Psych 105 Exam 1 Studyguide
Psych 105 Exam 1 Studyguide Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Study nish 1 Chaplm 1 g and 4 Chapter 1 Intro to Psych Research Methods lmportant things to know form chapter 1 0 Major experiments perspectives and schools people 0 Research concepts and definitions 0 Know your independent and dependent variables theory is different than hypothesis sample vs population different experiments from text booK YQJQALBMLALQWEERMSJ YJMIJ SMQIJIJLIQ KEJQJW 2143st Hypothesis Variable Descriptive Experimental Statistics methods methods Statistically Ivleta analysis Useful for Theory Descriptive significance replication Experimental Representative Correlational Correlational Positive sample design coefficient correlation Negative Reverse Experiment Independent Dependent correlation causation Variable IV Variable DV Confounding Random Experimental Control group Single Blind Variable CV assignment group Double Blind Informed Sample vs Consent population STEPS 1390 139quot SCIENTIFIC METHOD Words and terms are highlighted in yellow l Formulate a testable hypothesis a Toollt two research questions and paired them down to testable hypothesis last class I specific informed and testable prediction about the outcome in a research design 1 A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables ii A factor that can varychange in ways that can be observedmeasured 1 Things that you re manipulatingobserving n your research Hypothesis predict chanae in variables 2 Design The sTudy dnd coecT The dde d MusT decide wth Type of design you ll use I observingdescribing behdviour ii deliberdTely monipuldTing one fdcTor To show Tth one voridble offecTs dnoTher iii COLLECT if we do someThing dnd noT coecT dde if is noT on experimenT buT on inTervenTion 3 Andlyse The dde dnd drdw conclusions 0 95 occurdcy is wth we ore looking for in socidl science i dehedeics used by resedrchers To orgdnize summdrize inTerpreT dde moThemoTicol indicoTion Tth resulTs did noT lilltely occur by chdnce i If if is if supporTs The hypoThesisl iii pooling The resulTs from mulTiple sTudies info or single dndlysis 4 ReporT The findings 0 Even if you foil Terribly This woy oTher don T hove To go Through The some problems you did b Publish reporT c MusT describe sTudies occurdTely d repedT The sTudy To incredse confidence in findings Remember There ore 4 sTeps To The scienTific meThod Edch sTep is process In psychology 95 occurdcy is The minimum gool HypoTheses predicT chdnge in voridbles Your Nofes EH H tentative explanation that tries to integrate various findingobservations into one explanations Theories are not absolute 0 Have not been wrong so far 0 They change with sciencenew evidence 0 Create a current coherent picture 0 Theories can all be challenged Research Strategies strategies for observing and describing o Naturalistic observation 0 Case studies 0 Surveys 0 Correationa methods strategies for inferring cause and effect relationships among variables Correlation and causation are not the same Interview and survey 0 Involves asking people questions about what they think or feel or how they behave 0 Questions are asked the same exact way to each respondent 0 Additional limitations 0 May not have a Correllationall Studies 0 studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another 9 Correlation not the same as causationlllllll o a statistic ranging from l to i that assesses the strength and direction of an association of two variable o one goes up the other goes up As one increases the other increases As one decreases the other decreases o one goes up the other goes down As one variable goes up the other goes down As of ciggs goes up health goes down CausaliTy misTalltes o The more firemen fighTing a fire The bigger The fire is observed To be Therefore firemen cause fire o incorrechy sTaTing ThaT an effecT occurs before iTs cause a As ice cream sales increase The raTe of drowning deaThs increases sharply Therefore ice cream causes drowning o Third variable inTerface off a Third variable Remember CorrelaTion DOES NOT eaual causaTion Theories are differenT Than hypoThesis The differences beTween The Types of correlaTion Your NoTes ExperimenTal sTudies a research design ThaT includes independenT and dependanT variables o One variable is manipulaTed while anoTher is measured wiTh effecTs indicaTive of causaTions o ParTicipanT are randomly assigned To conTrol The experimenTal groups BenefiTs o Can infer cause LimiTaTions o ResulTs come from a highly conTrolled usually unnaTural seTTing and are Therefore less generalizable a properTy ThaT is manipulaTed by The experimenTer under conTrolled condiTioned To deTermine wheTher iT causes The predicTed ouTcome o The ouTcome or response To The experimenTal manipulaTion Try To keep IV and DV separaTe o a variable whose influence on The DV cannoT be separaTed from The IV Things ThaT mess up your sTudy for you wiThouT you having To do anyThing 0 ex when There are cancer sTudies ThaT you have To have a very specific cancer of a cerTain sTage paTienTs docTors families eTc Lie abouT where They are so They can geT poTenTial TreaTmenT o meThod used To assign The parTicipanTs To differenT research condiTions so ThaT all parTicipanTs have The some chance of being in any group 0 LimiTs The impacT of confounding variables 0 A group of parTicipanTs who receive 0 The TreaTmenT or whaTever is predicTed To change behaviour 0 a group of parTicipanTs who are TreaTed The exacT same as Those in The experimenTal group buT are noT subjecT To TreaTmenT of The independenT variable 0 May receive placebo Any lltnowledge ThaT parTicipanTs and or experimenTers have abouT The experimenTal condiTions To which The parTicipanTs have been assigned can affecT The ouTcome To The experimenT also known as a Bias sTudies in wish parTicipanTs do noT know There group assignmenT sTudies in which boTh The parTicipanTs and The experimenTers do noT know The parTicipanTs group assignmenTs Psycholoqv and EThics Research Helsinllti accords following world war 2 BelmonT ReporT Human subjecTs guidelines 0 NoT laws guidelines IRB lnTernal Review Board 0 Composed of knowledge peers across deparTmenTs and communiTy members To review research proposals acTive research and The resulTs of research 0 WSU s IRB link available online To all sTudenTs APAAmerican Psychological Associafion o lncorporaTed in T925 0 CreaTed a commiTTee To deal privaTely wiTh complainTs of uneThical conducT in 1938 o FirsT version of The APA EThics Code was published in 1953 0 Revised many Times 9 and counTing since Then Research wiTh Humans 1 Informed Consenf a WhaT The sTudy is abouT b WhaT parTicipanTs will do How long it will take Risks and benefits Who to contact with questions Withdrawal is possible at any time Requires signature of adults and legal guardians for minors 2 Respect for persons a Study must safeguard the dignity and autonomy of participants b Extra cautions must be taken for special populations i Eg children and prisoners 3 Beneficence a Costs for participants must be minimised and benefits maximized b Deception should be avoided whenever possible c Welfare of the research participant is the goal d Study must also contribute to bettering society 4 Privacy and confidentiality a Response are kept confidential b Participants identities are not linked to their response 5 Justice a Benefits and cost must be distributed equally among participants TthQ O 0 Research with animals o Hiahly controversial o Animals cannot give consent Videos on experiments we watched in class links available Bullet points are a brief of the video The Tuskeaee Syphilis Proiect 0 Was originally supposed to last 1 year but they liked the data so they kept it going 0 No one lived longer than 3 years o In the 1940 s they discovered that penicillin was a great cure for syphilis o There were those with were still in the experiment 0 This was ended in the 1970 s when exposed o In the 1990 s Clinton publically apologized for the study 0 Today the government is still paying for the medical care of the family of those participants due to the spread of the disease Stanford Prison Experiment 1970 s 0 Study held in psychology basements of Stanford university 0 How people respond to a cruel environment when there is no rules 0 Randomly chosen who was guards and who was prisoners o They chose the most normal form the psychological exam taken in the beginning o The prisoners where mock drresTed booked blind folded sTripped ndked puT in d smock dnd dnkle chdined Only colled by s o No body sTopped The guords from wth They chose To do 0 Guords sTdrTed To dcTu0y see The prisoners ds dongerous individuols o Guords begdn To humilidTe The prisoners wiTh sTrdnger dnd sTrdnger Tdsks o If The Tdbles would hove been Turned Then The guords would hove been The prisoners dnd vice d verso So The guords knew Tth The prisoners redlly didn T do dnyThing buT The power role wos Too much This losTed 6 ddys o The only redson iT sTopped wos becouse DrZimbdrdo wos ddTing d psychology grdd sTudenT Milqram Obedience ExperimenT o ExperimenT on humdn behdviour 0 Blind obedience To duThoriTy 0 Shock obedience experimenT 0 Row of buTTon Tth one person would inflicT on dnoTher shock volege o st origindlly ThoughT Tth There wos some hdrdwire issues wiTh The Germdn people However The experimenT never mode if To GermdnyiT didn T hove To 0 There wos only one redl pdrTicipdnT The vicTim knew dbouT The experimenT dnd wos cooched To dnswer wrongly dnd oppose The shock of ceerin voleges The only duThoriTy figure wos in d whiTe lob cooT o The resedrch ossisTdnT in The lob cooT would Tell The dcTudl pdrTicipdnT Tth if is essenTidl To conTinue dnd Tth Though The shock hurT iT wos noT dongerousregdrdless of The poin from The oTher person Keep in mind Tth mdny of The pdrTicipdnTs lefT ds soon ds They sow The shock mochine dnd seT up Harlow Monkey ExperimenT 0 Monkey orphdn sepdrdTed from moTher dT birTh o The monkey only hdd d sofT cloTh moTher Tth goT cledned once 0 ddy o STudied love becouse he ThoughT iT mode on impoernT impdcT on life 0 Monkey goT To choose beTween wired moTher Tth feds iT 0nd 0 cloTh moTher Tth provides comforT dnd wormTh 0 Monkey chose wire of firsT buT Then chose cloTh dnd sTdyed for 18hrs 0 They scored The bdby monkey To see wth iT would choose The bdby monkey chose The cloTh moTher 0 When monkey hos been rdised dlone when scored The bdby sTill sTdyed dlone insTedd of going To The cloTh Your Nofes ChapTer 2 Neuroscience and Behaviour VocabTerms from class Biologicol Neuron Cell body DendriTes Axon psychology Myelin shedTh Nodes of Syndpse Sensory InTerneurons Rdnvier Neuron MoTor neuron AcTion RefecTory Syndpse Syndeic gdp poTenTidI period ReupTdke Enzyme AuTo Peripherdl AuTonomic dedcTivoTion recepTors nervous nervous sysTem sysTem Medulld Cerebellum Pons Grey deTer WhiTe deTer oblonngd Limbic sysTem Thdldmus HypoThdldmus Hippocompus Amygddld Cerebrdl Froanl Occipdel Pdrierl Tempordl corTex NeuropldsTiciTy STrucTurdl Brocg s Werniclts PiTudery gldd pldsTiciTy dphdsid dphdsid The mdjoriTy of Terms are highlighTed in yellow ThroughouT mdny Types behdviourdl neuroscience neuropsychologisTs behdviour geneTics neuro psychologisT o nucleus wiTh chromosomes 0 receive info from The oTher cells 0 TrdnsmiTs info To oTher neurons muscles dnd gldnds o insuldTor mode of oligodendrocyTes d glid cell Structure of a Typical Neuron Dend39ite Axon terminal d 39L 1quot I f N Cell body jg Junction between one neuron s axon and 3 w w if Q Node of Ranv e at 04L another s dendritescell body I Q x 2 i Neurotransmitters cross the synapse 39 0 Plays a fundamental role in the i SChWEmH Gequot communication between neurons Myelin sheath Nucleus Types of Neurons Electrical charge gathered by dendrites and cell body Electrical charge travels down the axon to synapse Stimulates the release of neurotransmitters into synapse Occurs only when electrical signal is at a certain level threshold All or none electrical implse is the same no matter how much stimulation the neuron receives 0 Neuron returns to resting state after electrical charge is transmitted Electrical Communication 4 stages Peak action potential 30 1 Resting potential 2 Depolarization 3 Action potential 4 Repolarization Repoiarization Threshold of excitation l iy pierpoiarizatiori Membrane potential imvl Resting potentiai Time 0 The time following an action potential 0 Another action potential cant occur during the refectory period a After the action potential Your Notes Chemical Communication between Neurons point of communication between two neurons space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron Communication between neurons 0 Neurotransmitters can have different effects 0 Each receptors site only accepts specific kinds of neurotransmitters I A neurotransmitter can have multiple types of receptors 0 Reuptake recycling of leftover neurotransmitters o Excitatory and Inhibitory Messages 0 Excitatoryincreases the likelihood of activation of neuron o Onhibitory decreases likelihood of activation of neuron What happens to the neurotransmitters in synapse o neurotransmitters are absorbed back into the presynaptic neuron o neurotransmitter are broken down by enzymes in the synapse o neurotransmitters bind to autoreceptoers Types of Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine Ach lets you move malfunctions ADD ON ALL IN TABLE 0 Dopamine influence movement learning attention 0 Serotonin affects mood hunger sleep arousal o Norepinephrine helps controls alertness and arousal o Endorphins Boost mood lessens pain The Nervous System 0 Nervous system 0 Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord I Life sustaining functions coordinates thought emotion behaviour 0 Brain 0 Spinal cord connects brain and peripheral nervous system 0 Spinal reflex a simple involuntary behaver that is processed through the spinal cord first 0 carries messages to and from CNS I Somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles and transmits sensory info to CNS I Controls involuntary body functions 0 Sympathetic nervous system arouses body to expend energy 0 Organs stimulated to prepare for fightflight o Pupils dilate 0 Heart pumps faster 0 Lung pumps more 02 o Hormones released 0 Sweat produced 0 Organs shut down to conserve energy 0 Digestion shuts down 0 Salivation stops 0 Parasympathetic nervous system Calms body to conserve and maintain energy 0 Restores the body to normal resting state after arousal I Maintenance stage The Brain 0 Weighs about 3le 0 Uses 20 of your oxygen Structures of the Brain 0 Frontal lobe o Parietal Lobe o Occipital lobe o Cerebellum Your Notes Organizing the Brain Three major structures 0 Hindbrain o Involved in the bodies vital functions like breathing and heartrate o Contralateral control major pathways from the left side of body cross over to the right side of the brain and vice versa breathing swallowing heart rate learned and automatic motor function 0 connects the medulla to the cerebellum to help coordinate and integrate movements 0 Midbrain 0 Make up the brain stem 0 Contains structures involved in o Forebrain o Uppermost and largest region of the brain o Cerebral cortex 0 Subcortex limbic system 0 gial cells which support neurons and neuron cell bodies and axons giving it a greyish appearance white myelinated axons extending inward from the cerebral cortex emotion memory motivations memory COI ISCIOUSI IESS occur 0 routes sensory info biological needs Sleep hungerthirst sex body temp processing emotional info especially fear anger disgust Amygdala damage makes it difficult to identify facial emotion where much of human thought planning perception and 90 of human brain two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosun 4 lobes of Cerebral Cortex controls movement of muscles higherorder processing thinking planning etc 0000 receives tactile info receives and processes visual info receives auditory info THESE ARE IMPORTANT FOR THE TEST IF I HIT THIS WHAT HAPPENS Your Notes Phineas Gage Railroad spike through his brain Mostly damaged left frontal lobe He lived but Experienced personality changes 0 O 0 Less ambition o Irresponsible o Profane The dynamic brain plasticity and neurogenesis o No longer thought to be fixed for life 0 is the ability to change function and structure 0 Functional plasticity brain s ability to shift functions from damaged and undamaged brain areas 0 IMPUT DEFF 0 Researchers have concluded that in most people 0 Left hemisphere is superior in language abilities speech reading and writing 0 Right hemisphere is more involved in nonverbal emotional expression and visual spatial tasks Learning about the brain by studying damaged brain 0 Language left hemisphere important for test 0 speech impairment I Damage in small area of left frontal lobe broca s area 0 inability to understand languageproduce meaningful language I Damage in left Temporal lobe Wernicke s area Split brain research 0 Procedure cut corpus callosum o Allows for research investigating hemispheric specialization by sending messages to only one side of the brains o Hemispheric specialization o ExLanguage Left 0 Watch video on site The Endocrine System 0 Organization of glands that release and regulate bodily hormones o Hormones chemicals that travel in the bloodstream and carry messages to tissues and organ 0 Metabolism growth rate digestion blood pressure sexual development 0 master endocrine glad that controls the release of hormone from other glands from the body Brain Structures you should know 0 Four lobes and functions 0 Amygdala 0 Corpus callosum o Hippocampus o Cerebellum o Cerebral cortex 0 Thalamus o Hypothalamus How does this all come together 0 Developing brain YouTube video The Secret Life of the Brain The Baby s Brain minwmv 0 Video on baby s brain I 24 weeks the brain had millions and millions of neurons I Brain begins to wire itself from a very specific genetic blueprint I Eventually there will be trillions and trillions of connections 0 Nothing random nothing arbitrary I You use over 10 of your brain while comatose Your Notes Chapter 4 Addiction and the Brain Continued drug use sharply reduces the number of dopamine receptors in the brains reward system Dopaminefrom Tyrosine inhibitory o Receptors in the midbrain tegmentum cerebral cortex hypothalamus o In charge of pleasure reward movement attention memory 0 Cocaine meth amphetamine 0 Most drugs that are abused augment the dopamine reward pathway in some way Serotonin from tryptophan inhibitory o Receptors in Midbrain Tegmentum Cerebral Cortex Hypothalamus 0 Effects mood sleep sexual desire appetite 0 Ways to mess with serotonin o LSD Cocaine MDMA I Add to your serotonin levels they make more of it 0 That s why sex is great on ecstasy and sleep sucks 0 LSD makes you feel connected to everything you can become one with the chair Overflow of serotonin floods the entire brain 0 One of the few drugs known to cure schizophrenia Norepinephrine from Tyrosine Excitatory o Midbrain tegmentum cerebral cortex hypothalamus o Sensory processing movement sleep mood memory anxiety 0 Cocaine methamphetamine amphetamine Endogenous opioids inhibitory 0 Brain spinal cord many types of receptor types 0 Pain relief sedation rate of autonomic bodily functions mood o Heroin morphine oxycodone Percocet Vicodin o The amount of stress that your under varies the amount it takes for you to get high 0 Narcan opioid buster disinigrates all the opioids in your brain 0 Given to you in the hospital straps you down Acetylcholine o Hippocampus cerebral cortex thalamus basal ganglia cerebellum 0 Memory arousal attention mood o Nicotine mescaline 0 Everything is shiny and you can t focus 0 Don t do this with nicotine to reach to a mescaline level Endogenous Cannabinoids depends o Cerebral cortex hippocampus thalamus basal ganglia 0 Movement cognition memory 0 Marijuana 0 There s a limit to how much cannabinoids your receptors can take in Glutamate excitatory 0 One of the most common receptors in the brain 0 Causes increased neuron activity effects learning cognition memory 0 Ketamine phencyclidine Shrooms alcohol To get the most out of your drugs be awake empty stomach GABA inhibitory 0 Brain all over 0 Decreases neuron activity anxiety memory anaesthesia 0 Alcohol barbiturates benzodiazepines GHB Valium Xanax 0 Barbiturates are given as a right to die in Oregon Depressants 0 Alcohol 0 Ba rbitu rates 0 Inhalants o Tranquilizers Stimulants o Caffeine o Nicotine o Amphetamines o Methamphetamines o Cocaine Opiates depress o Opium o Morphine o Heroin o Methadone o Prescription painkiller Psychedelics o Marijuana 0 LSD o Mescaline Club Drugs synthetic stimulantshallucinogens used at dance clubs parties quotravesquot o EcstasyMDMA o Dissociative anaesthetics PCP Ketamine Recovery We will revisit later transcending addiction and redefining recovery Jacki Hillios TedTalk
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