Huge emissions growth in China 0 China is the largest emitter US is largest per capita I There are now 300 million people in the Chinese middle class Global emissions 34 Gigatons of C02 equivalent 0 34000 million metric tons 34 billion tons Russia supply s much of Europe s natural gas 0 In 1994 Russia promised to never invade Ukraine if Ukraine gave up its nuclear weapons I 12 of our nuclear fuel is from reprocessed soviet nuclear weapons At current rates we reach 1000 gigatons C02 equivalent in about 30 years 0 Minimum of 3 years for any EPA rulemaking then there s time for power companies to comply Emission Scopes 0 Scope 1 C02 emissions directly from facility 0 Scope 2 Things like heat and electricity purchased 0 Scope 3 Indirect windeX toilet paper commuters other indirect sources etc Climate Change Actions Adaptation and Mitigation o Adaptation Preparations for climate change happening I Move people from ood prone areas I Adapt foods that grow in shifting climates I Window AC for low SES seniors I Food donations to impacted countries I Desalinate water in water impacted areas 0 Mitigation Reducing GHG emissions I Building efficiency Higher CAFE fuel standards Reforestation stop deforestation Less carbon intense electricity Carbon capture and sequestration o Adaptation is more bipartisan because everyone can see crazy weather even if they don t accept the premise of climate change Subsidies 0 Oil and gas are heavily subsidized 1520 tax benefits that the oil and gas industry enjoys in US many wastewater and CAA exemptions California started auctioning carbon credits in 2012 O O O 0 Established minimum price of C02 Two ways to implement I Slowly limit the number of credits available I Or have an annual fee for emissions California auctioned a fixed amount of allowed emissions There is less opposition to carbon tax model than cap and trade because it gives businesses more certainty Government subsidies for house insurance by coasts and ood prone areas 0 O Gov policies are currently lowering the cost of insuring homes built on coasts Climate change mitigation means getting people away from the most harmful effects of hurricanes ooding We must cut back gov insurance subsidies I People could not afford to insure homes on coastlines I Less incentive to live in areas prone to violent weather I Stop building disposable housesquot US Farm Bill 0 Subsidizes many annual row crops but not perennial crops which are much less energy intensive We are paying farmers to not farm ex tobacco Farm bill acts as a backstop for a bad year and prevents farmers from going under Row cropping annuals are heavily subsidized Shitty soil because of all the chemical usage Perennial crops are better for climate change because root structure lasts and plant takes in C02 Corn production increased because of renewable fuel standard Farm bill heavily subsidizes corn Surplus corn used to be donated to impoverished countries but now 40 of our corn is used in fuel Carbon Capture and Sequestration CCS 0 Can be buried in ground in geologic formations I Salt domes and depleted oil and gas reservoirs 0 First C02 must be liquified and injected into ground 0 Other option is to pump C02 into oceans I Problematic because this could make oceans more acidic which would destroy carbonaceous shells and coral reefs 0 Take Back Effects 0 With higher mpg vehicles people tend to drive more 0 With CFLs and LED lights people leave lights on more 0 If you use something that s very energy efficient people tend to use it more 0 Real time feedback about power consumption can reduce consumption 1015 0 Renewables should be a big part of the mix but US subsidies and policy must favor low carbon energy vs oil and gas 0 We have the technology to correct climate change but not the political will 0 Exxon finally came out and said climate change is happening 0 UN IPCC says climate change is hurting us today 0 Climate change is bad for human health 0 Federal Executive Order 13514 FLEEP o Fed gov gt 18 million workers 500000 buildings 600000 vehicles 25 billion fuel elec 0 Federal agencies must measure and reduce GHG emissions 0 Scopes of GHG emissions for fed gov o Scopes I Scope 1 GHG your company emits directly I Scope 2 GHG electric utility emits I Scope 3 GHG by firms that supply your goods and services 0 Outsourcing or subcontracting converts 1 and 2 into 3 0 Federal agencies must report and set goals to reduce 1 2 and 3 0 Each agency must appoint a senior sustainability manager 0 Policy Price on carbon to account for external costs 0 EPA estimates societal cost of carbon at 33 per ton 0 Our grid must be upgraded soon too 75 of it is over 40 years old 0 Regressive tax hurts the poor more but there are ways to mitigate this through the tax code Water and Food 0 It takes water to make energy and energy to make water 0 Water and wastewater consume 3 of US electricity 0 On average 12 gallon of fresh water is evaporated per KwH produced 0 Cooling towers evaporate pure water 0 Total US water consumption 0 Power plants 47 0 Agriculture 34 O BuildingsPublic uses 11 Water used to produce household electricity exceeds direct household water use 0 Average person I 510 gallons per day for food I 465 to produce household electricity I 100 direct household use 0 After steam goes through turbine it must be cooled usually with water in a cooling tower Water withdrawals to make electricity 0 OOO Dedicated energy crops 130 gallons kwh Once through cooling 35 gallons kwh CSP consumes small amounts of water PV consumes none Large reservoirs and dams 50 gallons per kwh because of evaporative losses Water con icts and problems are highly likely O O Casinos vs Nevada ranchers Casinos want Snake river water w pipe system Ranchers say meadow allows them to ranch I Utah and Nevada are now in con ict about this I Congress says if Utah and Nevada can t agree no one gets the water Water wars Global phenomenon as well I 9 countries border the nile river 0 Nile river delta sediment is diminished 0 Egypt is 60 million people entirely dependent on the Nile I 263 watersheds span 2 or more countries they account for 60 of the world s water ow I Tibetan plateau is the watershed for China s great rivers Making stuff takes water 0 O O O 1 kilo of coffee 20000 litres Quarterpounder hamburger 11000 litres cotton tshirt 7000 litres 1 litre milk 2000 litres Water consumption is a major issue with some alternative energy sources 0 Ethanol 130 6200 gallons water per 100 miles traveled Infiltration islands 0 0 Combined systems have over ow valves raw sewage gets released into potomac Infiltration islands try to mitigate problem by absorbing runoff from parking lots etc 0 Plants can cleanse water 0 Ogallala aquifer O 0 One of the world s largest aquifers In mid us It is currently being overdrawn Water is being removed faster than its recharge rate 0 This aquifer supplies a lot of the water for our food 0 It s being polluted with nitrates and pesticides 0 Could cover US in 16 of water 0 Discovered just after the dust bowl years Irrigation O 0000 The center pivot irrigation system revolutionized agriculture Irrigation 94 of draw on Ogallala aquifer Corn acre transpires 4000 gallons of water per day Some say ogallala will dry up within 20 years When water dries up vegetation dies exposed soil is unprotected This leads to dust storms 0 To feed today s population with the 1960 s yields we d need an area of farmland the O CAFO size of Russia 0 000000 Intensification also helps mitigation because it prevents deforestation Combined animal feeding operation 90 of the poultry in this country owned mainly by 4 corporations Increased diseases antibiotic resistant human bacteria Very energy intensive Waste lagoon pits contaminate rivers lakes 90 of antibiotics sold in US go to animals Industry says you can t do a CAFO without antibiotics Transportation of oil production goes to transportation and almost 100 of transportation is reliant on Oil US vehicle miles traveled attened out during recession Transport sector 0 0 Motor Gasoline I Dominant in US diesel dominant in Europe Diesel fuel oil I Diesel kerosene etc I Europe favors diesel Heavier fuel with long chain hydrocarbons vs gasoline which is much more volatile and explosive o et fuel 0 Transportation is going to become more diversified o Electrification 0 First vehicles were electric vehicles in early 1900 s but the internal combustion engine outperformed it c There are 250 million cars on the road in the US 0 Average life is about 9 years 0 2000 EV cars on the road today I Potentially 2 million by 2015 lt1 of cars 0 In 1918 there were 50000 EVs but the ford model T s cheap oil and better range ended the electric car 0 Today s cars 0 Hybrid Car Gas engine charges the batter and or adds power when extra is needed gt Toyota Prius I Thin skin aluminum weight reduction etc 0 Plug In Hybrid Vehicle PHEV I Draws motive power from battery charged externally gt4 kwh capacity I Must go gt 10 miles on electricity only I Gas engine kicks in when battery dies eases range anxiety 0 Battery Electric Vehicle BEV I Nissan leaf nothing but battery 0 Automakers agreed to a standard charger o SAE 117722009 0 Can deliver up to 16800 watts 70 amps o Standardized charging stations 0 Level 1 110 V 20 hours I trickle chargequot heavy extension cord 0 Level 2 220 V 8 hours I Special station mounted in homes parking spaces 0 Level 3 480 V 15 minutes I Special charging stations not out yet 0 Nissan leaf takes 34 kwh per 100 miles driven 0 House use average is 33 kwhday o 15 centskwh gt 400 per 100 miles 0 34 kwh is a lot of electricity 0 Electrifying transportation will require better batteries Longer harge more charge cycles and higher energy density are needed 0 Battery Energy Density O O I 1 Lithium I 2 Nickel Cadmium I 3 Lead Energy density of gasoline and diesel is better than batteries gravimetric and volumetric density Lithium is extremely light 0 Half of the world s lithium deposits are in bolivia s salt ats O O 0 Bolivia is requiring manufacturers to open plants in bolivia and hire bolivians if they want their lithium Mining involves drilling evaporation and chemical treatment Evaporation ponds needed to get rid of water and concentrate lithium 0 Important to note what is generating power that s charging electric vehicle 0 Depending on where you charge your electric vehicle the greenhouse gas emissions could actually increase Historically the southeast US has been terrible on renewable energy but Georgia is becoming an anchor 0 Vehicles in the US 0 250 million vehicles in 2007 o 43 are 4 tired trucks 0 53 are cars 0 4 are 6 tire trucks 0 3 motorcycles 0 Average age of a vehicle in 2008 is 94 years 0 Median age of vehicle is 6 years 0 Cash for Clunkers program I On average traded in vehicle was 15 mpg I Next vehicle purchased was on average 25 mpg I New vehicle needed to be driven at least 3040000 miles to make up for old car being taken off the road prematurely I Climate change LCE 300 per ton C02 reduction 0 Biofuels o 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act EISA mandates 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022 for transportation I Most is going to corn ethanol even though it s an energy loser I We use 153 billion gallons per year of fuel about half of oil consumption 36153 23 renewable fuel by 2022 Cellulosic ethanol was supposed to start expanding We ve hit a blend wall gasoline w 10 ethanol I Renewable Fuel Standard RFSl 0 Corn ethanol does us no favors environmentally and raises the price of food 0 Some biofuels might make sense 0 About 51 cents per gallon subsidy for corn ethanol Biomass will not add up to much compared to oil consumption I America s entire corn and soy crop could replace 12 gasoline and 6 diesel I EIA estimates 20 million tons of wet biomass can be economically harvested 3 gigawatts or 03 of electricity capacity I Biomass is overcommitted Corn stover is not waste I Cellulosic could use whole stalk I Corn stover has nitrogen phosphorus and potassium that is used as fertilizer When oil price increases corn prices increase Corn ethanol produces more lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline I Far worse for health and environment Algae biofuel I Algae sun nutrients C02 oil I Trouble has been cost due to low lipid content in natural algae 0 Sustainable transportation 0 Early advertisements for automobiles were about cleaning up horse pollutionquot We have 27 trillion dollars invested in gasoline infrastructure in this country Hydrogen transport is very impractical Presentation Notes 0 Coal and Human Health 0 60000 tons daily in 1 plant 0 Health effects I Particulates Pm10 PM25 Lungs asthma bronchitis COPZ I Nitrogen dioxide Ozone I PM 10 is related to ischemic stroke I Mercury Harms brain heart kidneys immune system 0 Regulations I EPA standards on 302 cap and trade system I All states should have renewable portfolio standards 0 Small Scale Nuclear O O O O O Generates less than 300 MW No pump for cooling 25 million 200 million per unit instead of 515 billion for large scale Reduced maintenance costs Safer efficient use of space 0 Sea level rise in Bangladesh 0 000000 0 Geography Low lying at land neighboring Myanmar and India 166 million population 9th largest in world of Bangladesh is less than 7 feet above sea level Climate justice Bangladesh has caused only 03 of emissions Agriculture is very affected 1 meter sea level rise gt 30 million climate refugees Bangladesh National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan National Climate Change Fund shelters for storm surges 0 Drinking water and potomac river 0 O 0 Drinking water source protection partnership DWSPP More frequent testing standards than EPA Emerging contaminant EC emerging refers to the discovery of new pathways sources PPCP Pharmaceutical contaminants EDC Endocrine disrupting chemicals Effects on wildlife I Heron die offs I PCBs and Mercury in fish I High incidence of intersex condition in smallmouth bass population Effects on humans I Government only tests water for 1400 of the chemicals on the US market 80000 chemicals are on the market
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