Exam II Study Guide
Exam II Study Guide BIL330
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashi Ma on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIL330 at University of Miami taught by Professor Hitchcock in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Global Primary Production in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Ashima Dang BIL316 Global Primary Production Exam ll Study Guide Biomes Tropical Rainforest l Terrestrial biomes temperature amp precipitation dictate where biomes exist Major biomes tropical desert temperate forests boreal forests grasslands Biomes distinguished primarily by their dominant plants and are particular climates Geographicalseasonal variations in temperature amp precipitation determine where they occur Predominantly eastwest region parallel to equator has to do with precipitation Equator warmest place air rises at intertropical convergence Zone ITCZ Convergence zone trade winds northeast and southeast that ows towards the equator Correolus effect Winds are named in direction of their origin opposite for ocean currents ITCZ moves annually N and S with changing seasons Land heats upcools off must faster than water High pressure D descending air amp Low pressure D ascending air Trooical Rainforest Characteristics 0 Occur within 10 degrees latitude of equator 0 Little variation in temperature between months 0 Annual rainfall 20004000 mm 10cmmonth 0 Minimum monthly temp of 18 o Quickly leaches soil nutrients soils 39poor39 quality 0 Nutrients are in plants and animals NOT soil 0 All nutrients are locked up In biomass 12 of global land area 17milion km2 mainly South America Africa U SE Asia Harbor staple foodsmedicines for world39s human populations this biome is exploited High biodiversity Precipitation is the input Losses by direct evaporation or transpiration through the plants as well taking up of soil water D roots D xylem D stoma Tropical rain forest trees have the DEEPEST roots for yearlong water 0 70 of tree roots are in top 03meters of soil depth Transpiration water moves up plant trunks and stems Soil D roots D leaf D atmosphere low vapor pressure quot Cavitation quot 0 Each stage in the pathway has a lower potential energy Trunk tree Hydralic Lift Xylem dead cells negative water potential cohesion of water molecules adhesion to xylem cell walls Tropical rainforests creates a humid environment and precipitation Higher Leaf Area Index LAI results in higher rainfall Higher evapotranspiration results in higher rainfall Rainforests create their own precipitation effectively DOUBLE it Water needs amp land type in Brazilian Rainforests Brazil contains 30 of the global tropical forests Legal Amazon 5000000 km2 Forest harvest create roads that ranchers and farmers utilize deforestation Some regions are designated for no logging and farming Global deforestation in temperate amp tropical biomes most current deforestation is in tropical rainforests Causes in Brazilian Amazon Cattle ranching 6570 Smallscale agriculture 2025 Largescale agriculture 510 Logging 23 Other 12 Soil Characteristics 0 Climate vegetation topographic position parent material soil age Rainforest Soil Types three general classi cations throughout humid tropics 1 Ultisols a Highly weathered no calcium b Red cay soils iron oxides end product of weathering without formation of new soil Very acidic pH lt5 Agriculture requires calcium superphosphate lime Minerals leached from upper parts of soils by high rain amounts Aluminum is toxic to plants most individual farmers cannot afford to grow things because so much fertilizer is required 2 Oxisols Deeply weathered subtropics lt10 weatherable minerals very acidic Lack organic matter minerals Hold water rubber cultivated with high fertilizer input Reddish color due to iron amp aluminum oxides which bind to phosphate P04 3 Al sols Comprise 71 of land surface in humid tropics worldwide 0 Only 15 of moist tropical forests moderately fertile in young soils of recent region Rainforest soils are acidic low nutrient content rhme Dunc91 Terra Preta Soils of Amazonia Dark anthropogenic soil with organic matter in Amazonia Charcoal low temp manure bone added high nutrients Pre Columbia 4SOBC950AD formation in 39slash and char39 agriculture 20900 hectares in size at former settlements near Amazon River Exception rainforests on Maraca Island in Brazil Mineral Cycling in Low Nutrient Soils Up to 26 of roots near the surface Root mats are several cm thick near surface Root mat amp mycorrhizae fungi directly absorb available materials 999 of Calcium amp Phosphorus absorbed into root mat in Amazon Presence of buttresses may allow roots to spread widely at surface where they reclaim minerals Nutrient Retention Adaptations Surface rootsmats Apogeotropic roots roots grow upward from soil onto stems of neighboring trees absorb nutrients leached from trees from throughfall Arrested litter epiphytes amp understory plants catch litter from canopy Canopy leaves algae amp lichens on leaves absorb nutrients from rainfall and trap on leaf Buttress root structure provides stability for shallow roots at surface Why rain forest soils don39t support continuous crops 1 Aluminum in acidic tropical soil is soluble and toxic to plant life In temperate latitudes soil pH is neutral basic Aluminum is no toxic 2 Relative importance of acid soils is greatest in latin America 3 Tropical countries farmers conduct slashandburn agriculture cannot buy lime to correct the pH a Original plant life is burnt The plant ash neutralizes the acidic soil and makes the area acceptable for food plants b In time acidity increases and the only native plants will grow forcing the farmer to move on and clear a new area Soil color reddish in humid areas is related to oxidation that has occurred in the soil with red soil being the result of iron oxidation Yellow soil is a result of aluminum oxidation Rainforest Canopy Typically several vertical layers understory canopy Horizontal patchiness o Felled trees create light gaps o 12 trees die annually 0 quotkeyholequot shape with greater than 2000umo quanta 0 pioneer species and young trees grow rapidly via Fiscu o seedlings mortaliy is greater than 90 Flat canopy maximizes sunlight capture Biomes Tropical Rainforest ll Tropical Rainforest Productivity Canopy structure leaf adaption to light sun vs shade Rainforests Carbon Sources or Sinks o Eddy Covariance estimates Rainforest Global Impacts Terrestrial Area 12 land mass 0 South Central America Amazon basins gtgt Africa Congo River basin gtgt SE Asia Islands Canopy upper relief Canopy tops vary 40 meters 0 Dark is low light is high 0 Lowest point 35 meters to ground Pioneers in light gaps Ficus insipida highest productivity of any tree is gtgt 300umol Biodiversity many tree species forest dynamism Can be greater than 250 species for every 500 trees 0 As a rate of tree replacement increase dynamism the more species exist in a given area 0 13 of trees die amp replaced annually inherently high productivity may be a factor Trees early to late succession Different species reduce light at different rates Rainforest Understory 510 canopy light intensity 0 Very humid Plants adapted to lowlight house plants live here Conventional wisdom has long held that tropical rainforests act as a sink for carbon dioxide cleansing the atmosphere of a major greenhouse gas Tropical rainforests carbon ux do show seasonality Biomes Temperate Forests Temperate Forests 1 Deciduous broad leaf and coniferous evergreens 2 Only 34 species per km2 3 Fertile soil litter on forest oor remineralized slower than in tropics 4 Distinct seasons deciduous leaf abscission Temperature amp precipitation are major determinants of global plant composition productivity Temperate deciduous 12 meters rain per year amp 520 degrees Celsius Associated with low seasonal variation in precipitation 0 Moderate variation in temperature Temperate coniferous associated with seasonal drought amp moderate variation in temperature Deciduous Tending to fall off Abscission layer red cells below forms between leaf petiole amp stem 0 When auxin supply from leaf and stem is unequal cells elongate and leaf separates Cells seal the wound Leaf Carbon amp Nitrogen stored as protein in vacuoles of parenchyma cells in roots amp inner bark Temperate Forest Old Growth Lie between 4050 degrees latitude Rainfall averages 6502000mm Fertile soils 0 Long growing seasons dominated by deciduous plants 0 Short growing seasons dominated by conifers Biomass production can be very high 0 Many major human population centers deforestation Heavily exploited for timber fuel Structure several distinct strata or layers 1 Tree stratum 60 100 feet high dominated regionally by various genera 2 a small tree or sapling layer younger specimens of the tall trees with species limited to this layer such as in Virginia Allegheny serviceberry or shadbush sourwood dogwood and redbud 3 a shrub layer often with members of the heath family such as rhododendron azaleas mountain laurel and huckleberries 4 an herbaceous layer of perennial 39forbs39 that bloom primarily in early spring see Gilliam paper in Week 7 folder 5 a ground layer of lichens clubmosses and true mosses Lichens and mosses also grow on the trunks of trees Soils are al sols with high organic matter humic content Forest Herbaceous Layer Gilliam contains about 80 of all forest plants 0 In uence which tree seedling survive In older stands canopy species are linked to herbaceous species in understory Although understory is 1 of forest biomass it contributes to 4 of NPP and greater than 10 litter nutrient input to soil Herbaceous community has major role in recovery from disturbance chronic acute Al sols Al Fe 0 Highly productive suitable for agriculture and forestry amp readily fertilized Present in North America following glaciation in cool to warm wet regions Have calys in subsurface layers 0 Little leaching so Calcium Potassium in high concentrations Tree growth declines with age 0 Highest reduction in boreal amp cold temperate forests Why Several possible mechanisms 0 Increased respiration as tree components change 0 Nutrient limitation o Stoma or water constraint Ryan and Yoder As age of trees in a stand increases the above ground NPP declines The peak value is for younger stands and oldest is always less typically by 50 Hypothesis Ryan amp Yoder 1997 1 Growth declines as respiration gt photosynthesis higher respiration need to support woody biomass 2 Growth declines as nutrients become increasingly scarce as trees age nutrients are mainly on forest oor as litter 3 Growth declines as meristem cell division decreases maturation hypothesis 4 Water transport decreases with age in plant hydraulic limitation a Hydraulic limitation increases with age as stoma close earlier in the day in older trees b Closing stomata increase resistance to water ow in aging trees c This results in reduced transpiration and eventually reduced ANPP HANNP How Is forest use amp area linked to human population A Humans have modi ed at least 32 of earth s land a Large amount of occupied land is pastures for raising animals b Forests have declined from 4030 200 years of land surface area B Over the past few decades a 44 of subSahara forest went to agriculture b 32 of forests in Latin America went to agriculture c 34 of forested land in SE Asia went to agriculture Why The Demographic Transition 0 De ned the gradual shift in birth and death rates from the primitive to modern condition in industrialized societies 0 Birth amp Death Rates Review 0 Crude Birth Rate CBR number of births per thousand per year 0 Crude Death Rate CDR number of deaths per thousand year 0 CBRCDR natural increase or decrease o CBRCDRlO percent increase or decrease Fuelwood and charcoal production is often the predominant use of woody biomass in developing countries and economies in transition Why deforestation Conversion to other uses agriculture palm oil pasture urbanization Fire insects disease Root causes poverty rewood illegal logging Offset by plantations and natural expansion Positive trend of a negative issue History of US Forests amp Forestry o In the Eastern US abandoned agriculture land has increasingly been the location for forest regrowth Concurrently forest land is the primary land type utilized for development as compared to agriculture land wetlands and grasslands Major decline in southern forests after Civil war lnitial agriculture expansion was mainly for cotton After Civil War industrial logging was for lumber including railroad ties that essentially ended by WWI Pine Plantations First few years saplings are dusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides N and P can increase wood production 0 Pole stage after canopy closes tree crowns are touching with tree growth is slowing due to competition 0 When composition becomes too intense when crown lt30 tree39s total height it is time to thin out o Rowthinning every third or fourth or fth row of trees is removed 0 Removed trees are delimbed forwarded to a mill 0 Used as pulp for paper or particle board and as chips for starnd board 0 Around 5060 years plantation is mature and falling in its growth curve 0 Forest is passing point of maximum wood growth per hectare peryear 0 Ready for the nal harvest all trees felled delimbed and taken to be processed Ground is cleared and the cycle is repeated Paci c Northwest Coastal Forests Why are the trees so big 1 Climate is wet mild winters amp dry warm summer with few destructive storms ANPP is 1525 tonnesha similar to other temperate forests PNS extends through winter so up to 50 new biomass added Oct to May 4 Reduced transpiration water loss compared to broadleaf deciduous a Less water stress in large conifers than deciduous trees Major nutrient nitrogen recycling in wet mild winter when conifers can acquire nutrients a Up to 90 of litter decay in winter b Needle leaf has 50 less N requirement than broad leaf c lt20 of conifer mass replaced each year while 50 in deciduous tree d conifer extracts up to 12N needs from old leaves in deciduous tree lt13 Urban Forestry bene ts to city 1 Energy bene ts from reduced air conditioning and reduced heating by shading buildings homes and roads 2 Absorbing sunlight and reducing UV light and cooling the air and reducing wind speed 3 Trees in business areas can increase worker productivity recruitment retention and satisfaction UJN U39l 4 Urban forests also improve air quality absorb rainwater improve biodiversity and potentially allow recycling to 20 of wood waste 5 Economic bene ts from urban trees include increased land property and rental value 6 Trees in business districts encourage consumer purchases and enhance residential commercial and public investments Biophilia hypothesis humans have a link to trees as genetically based emotional need to be close to trees and other greenery City trees are decreasing in some US cities and undergoing rapid development Natural disasters can reduce urban trees hurricane Katrina in New Orleans Temperate Forest ll Seasonal Productivity Average Temperate Forests is NPP lt Tropical Forests Why Shorter growth season Aboveground NPP as a function of mean annual temperature Deciduous trees drop leaves so limited if any NPP in winter Harvard Forest net ecosystem exchange in temperate forests varies with soil temperature Thus NEE summer gtgt NEE winter Net ecosystem carbon in ux increases as light and temperature rise in summer Conclusion this temperate forests is a net sink for Carbon in the summer reduced source in the winter Annual cycle of Net Ecosystem Exchange in a midwestern forest ecosystem Forest ecosystem respires in winter then begins net Carbon xation after leaf expansion starts in spring In summer the forest ecosystem PNS gtgt respiration Disturbances such as re or harvesting can reduce the ecosystem net carbon storage in temperate forests NEP indicates that temperate forests are sources of C02 to the atmosphere in fall to spring and large C02 sinks in summer Biomes Grasslands Steppe cold very low precipitation Temperate grassland peak in precipitation coincides with peak temperatures several months have mean minimum temperatures Winters usually cold and relatively dry Characteristics 0 Low precipitation wide temperature range 0 Located in continent interior or removed from oceanic sources of precipitation between forest and deserts accounting for gtgt 15 of terrestrial surface area 40 when including savannahs Frequent disturbances as re and drought suppress tree growth savannahs exist where trees mix with grass Grasses shrubs deeper roots herbs and succulents dominate Often in loess soils windblown relatively rich and deep soil 0 C4 species dominate where warm driest increase to south in Great Plains Grasses likely coevolved with large herbivores Grasslands and savannahs are less productive than tropicaltemperate forests because aboveground belowground productivity Grasses are very ef cient at harvesting light Clones of various sizes reduce available light to ltlt 20 within 40cm of top of canopy This effectively shades out competitors that might otherwise grow under the grace canopy Grasses typically have maximum light absorption when LAl reaches 34 Grasses contain phytoliths Greek plant stones 0 Rice wheat wild rice and cereals useful in archaeological studies plant food Si02 and opal deposited in crystalline structures Antiherbivore role for insects and mammals Present at 2 to 5 of leaf dry mass 0 Found in sediments from Devonian onwards Ogallala aquifer provides 30 groundwater for US agriculture Depletion rate rising due to agriculture demand for water North American Tallgrass Prarie East 0 Big bluestem rapid growth shades shorter grasses forage fed on by bison cattle late succession bioethanol Switch grass C4 plant biofuel lndian grass C4 plant so quick growth often used for prairie restoration Wet years high productivity high ANPP moves west Drought low productivity highest ANPP contracts eastward Gallery forest trees along river or stream in otherwise treeless landscape Annual res suppress the growth of trees and maintain grasses Grasses have basal meristems that permit them to withstand grazing res Meristem growth Grazing by herbivores bison elephants interact with re to alter grasslands and savannahs The interaction of the frequency of res and extent of grazing is complex Gradients exist for each factor that determine whether a grassland or savannah develops Effects of grazing on plant structure herbivores keep plants short At low NPP sheep dominate At high NPP cows dominate Husbandry why increase herbivores A quottopdownquot effect minimize predation herbivore Low predation gauchos protect cattle sheep Veterinary care less disease less parasites quotExtraquot energy to sustain ecosystem through sales Driest in south wettest in north where elephants roam Ecosystem supports a large herbivore mass as animals continuously migrate to renewed grasslands 1 Herbivores can increase ANPP a Enhanced growth rate b Faster nutrient cycling 2 Excessive grazing reduces biomass Agriculture amp Food I HANPP Food Crops grains gtgt 60 of the world39s food Rangelands meat supply 16 Oceans sh amp shell sh 7 1 Nutrition amp Human Health Food Energy Lack starvation marasmus Excess obesity diabetes cardiovascular disease Protein Lack kwashiorkor Excess rabbit starvation Vitamin A C Food amp Agriculture stats indicate there are 643 million hungry people in the world 98 are in developing countries 34 of hungry people live in rural areas primary villages of Asia amp Africa Root Cause of Hunger Basic cause of hunger is poverty 0 20 of the people on Earth suffer from the effects of hunger and malnutrition 0 Children are most at risk o It is more likely that a pet cat in the USA will be fed better than an undernourished child in SubSaharan Africa 0 Food production is generally linked to economics not nutritional needs of humans The poorest people pay a higher of income for food At present there is food enough for all yet 10 of the world39s population suffers from hunger amp malnutrition Hunger lack of basic food for energy and meeting nutritional needs Malnutrition lack of essential nutrients amino acids vitamins minerals Undernourishment lack of adequate food energy calories The problem is not of food production but distribution Where does food originate Main crops wheat corn and rice Animal husbandry sh beef pork and chicken Of all the foods only 14 plants and 8 animal species yield 90 of all calories consumed What is the state of world food supply Over the last 30 years food production has surpassed population growth Food is grown where there Is suitable soil and water Adding organic matter increases soil fertility Tropical soils are acidic unfavorable for crops Degraded soils in drylands result in overcultivation Nutritional Transition meat consumption increases with rising GDP This has led to more overweight people than underweight people Aquaculture 12 of wild caught sh A minimum of 3040 increase in food production is needed by 2050 Multiple Choice not open book 40 of the exam Open Answer Open Book 60 of the exam notecard is available for this
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