Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide HY 102
Popular in Western Civilization Since 1648
Popular in History
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Charles Clark in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 1276 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Since 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
HY 102 Study Guide French statebuilding in the 17th Century 0 Background to absolutism 0 French centralize all powers to state in hand of king Always broke 0 Estate Clergy NobH y Everyone else 2 France protestant 40 of nobility o 1588 3way war Navar Royal family tried to buy him out by marrying him to one of their daughters 0 The wars of religion the war if the three Henris ls Paris worth as mass 0 Are religious convictions get in the way of being King Henry IV converted to Catholicism 0 King Henry IV Wanted to stop religious ghting Doesn t like idea of constant warfare in own country Left 12year old son when died 0 The Edict of Nantes Paris is worth a mass 1594 step towards trying to stop religious wars Allows protestants in France to have own cities school systems trial will consist of 3judge tribunal 2 of which are Protestant Sets up a state within a state 1610 henry murdered by stabbing Richelieu and the foundations of absolutism continued 0 Richelieu Brings Louis more power and helps get his mom off counci Guidance unti Louis becomes of age 0 Taming the Huguenots 1626 seizes a Rochelle protestant town Pus down defenses and modi es Edict of Nantes o No longer have state within a state Lose right to defend themselves No armed forces 0 Reason of state 0 Sin for you not for reason of state 0 Can39t arrest nobles for debt 0 Masculinity being noble means you are good at ghting nobles of the sword o Dueling Way of private justice Most not to the death to the rst cut 0 HY 102 Study Guide Richelieu outlaws dueling have to be dependent on king for jusUce Brings in butcher to do beheading 0 Taxes and administrations the intendants o Richelieu as the lynchpin Louis XIV and the pinnacle of French absolutism 0 Chaos again with a minor as king 0 Absolutism as the answer to disorder 0 quotL etat C39est Moiquot The army 0 Most powerful in Europe Tried to expand territory Deployed within France Finance and economic change 0 Turns to middle class Colbert nance minister Versailles Key Words Edict of Nantes St Bartholomew39s Day massacre 0 Duke of Gees Preemptively murder people 1020000 people for being Protestant o Navar Hides under wife39s bed almost survives Henry IV Huguenots La Rochelle GabeHe 0 Salt tax Taile o Landincome tax 0 Stable lntendants 0 Tax collects agents sent out from Paris 0 Chosen carefully from upper middle class by Richelieu o What power they have comes from position not birth 0 Created a centralized administration network loyal to him 0 Weakens power of nobles Fronde 0 Kids who threw mud at rich people39s carriages Jacques Boussuet o Argues that as a Christian you owe your allegiance to God 0 King is god39s representative on earth Louis XIV o Resolves not to be a weak King 0 1661 New chief minister when Mazarin dies HY 102 Study Guide Claims himself as chief minister 0 He has to control as much of French aspect as possible 0 Large army 0 Cardinal Mazarin o Successor of Richelieu 0 Big loud happy 0 Not able to hold system together as well as Richelieu JeanBaptiste Colbert 0 Louis XIV nance minister o Puts prohibitive duties on imported good cheaper to buy domestically o Applies to king39s estates 0 Extract timber shing rights etc 0 Keep Louis XIV through 4 wars Versailles 0 Hall of mirrors 0 Designed to make you look small 0 If you are a king live like a king 0 Designed to remind you who was in charge and where you rank in the system 0 Nobility fought hard for access to Louis XIV Imitating France Other examples of European Absolutism Prussia 0 Where it is and why it matters Split up some in Holy Roman Empire some outside 0 Frederick William the great Elector 1653 call legislature together Bargain with nobilities o Pushed for second sons to serve as of cers Right to collect certain taxes in perpetuity and use those taxes to create 5000 man army Idea is not to beat someone but to lose and effectively Prussia will not be weak again after 30 Years39 War An army with a state where it camps Voltaire Army respected across Europe 0 Junkers social consequences of Prussia39s development 0 Europe changing into cash economy Western Europe 0 No longer have serfs but peasants Russia 0 shhhwe39re not sure it39s really part of the west Western Europe Catholic Russia Orthodox Eat social dress differently HY 102 Study Guide 0 Women segregated 0 Peter the Great brings the west to Russia a little bit Goes secretly to western Europe to study Westernize nobility Forbad young nobleman from marrying until they passed exams on math western literature Creates universities gets rid of segregation Creates a senate make things ef cient Brings in forks taxes beards Tried to create a new nobility Table of ranks After death most of the westernization is undone 0 Why So he could beat up on Sweden The quotwindow on the westquot 0 Created by Peter on St Petersburg Austria and the Hapsburgs o Hapsburgs Strong Catholics Dif cult to expand in Holy Roman Empire 0 The dangers of national assemblies Add new representatives with new territory Different alphabet language family of languages Most are German Have to try to buy loyalty to people of new territories Oriented toward Vienna o Struggles with the Ottomans Chance to expand Hapsburg territory Protestants happier under Ottomans 0 Religion and identity in the Balkans Key words Frederick William the Great Elector Elector of Brandenburg Prussia The quotGreat Recessquot Generakreigscommissariat Where Prussian bureaucracy grow ups junkers The quotsecond serfdomquot Peterl the Great Ambitious tall crude Makes Russian military stronger Charles Xll Sweden Boyars Russian nobility Wear robes slippers and beards St Petersburg quotwindow on the westquot Windsor Palace HY 102 Study Guide Fought Sweden for it Have port that faces westward was his goal Table of Ranks 16 ranks Service to Russia Top 8 steps are tax exempt Nobility tend to be more loyal to Peter quotI care less about your birth than I do about your actionsquot Alternatives to absolutism the English c The English context 0 Elizabeth and the need for approval 0 James reintroduces the Divine Right 0 Charles I and the English civil war 0 Finance and parliament 1628 parliament did not meet unless KingQueen calls for it Asked for new taxes Tried to rule for 12 years without parliament Ship money 0 Time of war could assess extra taxes on coastal towns Entirely legal but not much money Baronets Lowest rank of nobles Parliament rebels against person who hold power King to preserve the monarch Power is in the navy o Roundhead and Cavalier Roundhead Support parliament Pur ans CavaHer RoyaB Advantage on horseback o 1649 Charles is executed o Cromwell disperses Parliament Uses army as threat 0 Hobbes and the Leviathan Book Argues that people form governments civil society all give up some rights in exchange for protection 0 Restoration and revolution 0 Charles II and general debauchery Catholic HY 102 Study Guide 0 James II and the Catholic issue 1689 0 Last successful invasion of England James II runs away to Scotland Throne claimed as vacant William had to agree to bill of rights 0 Inviting a Dutchman to take over The rst bill of rights Summon parliament every three years 0 Parliament controls budget 0 Not appoint Catholic to any high position 0 Not place soldiers in homes Quartering Act 0 Parliament supreme the Act of Settlement 1701 0 James II dies Anne becomes queen Nearest Protestant to English throne Sophia of Hanover 0 As long as she and her heirs stay Protestant they can remain on the English throne if Anne doesn39t have any children which she has none 0 Locke and the Treatise of Civil Government European Enlightenment Not the judge in own case lf government stops protecting our rights we have the right to create a new one Sovereignty rests in citizens English have right of revolution Wrote Treatise in 1688 before William was offered the throne Extremely radical Key Words Charles I Petition of Right Charles I Needed to agree he did not have the power to create new taxes Sent from parliament Oliver Cromwell Hardcore Puritan quotWarrior for religionquot Thomas Hobbes Author of Leviathan Leviathan Argues that people form a government and give up a part of their rights to gain protection James II The quotGlorious Revolutionquot John Locke HY 102 Study Guide Two Treatises of Civil Government Claims that if the government stops protecting our rights we have the right to create a new government Bill of Rights Under William Has to agree to call parliament every three years parliament controls the budget he cannot give any higher position to a Catholic and implements the Quartering Act Act of Settlement 1701 Sophia of Hanover A revolution in thought 0 Medieval thought reason and authority 0 Textual authority Preferably from 1000 years ago Primary 0 Christian Bible 0 Ancient Greece Columbus Believed the earth was pear shaped based on where he landed supposedly India 1 of 4 rivers bordering Garden ofEden 0 THE philosopher Aristotle Wrote on almost every topic Other philosophers ranked below him Ethics still good today 0 The revolution in astronomy 0 Copernicus and ancient authority 0 Galileo organized religion Discovers Copernicus39 model which ts his own ndings Moon has geographic features similar to earth Discovers new heavenly bodies 1610 0 Pope allows him to publish comparison of earthcentered and suncentered models Discovers two items fall at the same time unlike how quotheavier things fall fasterquot Can make lenses for telescope Considered himself a Christian quotany mistakes are made by humans not Godquot 0 Kepler a madman and the uses if data Madman Brahe o Builds own observatory 0 Charts positions of heavenly bodies Kepler HY 102 Study Guide Brahe39s assistant 0 Access to 30 years of star charts 0 Concerned more about planets than stars Star positions are very important for navigation o If planets orbit on perfect spheres it doesn39t work 0 Basic model of what we use today for the way planets orbit The revolution in medicine 0 Galen and ancient authority again Sports doctor sees badly injured men but not allowed to dissect corpses 1St to describe epilepsy Difference between sensory and motor nerves 0 Paracelsus and dosing 4 basic uids in the body 0 ln balance healthy out of balance unhealthy Introduce new substances into the body 0 Record amount and see what happens 0 Gold and mercury were his favorites 0 Vesalius and anatomy lessons Permission to dissect corpses Corrects some of Galen39s mistakes 0 Blood vessels originate from heart etc 0 William Harvey and blood flow Personal physician to James and Charles Book on the heart and blood 0 Not 2 types of blood and 2 types of blood system 0 Circulates out from heart through arteries and into veins Pulling it all together 0 Toward a scienti c method Descartes v Bacon Alchemists Turn one substance into another 0 Lead into gold 0 Immortality Worked in secret Don39t share discoveries unlike scientists who will publish their work Descartes I think therefore I am Wants certainty o By doubting everything he can know 0 Clears away senses 0 Only thing he cannot doubt he exists 0 General principles to specifics Bacon HY 102 Study Guide Lawyer and Lord Chancellor to James 0 Empirical method 0 Build from bottom up 0 Great Restoration 0 Gather as much data as possible and build up form there 0 Lower temp of food keeps it from spoiling 0 Stuff dead chicken with snow 0 Isaac Newton and the billiard ball universe Series of fundamental laws of gravity back up with equations Starts international Latin to international equations Billiard Ball 0 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 0 Physics for more than 200 years 0 Doesn t work when you go small for fast Creates idea that world is xed known and controllable o Absolutism and the sciences Key Words Nicolaus Copernicus Shortly before death published quotRevolution of Heavenly Bodiesquot Suncentered model Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Galen Andreas Vesalius Paracelsus William Harvey Francis Bacon Rene Descartes Royal Society European Enlightenment The rise of Rationalism o Popularizing science de Fontanelle Popularizing idea of the new way of thinking Newton is central gure in the Enlightenment Understand laws of human behavior build a better world 0 John Locke and his implications Liberal voices of corporal punishment 1690 0 Essay concerning human understanding How to make a world a better place 0 Make conditions better HY 102 Study Guide o If you can control the environment you can make humans better 0 Travel literature and cultural relativism Persian Letters Push concept of noble savage 1715 quotenlightenedquot being used more in France Rational person good person Dissatisfaction and skepticism o The philosophes and building knowledge French for philosopher Figure out ways to improve the world Build and spread knowledge 0 Voltaire skepticism and religious tolerance Deeply skeptical even of his own work Humans aren39t rational creatures but we can be rational creatures Member of uppermiddle class Starts out writing nasty plays for nobles Annoyed nobles enough to get beat up Noble sent men after him to teach him a lesson for saying bad things about the nobles When needed to ee he went to England 17505 Writes masterpiece o Candide Voltaire is furious an English Executed an admiral for refusing to following a French ship Anger at awfuness of European society Pushing for skepticism Back away from beliefs and see humanity of opponents 1762 in France Callas Affair 0 French protestant father nds son dead night before he converts to Catholicism o Wrongfuy tried and convicted Found son39s suicide note Let them belief in what they want as long as they don39t hurt anyone 0 Rousseau Montesquieu and political organization 17405 Montesquieu o The spirit of the laws 0 3 basic power of laws Legislature judicial executive Have the unite at least 2 powers into 1 0 Individual freedom from separate powers HY 102 Study Guide Educated elite not common peasant Only worked in small governmentscountries 17605 Rousseau 0 Educate men women are not really people 0 Ideas of how to raise children yet sent most of his children to an orphanage o Tries to get up in the world 0 Social contract 0 General will Expressed wishes of majority o A more humane world 0 Limits to the Enlightenment 0 Literacy Less than 50 of France can read 0 Elitism Strongly uppermiddle and upper class audience Little practical action 0 A new worldview Progress 0 Progress as a religion Condorcet o Immanuel Kant dares to know Key Words Bernard de Fontanelle Writer takes theories of gravityastronomy Plurality of worlds Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke Humans are born with very basic needs Hungry pain etc We are born clean slates Children not inherently good or evil no original sin Charles de Secondat Baron Montesquieu The Persian Letters Series of letters Persians travel through Europe and nd European culture creepy The Spirit of the Laws Looks at political power and aws Voltaire Candide Denis Diderot 1750 Takes part in Encyclopedia project forbidden in France by Catholic Church one of the quotforbidden booksquot Create multivolume books that are the sum of what all humans know Make world better place by getting people educated JeanJacques Rousseau The Social Contract HY 102 Study Guide Divine right of kings is nonsense quotIf I am a descendant of Adam too why is your broth better than minequot Cesare Beccaria Essays of Crime and Punishment 100 pages worth of criticizing aws of government Judicial torture Torture as interrogation process Basically torturing an innocent person Larger point Treat members of society like animals out of its cage they will act like animals out of its cage Justice that is too harsh is not justice at all MarieJean Caritat Marquis de Condorcet Progress of the human mind The Progress of the Human Mind 9 epics eras in each we have more understanding In 10th we will nally be able to control what it around us Be able to control weather women given equal citizen rights as men etc as consequence Immanuel Kant 1787 quotWhat is enlightenmentquot What is Enlightenment Is the courage to use your own reason Dare to know Learn to think critical for yourselves European Social Order in the Ancien R gime Demographics 0 births and deaths population increase in Europe 1790 190 million people More births fewer deaths Sustained population People were living longer in 17th and 18th century due to improved nutrition 56 for nobility 35 for commoners 50 of children died before age 5 0 marriage and children average marriage ages were 27 for women 29 for men when you get married you start your own household accumulate enough land to support your own family 0 have a child once every 18 months until one partner dies or fertility is gone 0 geographic mobility HY 102 Study Guide live and die in the same place very few opportunities for people to move around Agriculture and Farming o subsistence agriculture and diet 8090 of population are farmers Subsistence farmers o Grow what they can eat Three ways of organizing a eld 0 Open eld 0 All farming land is mixed together 0 Need a big heavy plow carried by oxen owned by village 0 Fields are long and narrow 0 Grain wheat and root vegetables beats turnips potatoes 0 enclosure in England 0 famine and its diseases whole villages collapse if there is a bad harvest peasant society 0 in hard times either everyone eats or no one eats 0 when village collapse that doesn39t happen suspicious of outsiders and change famine is constant companion if village is landlocked you have three days to travel not effective unless near water u dysentery o Shifting culture 0 high and popular culture elite create 0 Commission paintings art plays etc 0 plays are different than plays for the peasants O o nobles and peasants in a changing world nobility were rapidly being left behind economy based on mutual obligations more people go to cities rise in cash crops 0 rise of merchant and banking class Key Words Enclosure Acts Allow England to have cultural revolution Landlords wand to bring in new techniques to create a new yield for the same amount of labor Gin acts smallpox common of 17th Century HY 102 Study Guide related to chicken pox Edward Jenner Introduced Turkish practice of inoculation to get rid of smallpox Dairymaids had fewer smallpox scares if at all Blood sports Violent dangerous Bear bating Catch a bear put a collar on it steak it in the middle of the village and sets dogs on it See how many dogs it takes with it when it dies bear always loses Goose pulling Tie to tree y by to see if you can take its head off Carnival quotMardi Grasquot Week before Lent People pretend to be someone you39re not Everyone puts on a mask No rules this week Hobreaux French for poor nobility Hidagos Spanish for poor nobility Cortezdestroyed Aztec Empire barshcina Russian for forced labor Seigneur French term People who have certain hereditary rights legal Rights include control of processing facilities for food primogeniture Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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