STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM #1
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Newman on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at a university taught by Jason Pienaar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 214 views.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Allie Newman BSC 216 Anatomy ll Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 17 18 19 Chapter 17 Required Reading Section 171 Read ALL but SKIP quothormone nomenclature Section 172 Read ALL Section 173 Read Table 175 Section 174 Read ALL Section 175 SKIP Section 176 SKIP Section 17 7 Read ALL but skip quotadrenal disorders 0 De ne hormone and endocrine system Endoc ne Hormonal communication Hormones released into blood stream General widespread effects Reacts slowly lsdays Stops slowly after stimulus ends Adapts slowly days to weeks Endocrine System 0 No ducts Fenestrated Capillaries Intracellular effects 0 Name the organs of the endocrine system Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus gland Parathyroid gland Adrenal glands Pancreas Gonads 0 Contrast endocrine with exocrine glands 0 Most exocrine glands secrete their products by way ofa duct onto an epithelial surface such as skin or mucosa of the digestive tract Endocrine glands are ductless and release their secretions into the bloodstream 0 Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems Page 631 in textbook Endocrine versus Nervous system Nervous Electrical impulses and neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters target speci c cells Local speci c effects Reacts quickly 110ms Stops quickly Adapts quickly to continuous stimulation Endoc ne 0 Hormonal communication Hormones released into blood stream General widespread effects Reacts slowly lsdays Stops slowly after stimulus ends Adapts slowly days to weeks 0 What are neuroendocrine cells 0 They act like neurons but like endocrine cells they release their secretions such as oxytocin into the bloodstream 0 Describe the anatomical relationships between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland Hypothalamus 0 Structure 0 Forms oor and walls of Brains39 3rd ventricle 0 Located below the thalamus just above the brainstem 0 Size of an almond o Shaped like a attened funnel 0 Function 0 Links nervous system to endocrine system via pituitary gland o Regulates primitive functions Water balance thermoregulation sex drive child birth etc I Most functions carried out by pituitary gland Pituitary Gland 0 Structure 0 Suspended from the hypothalamus by the infundibulum 0 Located in a depression of the sphenoid bone sella turcica 0 Size amp shape of a kidney bean 0 Two independent structures with independent origins Adenohypophysis anterior pituitary 0 Outgrowth of the pharynx Neurohypophysis posterior pituitary 0 Downgrowth from brain 0 Function 0 Hormones secreted from the Pituitary regulate Growth Blood pressure Sex organ functions Thyroid gland functions Metabolism Aspects of pregnancy childbirth amp lactation Osmolarity Thermoregulation Pain relief 0 Distinguish between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary Anterior roughly 34 of the pituitary o No nervous connection to hypothalamus but is linked by blood vessels hypophyseal portal system I Adenohypophysis anterior pituitary o Outgrowth of the pharynx 0 Posterior roughly 14 of the pituitary 0 It39s nervous tissue not an actual gland Neurohypophysis posterior pituitary 0 Downgrowth from brain 0 Explain how the pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus and its target organs 0 The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreting hormones that enter the primary capillaries travel down the venules and diffuse out of the secondary capillaries into the pituitary tissue 0 Use table 173 to understand the names and functions of the six hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones 1 Folliclestimulating hormone FSH a Secreted by gonadotropes b Stimulates secretion of ovarian sex hormones and developed of follicles that contain eggs stimulates sperm production in the testes 2 Luteinizing hormone LH aSecreted by gonadotropes bStimulates ovulation the release of an egg cStimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone important in pregnancy d Stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone 3 Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH H THYROTROPIN aSecreted by pituitary glands called thyrotropes bStimulates growth of thyroid gland metabolic rate body temperature etc 4 Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH H CORTICOTROPIN a Secreted by corticotropes bTarget organ is the adrenal cortex cStimulates the cortex to secrete glucocorticoids hormones iRegulation of glucose protein and fat metabolism 5 Prolactin PRL aSecreted by lactotropes pituitary cells role in lactation bDuring pregnancy lactotropes increase in size and number but no effect on mammary glands until after woman gives birth then it stimulates them to synthesize milk 6 Growth hormone GH H SOMATOTROPIN aSecreted by somatotropes most numerous of the anterior pituitary bPituitary produces at least a thousand times as much GH as any other hormone cStimulate mitosis and cellular differentiation thus to promote tissue growth d Target organs liver bone cartilage muscle fat 0 6 regulate adenohypophysis I 4 promote secretion of pituitary hormones 2 inhibit secretion of pituitary hormones Thyrotropin releasing hormone o Thyroid stimulating hormone amp prolactin 0 Corticotropin releasing hormone o Adrenocorticotropin hormone 0 Gonadotropin releasing hormone o Follicle stimulating amp Luteinizing hormones 0 Growth hormone releasing hormone 0 Growth hormone 0 Prolactin inhibiting hormone o Prolactin Somatostatin 0 Growth amp thyroid stimulating hormones 0 Use table 174 to understand the names and functions of the two hormones stored and released by the posterior pituitary and the names and functions of the six hormones made and secreted by the anterior pituitary 0 Antidiuretic hormone ADH o Increases water retention in the kidneys reduces urine volume and prevent dehydration 0 Functions as a brain neurotransmitter and is usually called arginine vasopressin AVP o Oxytocin OT 0 Variety of reproductive functions intercourse breast feeding etc 0 Target organs uterus and mammary glands 0 Labor contractions milk release ejaculation sperm transport sexual affection mother to infant bonding 0 Describe the effects of growth hormone Growth Hormone 0 Induces liver to produce Insulinlike growth factors IGF I and IGF II o IGF I prolongs the effects of growth hormone Growth hormone hal ife 10 min IGF I 20 hrs IGF ll mostly only involved in fetal growth 0 Growth hormone IGF I physiological effects 0 Increases protein synthesis suppress protein catabolism o Increases lipid metabolism in adipose tissue releases higher energy fatty acids into blood stream Protein sparing o Carbohydrate metabolism Glucose synthesis and glucose sparing o Electrolyte balance Na K amp CL retention by kidneys Ca2 absorption by small intestine 0 Growth hormone IGF I most conspicuous effects 0 Childhood Bone Cartilage amp Muscle growth 0 Adulthood bone thickening amp remodeling 0 GH secretion uctuates High during rst 2 hours of sleep Peaks in response to vigorous exercise GH secretion declines with age contributes to aging Lack of protein synthesis 0 Be able to list all organs other than the Hypothalamus and Pituitary that produce hormones page 648 Pineal gland thymus thyroid gland parathyroid glands adrenal medulla adrenal cortex pancreatic islets ovaries testes skin liver kidneys heart stomach and small intestine adipose tissue fat osseous tissue placenta o What tissues and organs have a secondary function of secreting hormones 0 Be able to list the source and principal effects of the following hormones Melatonin Thymopoietin Thyroxine and triiodothyronine Epinephrine norepinephrine and dopamine Aldosterone Cortisol Insulin and glucagon Estradiol and progesterone Testosterone Erythropoietin Angiotensin l Calcitriol Atrial natriuretic peptide Gastrin Cholecystokinin Leptin page 648649 in textbook Melatonin 0 Source Pineal gland 0 Effects may in uence mood and sexual maturation 0 Thymopoietin 0 Source thymus 0 Effects stimulate T lymphocyte development and activity roxine and triiodothyronine 0 Source thyroid gland 0 Effects elevate metabolic rate and heart production increase respiratory and heart rate strength of heartbeat stimulate appetite and accelerate breakdown of nutrients promote alertness and quicken re exes stimulate growth hormone secretion and growth of hair nails teeth skin and fetal nervous system Epinephrine norepinephrine and dopamine 0 Source adrenal medulla 0 Effects promote alertness mobilize organic fuels raise metabolic rate stimulate circulation and respiration increase blood glucose level inhibit insulin secretion and glucose uptake 0 Aldosterone 0 Source adrenal cortex 0 Effects promotes Na and water retention and K excretion and maintains blood pressure and volume 0 Cortisol 0 Source adrenal cortex 0 Effects stimulate fatprotein catabolism gluconeogenesis stress resistance tissue repair 0 Insulin and Glucagon 0 Source pancreatic islets 0 Effects Glucagon stimulates amino acid absorption glycogen and fat breakdown raises blood glucose and fatty acid levels Insulin stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake lowers blood glucose levels promotes glycogen fat and protein synthesis 0 Estradiol and Progesterone 0 Source ovaries oTh 39lt 0 Effects stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy prepares mammary glands for lactation Testosterone 0 Source testes 0 Effects stimulates fetal and adolescent reproductive development musculoskeletal growth sperm production and libido Erythropoietin 0 Source liver 0 Effects promotes red blood cell production increases oxygen carrying capacity of blood Angiotensin I 0 Source kidneys 0 Effects precursor of Angiotensin II a vasoconstrictor 0 Calcitriol 0 Source kidneys 0 Effects increases blood calcium level mainly by promoting intestinal absorption of Ca o Atrial natriuretic peptide 0 Source heart 0 Effects lower blood volume and pressure by promoting Na and water loss 0 Gastrin 0 Source stomach and small intestine 0 Effects stimulates acid secretion Cholecystokinin 0 Source stomach and small intestine 0 Effects bile release and appetite suppression 0 Leptin 0 Source adipose tissue 0 Effects limits appetite over long term 0 Identify the three chemical classes to which most hormones belong o Steroids monoamines and peptides Describe in general how the three types of hormones are synthesized No need to get into the detail of monoamine synthesis on pages 658660 0 Steroids l derived from cholesterol 4ringed steroid backbone 0 Sex steroids produced by testes and ovaries estrogens progesterone testosterone o Corticosteroids produced by adrenal gland cortisol aldosterone DHEA o Monoamines l melatonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan 0 Peptides l synthesized the same as any other protein 0 Chains of amino acids example insulin 0 Describe how hormones are transported to their target organs How do hydrophilic and hydrophobic hormones differ in their transport Can bound or unbound hormones leave the blood capillary 0 To get from an endocrine cell to the target cell a hormone must travel in the blood which is mostly water Hydrophilic most monoamines and peptides o Mixing with blood plasma presents no problem 0 Hydrophobic steroids and thyroid hormone o In order to travel they must bind to hydrophilic transport proteins albumins and globulins synthesized by the liver Bound hormone a hormone attached to a transport protein Unbound free hormone one that is not attached 0 Only the unbound hormone can leave a blood capillary and get to a target cell 0 Describe how hormones stimulate their target cells How do steroid and thyroid hormones stimulate their target cells Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic o Hormones stimulate only those cells that have receptors for them target cells 0 The receptors are proteins or glycoproteins located on the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm or the nucleus 0 They act as switches to turn certain metabolic pathways onoff when hormones bind to them Steroid hormones enter the target cell nucleus and act directly on the genes changing target cell physiology by either activating or inhibiting transcription of the gene for that metabolic enzyme or other protein 0 They are hydrophobic diffuse easily through the phospholipid regions of plasma membrane 0 Examples estrogen and progesterone Thyroid hormones l also acts on nuclear receptors 0 Enters the target cell by means of an ATPdependent transport protein 0 In general how do peptides and catecholamines stimulate target cells Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic o Peptides and catecholamines are hydrophilic and cannot penetrate a target cell so they must stimulate physiology indirectly 0 They bind to cell surface receptors which are linked to second messenger systems on the other side of the plasma membrane 0 What is enzymatic ampli cation How does this contribute to the potency of hormones and their actions 0 One hormone molecule triggers the synthesis of not just one enzyme molecule but an enormous number 0 Signi cant ampli cation enables a very small stimulus to produce a very large effect 0 Hormones are therefore powerfully effective in minute quantities 0 Their circulating concentrations are very low compared with other blood substances 0 Because of signi cant ampli cation target cells do not need a great number of hormone receptors 0 Explain how target cells regulate their sensitivity to circulating hormones How does upregulation differ from downregulation Tagret cells can adjust their sensitivity to a hormone by changing the number of receptors for it o Ubregulation a cell increases the number of hormone receptors and becomes more sensitive to the hormone 0 Example late pregnancy uterus produces oxytocin receptors preparing for birth 0 Downregulation the process in which a cell reduces its receptor population and thus becomes less sensitive to a hormone o This sometimes happens in response to longterm exposure to a high hormone concentration 0 Example adipocytes downregulate when exposed to high concentrations of insulin 0 Discuss how hormones are removed from circulation after they have performed their roles o Hormone signals must be turned off when they have served their purpose 0 Most hormones are taken up and degraded by the liver and kidneys and then excreted in the bile or urine some are degraded by their target cells 0 Hormones that bind to transport proteins are removes from the blood much more slowly than hormones that do not employ transport proteins 0 The rate of hormone removal is called metabolic clearance rate MCR o The length of time required to clear 50 of the hormone from the blood is the halflife o The faster the MCR the shorter the halflife 0 Explain some general causes and examples of hormone hyposecretion and hypersecretion o Hyposecretion l inadequate hormone release 0 Can result from tumors or lesions that destroy an endocrine gland or interfere with its ability to receive signals from another cell 0 Example a fractured sphenoid bone can sever the hypothalamo hyophyseal tract and prevent transport of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone ADH the resulting ADH hyosecretion disables the water conserving capability of the kidneys and leads to diabetes insipidus o Autoimmune diseases can also lead to hormone hyposecretion when endocrine cells are attacked by autoantibodies Hypersecretion l excessive hormone release 0 Some tumors result in the overgrowth of functional endocrine tissue Example pheochromocytoma tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine o Toxic goiter autoantibodies mimic the effect of TSH on the thyroid activating the TSH receptor and causing thyroid hypersecretion 0 Brie y describe some common disorders of pituitary and thyroid function Pituitary o Acromegaly l thickening of the bones and soft tissues with especially noticeable effects on the hands feet and face 0 Gigantism and Pituitary Dwar sm o Thyroid o Congenital Hypothyroidism l thyroid hyposecretion present from birth Can cause myxedema o Endemic Goiter l abnormality of thyroid de ciency of iodine o Hypoparathyroidisg l causes rapid decline in blood calcium level 0 Hyperparathyroidism l excess PTH secretion caused by parathyroid tumor 0 In more detail describe the causes and pathology of diabetes mellitus De ned as a disruption of carbohydrate fat and protein metabolism resulting in the hyposecretion or inaction of insulin 0 Signs and symptoms 0 Polyuria excessive urine output 0 Polydipsia intense thirst o Polyphagia ravenous hunger 0 Blood and urine tests can con rm diagnosis 0 Hyperglycemia elevated blood glucose 0 Glycosuria glucose in the urine 0 Ketonuria ketones in the urine 0 What is type 1 What is type 2 What are their causes and treatments 0 Type 1 l accounts for 510 of the cases in the United States 0 Begins with heredity usually diagnosed before age of 30 0 Patients require insulin to survive usually injected or through a pump 0 Meal planning exercise and selfmonitoring of blood glucose levels are important 0 Type 2 9095 of cases in the United States 0 Problem is not lack of insulin but rather insulin resistance Unresponsiveness of target cells to the hormone o Heredity if one of the causes runs in families l especially in twins 0 Ethnic groups high in Native Americans Hispanic and Asian 0 Risk factors include age obesity and sedentary lifestyle replacement of muscular tissue with fat 0 Develops slowly and normally diagnosed after age 40 although can come earlier due to young obesity in today39s society more body fat means less ef cient glucose uptake 0 Can be prevented through weight loss programs diet exercise etc Chapter 18 Required reading Bood is important thus you are responsible for reading all sections in Ch 18 0 Can you name at least 3 major functions of blood and provide examples 1 Transport aBlood carries oxygen from lungs to all of the body39s tissues bPicks up nutrients from digestive tract and delivers to body39s tissues cCarries metabolic waste to kidneys for removal dCarries hormones from endocrine cells to target cells 2 Protection aln ammation a mechanism for limiting the spread of infection bWhite blood cells destroy microorganisms and cancer cells cAntibodies and other blood proteins neutralize toxins and help destroy pathogens dPlatelets secrete factors that initiate blood clotting and other processes for minimizing blood loss 3 Regulation aBy absorbing or giving off uid under different conditions the blood capillaries help to stabilize uid distribution in the body bBy buffering acids and bases blood proteins help to stabilize the pH of the extracellular uids cShifts in blood ow help regulate body temperature by routing blood to the skin for heat loss or retaining it deeper in the body to conserve heat 0 What is a formed element 0 Cells and cell fragments including red blood cells white blood cells and platelets Membraneenclosed bodies with de nite structure visible with the microscope 7 kids of formed elements 0 Erythrocytes red blood cells 0 Platelets 0 And 5 kinds of Leukocytes white blood cells Granulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranulocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes What is plasma What types of things are dissolved in plasma see page 676 for descriptive table Mixture of water proteins nutrients electrolytes nitrogenous wastes hormones and gases 0 When blood clots and the solids are removed the remaining uid is blood serum 0 Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of the clotting protein brinogen Why is blood not a typical connective tissue Blood lacks collagen and elastic bers 0 What are the 3 primary cellular components of blood 0 Red blood cells Erythrocytes white blood cells Leukocytes and plasma and platelets Approximately what volume of blood does plasma occupy 0 55 0 Do erythrocytes have nuclei 0 No red blood cells loser their nucleus during maturation o What is the bene t of erythrocytes being attened o Maximizes the ratio of cell surface area to volume and thereby promotes the quick diffusion of oxygen to all of the hemoglobin in the cell 0 What is hemoglobin What is it composed of speci cally What is its function 0 The red pigment that gives a red blood cell is color and name 0 Known for its role in oxygen transport but also aids in transport of carbon dioxide and buffering of blood pH o Ironcontaining oxygentransport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates Each polypeptide chain bound to ringlike heme group Each heme group contains one iron atom 0 Each iron atom can bind reversibly with one molecule of oxygen 0 What is hematopoiesis Production of blood amp its formed elements 0 Where is most of the red bone marrow located Axial skeleton girdles epiphyses of humerus and femur ends of the bone 0 Can you describe the process of erythropoiesis including the types of stem cells from which erythrocytes are derived what commitment means what happens during the different phases when they eject the nucleus and why it s important to know how many reticulocytes are being produced 0 Erythropoiesis erythrocyte production 0 Normally take 35 days 0 Involves four major developments 0 Reduction in cell size 0 Increase in cell number 0 Synthesis of hemoglobin 0 Loss of nucleus and other organelles Begins when a hemopoietic stem cell HSC becomes an erythrocyte colonyforming unit ECFU 0 Which has receptors for erythropoietin EPO a hormone secreted by the kidneys 0 EP0 stimulates the ECFU to transform into an erythroblast o Erythroblasts multiply and synthesize hemoglobin 0 When this is completed the nucleus shrivels and is discharged from the cell 0 The cell is now a reticulocyte composed of ribosome clusters polyribosomes Reticulocytes leave the bone marrow and enter the circulating blood 0 Within a day or two the last of polyribosomes disintegratedisappear Cell is now a mature erythrocyte 0 Can you explain why it s important to maintain proper erythrocyte counts in the blood 0 Iron is a critical part of the hemoglobin molecule and therefore one of the key nutritional requirements for erythropoiesis Important because if not can lead to hypoxia oxygen deprivation or viscosity too many RBC39s 0 Which hormone is responsible for maintaining blood oxygen homeostasis eg correcting for hypoxia How does the process of maintaining blood oxygen homeostasis work Erythropoietin 0 Red blood count is maintained in a negative feedback manner 0 If the count should drop it may result in a state of hypoxemia oxygen de ciency in the blood l the kidneys detect this and increase their EPO output 0 How are erythrocytes destroyed Where does the iron go What are the heme pigments transformed into and where do they go for excretion They are engulfed by macrophages in the liver spleen amp bone marrow o Hemoglobin is broken down a It is bound to tranferrin amp released to the liver as needed for erythropoesis Degraded to bilirubin and goes to intestine for excretion What is anemia and can you distinguish between the major types see page 683 A decrease in bloods oxygen carrying capacity Anemia l lack of ef cient working m blood cells 3 types of anemia Inadequate Erythropoiesis Anemia o Kidney failure erythropoietin 0 Iron de ciency 0 Vitamin 812 de ciency o Pernicious anemia antibodies destroy stomach tissue happens often in the elderly Gastric bypass surgery Two types of inadequate erythropoiesis anemia Hypoplastic Aplastic o Hemorrhagic Anemia bleeding out anemia 0 Excessive blood loss Ebola complex but results in blood loss also hemolytic Viper venom and some insects Menstruation Haemophilia disease of excessive bleeding Hemolytic Anemia o Sickle cell anemia I HbS low oxygen af nity o Agglutination causes sickle shapes 0 Destruction in spleen DO 0 Malaria Parasites destroy host cells erythrocytes Infected cells are destroyed in the spleen Adhesive proteins and sequestration Cerebral malaria almost always fatal l parasite gets into brain 0 Do leukocytes possess nuclei and organelles Yes o What is the main role of leukocytes Combat diseases derived from bacteria viruses parasites toxins and cancerous cells 0 What is diapedesis and how does it relate to the primary function of leukocytes Ability of white blood cells to travel out of capillary into tissues 0 In ammatory response 0 What is positive chemotaxis and how does it relate to leukocyte behavior 0 Amoeboid motion triggered by chemical cues released by damaged cells 0 It is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas 0 How can you identify granulocytes under the microscope 0 Sphere shaped larger than erythrocytes and lobed nuclei 0 What are the 3 major types of granulocytes Their functions 1 Neutronhils aAggressive antibacterial cells destroy bacteria 2 Eosinophils a Kill parasitic worms 3Basoths aSecrete histamine and heparin bHistamine vasodilator that widens the blood vessels and speeds the ow of blood cHeparin anticoagulant that inhibits blood clotting and promotes mobility of WBC o What are the 2 major types of agranuloctyes Their functions 1 Lymphocytes a Mount immune response by direct cell attack antibodies T lymph amp B lymph 2 Monocytes aPhagocytosis iTransform into larger cells called macrophages 1They destroy dead or dying host and foreign cells 0 Which types of chemicals trigger leucopoiesis 0 Glycoprotein interleukins amp colony stimulating factors 0 Which type of primary stem cell gives rise to ALL leukocytes Hemopoietic stem cell 0 Which type of secondary stem cell gives rise to granulocytes and monocytes Myeloblasts amp monoblasts 0 Which type of secondary stem cell gives rise to the lymphocytes 0 Lymphoblasts o How does the differentiation process differ for granulocytes and monocytes o Granulocytes circulate for 48 hours and migrate into tissues to live for 45 days o Monocytes travel for 1020 hours and transform into a variety of macrophages and can live for years 0 How does the differentiation process differ for monocytes and lymphocytes Monocytes can live as long as a few years amp transform into macrophages Lymphocytes can live from few weeks to decades continually recycled o What are platelets Which hormone triggers their development What kind of stem cell are they derived from What is unique about the megakaryocyte Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes Thrombopoietin hormone that triggers their development Derived from megakaryocytes help prevent bleeding l platelets have no nucleus 0 It can duplicate its DNA repeatedly without undergoing nuclear or cytoplasmic division 0 De ne hemostasis 0 Blood clot formation to stop blood 0 What is the rst step of hemostasis What exactly is a vascular spasm and how does it prevent blood loss 0 Vascular spasms and constricts damaged blood vessel 0 Vascular constriction The rst step takes effect almost immediately after there has been a break in the blood vessel and may even occur with injury to the blood vessel without a tear 0 Constriction of the blood vessel that is torn starts almost immediately after the injury 0 Since blood vessels have smooth muscle in it wall re exes narrow the lumen of the blood vessel thereby drastically reducing blood ow through the vessel 0 Firstly the injury causes the local myogenic re exes to take effect thereby causing vascular spasm Then the chemicals like thromoxane A2 released by vessel wall injury and platelets further contributes to the constriction These are known as local autacoid factors 0 Lastly sensory impulses possibly pain stimulate nerve re exes to promote vasoconstriction o How does a platelet plug form What s the role of collagen Platelets grow long spiny pseudopods that adhere to the vessels and other platelets The pseudopods then contracts and draw the walls of the vessel together Collagen attracts and activates platelets Adhere to blood vessel and platelets 0 What is the general series of events that promotes brin mesh formation beginning with the platelet plug and ending with a brin clot 1 Platelet phase formation of a platelet plug 1 Platelet aggregation and activation forms a plug before the blood clot 2 Coagulation phase blood clot formation 1 The formation of a blood clot provides a more long lasting plug 2 The clotting process involves the laying down of brin which reinforces the platelet plug 3 Fibrin is a long protein strand which forms from brinogen by the action of thrombin 4 The brin then forms a mesh network in which some blood cells and uid also get trapped along with the platelets 3 Fibrosis and brinolysis brous tissue growth or clot dissolution Once a clot forms the blood vessel wall will slowly heal The clot may either dissolve or form a patch of brous tissue scar The latter is usually only seen with a severely damaged blood vessel where broblasts enter the clot and causes organization Usually enzymes will dissolve the blood clot in a process known as brinolysis once the vessel wall is suitably repaired 9 ww Why is important to understand your blood type 0 If the wrong blood type is given the persons blood clumps and blocks tiny capillaries oxygen does not get to cells and without oxygen cells die 0 What is the antigen agglutinogen What is the antibody agglutinin o Antigen Complex molecules such as proteins glycoproteins and glycolipids unique to each individual 0 Antibody l Detects antigen of foreign origin 0 What types of antigens and antibodies are found in people with A B AB and 0 blood types Type A AntiB antibodies Type B AntiA antibodies Type AB 0 No AB antibodies Type O o AntiA amp AntiB antibodies 0 If asked whether a certain blood type eg A could be donated to a person with another blood type eg AB would you be able to tell me if they are compatibleand why 0 Type A can donate to type AB because type AB is considered the quotuniversal recipientquot Lacks both A amp B antibodies 0 Won39t agglutinate any Donor type transfusion 0 Could you do the same as in the above bullet when adding Rh antigens into the mix 0 Can you describe why it is important to consider Rh factors in couples that plan to have a child Rh individuals will mount an immune response to the quotforeignquot Rh protein of Rh individuals o Transfused blood might be rejected if Rh status is not considered Chapter 19 Required Reading 0 Section 191 All Section 192 All but save detailed identi cation of structures for the LAB Most important to know terms and understand blood ow through heart Section 19 3 All Section 194 All Section 195 SKIP Section 196 SKIP o What is the medial thoracic cavity in which the heart sits Mediastinum o What is the membranous sac surrounding the heart Pericardium Where are the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium located Parietal layer l outerwall amp lining of the pericardial cavity Visceral layer l epicardium amp covering of the heart innerwall What is the function of serous membranes and associated uid 0 To reduce friction 0 Can you identify the right and left atria and ventricles of the heart see page 714 in textbookll left Atrium I Left 39 J J 39 Ventricle Right quot Ventricle 0 Which internal structures divide the right and left atria and ventricles o Separates left and right atria interatrial septum 0 Separates left and right ventricles interventricular septum 0 Which external structures can you use to delineate the atria from the ventricles o Right amp left coronary artery 0 Which external structures can you use to delineate the two ventricles of the heart Posterioranterior interventricular artery 0 Do atria receive or discharge blood The atria of the heart receive blood returning to the heart from other areas of the body 0 Starting at the right atrium can you describe the ow of blood through each structure of the heart ending at the aorta see page 717 for steps 1 Blood that has circulated through the body which has lost its oxygen and collected carbon dioxide enters through the vena cava into the right atrium of the heart 2 The right atrium contracts and pumps the blood through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle 3 The right ventricle then pumps blood through the pulmonary artery into the lungs 4 In the lungs tiny blood vessels called capillaries absorb carbon dioxide from the blood and replace it with oxygen 5 Oxygenated blood then ows through the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium 6 Oxygenated blood then pumps through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle 7 The left side of the heart contracts the strongest to send blood out the left ventricle and through the aortic arch on its way to all parts of the body At this point there are a few options for the blood ow blood can be pumped through the carotid artery and into the brain 0 through the auxiliary arteries and into the arms 0 through the aorta and into the torso and legs 8 Blood will then move through the arteries then through capillaries and then return through the veins 9 Deoxygenated blood blood without oxygen will then return to the heart 0 From which veins does the right atrium receive blood And where are these veins bringing blood from o The right atrium receives blood from the inferiorsuperior Vena Cava From which veins does the left atrium receive blood And where are these veins bringing blood from o The left atrium receives blood from the Pulmonary Vein O 0 Do ventricles receive or discharge blood 0 Discharge blood 0 Where does the rightventricle pump blood to Pulmonary trunk Where does the leftventricle pump blood to The aorta out into the body 0 What are the papillary muscles Where are they located They prevent the AV valves from ipping inside out or bulging into the atria when the ventricles contract Located on the oor of the ventricles Starting at the right ventricle can you take me through the pulmonary and systemic circuits of blood ow Blood in right atrium ows through right AV valve into right ventricle Contraction of right ventricle forces pulmonary valve open Blood ows through pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk Blood is distributed by right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it unloads Cos and loads 02 Blood returns from lungs via pulmonary veins to left atrium Blood in left atrium ows through left AV valve into left ventricle Contraction of left ventricle forces aortic valve open Blood ows through aortic valve into ascending aorta Blood in aorta is distributed to every organ in the body where it unloads 02 and loads C02 Blood returns to right atrium via vernae cavae Right ventricle gt pulmonary trunk gt lungs Left ventricle gt aorta gt body 0 What is the primary difference between arteries and veins Veins carry the deoxygenated blood back to the heart Arteries carry the oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body 0 What are the differences in anatomy between the left and right ventricles Why Left ventricle wall is larger because pressure is much higher in systemic circuit 0 Higher pressure harder pump 0 Why must the heart have its own set of coronary arteries and veins It has to have a blood supply for itself too 0 Which arteries branch from the left coronary artery Circum ex anterior interventricular posterior interventricular 0 Which arteries branch from the right coronary artery Marginal artery 0 Into which atrium does the coronary sinus empty 0 Right Atrium 0 Which vessels merge into the coronary sinus 0 Great cardiac vein middle cardiac posterior interventricular vein small left marginal vein 0 What causes myocardial infarction Why is it important to catch artery blockage before a heart attack occurs Plaque build up in coronary artery blocking blood ow amp oxygen to the heart a Dangerous because it damages heart tissue 0 In which direction does blood ow within the heart Flows from artia to ventricles o What is the primary function of the atrioventricular AV valves To control ow between the atria and ventricles and prevent back ow Where are the AV valves located Between each atrium amp its ventricle The exit from each ventricle into its great artery 0 What is the main anatomical difference between the tricuspid and mitral valves Tricuspid Valve l located between right atrium and rightventricle 0 Has three cusps Mitral Valve l located between left atrium and left ventricle 0 Has two cusps 0 Which of the AV valves is located between the right atrium and right ventricle o Tricuspid 0 Which of the AV valves is located between the left atrium and left ventricle 0 Mitral o What is the function of the papillary muscles and chordae tendinae heart strings Function of Papillary Muscles and Chordae Tendinae l l prevent the AV valves from ipping inside out or bulging into the atria when the ventricles contract 0 Can you describe how the AV valves operate to prevent blood back ow into the atria 0 Blood return to the heart lls atria putting pressure against AV valves AV valves are forced open a As ventricles ll AV valve aps and hang limply into ventricles artia contract forcing blood into ventricles 0 Where are the semilunar valves located a The end of the great arteriesventricles o What is the primary function of the seminlunar valves 0 Control owprevent back ow into the great arteries Open and close because of blood pressure and ow 0 Which of the semilunar valves is located between the left ventricle and the aorta o Aortic Valve 0 Which of the semilunar valves is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery 0 Pulmonary Valve 0 How can cardiac muscle be distinguished from skeletal muscle 0 lntercalated discs 1 interdigitating discs connect heart cells together 2 mechanical junctions 3 electrical junctions What is the function of intercalated discs Desmosomes Gap junctions lntercalated Discs join cardiocytes end to end Desmosomes Most important 0 Weldlike mechanical junctions between cells 0 Prevents cardiocytes from being pulled apart Gapjunctions allow ions to ow between cells basically pores o What is the bene t for cardiac muscle of having lots of mitochondria Fatigue resistance 0 How can the heart contract independent of nervous stimulation and in a coordinated manner Gap junctions that connect cardiac muscle cells electrically amp an quotin housequot conduction system 0 Intrinsic cardiac conduction system c It has an internal pacemaker and nerve like conduction pathways so outside stimulation is not needed 0 What are the 5 locations for autorhythmic cardiac cells Are autorhytmic cardiac cells contractile What is their main function 0 1 SA node on the top of the right atrium 2 The AV node on the interatrial septum 3 AV bundle bundle of His 4 Forks into left and right bundles 5 Purkinje bers They are noncontractile Function Spread through ventricular myocardium Specialize in distributing electrical impulse throughout the heart 0 Which ion leaks through open channels in the autorhythmic cardiac cells to generate a slow depolarization current the pacemaker potential Na sodium 0 Which ion is responsible for the rapid rise in membrane potential action potential associated with muscle contraction Ca2 calcium 0 Can you take me through the series of events involving authorhythmic cardiac cells that is responsible for propagating impulses from the SA node to the ventricles Signal from SA node stimulates both atria slows down at AV node travels quickly through AV bundle and purkinje bers then the whole ventricular depolarizes and contracts in near unisom 0 Why is the propagation of impulses delayed at the atrioventricular node To let atria empty before ventricles contract Thin cardiocytes and fewer gap junctions it does allow ventricles to ll up 0 In addition to the authorhythmic cells which other factors in uence heart contraction eg the rate and force with which the heart contracts 0 Higher frequency of contractions make contractions stronger Sympathetic nervous system amp parasympathetic nervous system 0 Which heart behavior does the Pwave of an EKG correspond to 0 SA node res Atria depolarize amp contract 0 Which heart behavior does the QRS complex of an EKG correspond to o Ventricular depolarization Which heart behavior does the T wave of an EKG correspond to o Ventricular repolarization and relaxation 0 Can you tell me which authorhythmic regions are associated with the Pwave and QRS complex of an EKG SA node and AV node 0 What is systole o Atrial or ventricular contraction What is diastole Atrial or ventricular relaxation
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