New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

LING 202 Exam Study Guide

by: Kaylee Viets

LING 202 Exam Study Guide LING 202

Kaylee Viets
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Syntax and Semantics
Science of Language
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Science of Language

Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylee Viets on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LING 202 at University of Delaware taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Science of Language in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Delaware.


Reviews for LING 202 Exam Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/06/16
LING  202     3/16  –  Semantics:  What  it  all  Means     Uttering  a  sentence  =  making  a  move  in  a  game   1.   Making  a  move  has  a  certain  role  with  respect  to  the  rest  of  the  game   2.   Partly  governed  by  conventions  or  rules  but  some  room  for  creativity  is  often  allowed     A  lot  about  sentence  meaning  is  outside  the  bounds  of  linguistics  à  semantics  covers  linguistic  meaning   1.   This  includes  sentence  relations:  if  q  is  true,  will  p  be  true?  False?  Undetermined?       Entailment:   1.   Sentence  S1  entails  S2  just  in  case  of  any  possible  situation  where  (if  and  only  if)  S1  is  true,  S2  is   also  true   a.   In  making  these  judgments,  we  hold  the  context  fixed  à  a  name  refers  to  the  same  thing  in   S1  as  it  does  in  S2   b.   This  relation  just  involves  the  possible  situations  in  which  the  sentences  are  true,  and   doesn’t  involve  any  more  complicated  considerations  about  whether  the  two  sentences  are   relevant  to  each  other  in  any  other  ways   2.   Entailment  only  refers  to  truth  relation,  not  relevance,  so…   a.   I  have  a  dog   b.   I  have  an  obedient  dog   c.   Hydrogen  has  an  atomic  number  of  1   3.   2  entails  1,  1  does  not  entail  2,  and  3  (being  universally  true)  is  entailed  by  both     Compositional  semantics:  nouns   1.   Meaning  of  sentence  elements   a.   The  meaning  of  a  proper  noun  is  the  real-­‐‑world  person/thing  to  which  it  refers  [[Suzy]]  =   Suzy   b.   A  verb  is  placing  its  subject  into  a  set.  [[swim]]  puts  its  subject  in  the  set  of  swimmers   2.   Compositionally,  we  can  put  these  together   a.   [[Suzy  swims]]  is  true  when  Suzy  is  in  the  set  of  swimmers   b.   [[DP  T’]]  is  true  when  [[DP]]  is  in  the  set  [[T’]]   3.   We  can  use  entailment  to  continue  this  line  of  reasoning   a.   [[swims  peacefully]]  is  a  subset  of  [[swims]]   b.   “Suzanne  swims  peacefully”  entails  “Suzanne  swims”   c.   Of  a  proper-­‐‑name  DP  and  two  VPs  T’1  and  T’2,  if  T’1  is  a  subject  of  T’2,  then  [DP  T’1]  is  a   subset  of  [DP  T’2]   i.   The  VP  [[swims]]  is  a  subset  of  [[swims]]  or  [[does  not  swim]],  therefore  [Suzanne   swims]  entails  [Suzanne  swims  or  does  not  swim]   4.   Although  proper-­‐‑noun  DPs  have  real-­‐‑world  correlates,  many  DPs  are  relations  between  sets   [[NP]]  and  [[T’]]   a.   [No  NP  T’]  is  true  iff  (if  and  only  if)  nothing  in  [[NP]]  is  also  in  [[T’]]   b.   [Every  NP  T’]  is  true  iff  [[NP]]  is  a  subset  of  [[T’]]   c.   [The  NP  T’]  is  true  iff  there  is  a  particular  thing  (determined  according  to  context)  in   [[NP]],  and  that  thing  is  also  in  [[T’]]   d.   [Most  NP  T’]  is  true  iff  the  set  of  things  in  both  [[NP]]  and  [[T’]]  is  larger  than  the  set  of   things  that  are  in  [[NP]]  but  not  in  [[T’]]   e.   [Less  than  x  NP  T’]  is  true  iff  the  set  of  things  in  both  [[NP]]  and  [[T’]]  has  <x  elements     Adjectives:   LING  202     5.   Some  simple-­‐‑to-­‐‑compute  adjectives,  such  as  nationalities  are  intersectional   a.   [[French  singers]]  is  the  intersection  of  sets  [[French]]  and  [[singers]]   b.   An  adjective  A  (and  the  AP  it  forms)  is  intersective  if  [every  [AP  NP]  T’]  means  that  the  set   of  things  that  are  in  both  [[AP]]  and  [[NP]]  is  a  subset  of  [[T’]]   c.   Multiple  intersections:  “Conservative  female  French  singers.”   6.   Other  adjectives,  e.g.  sizes,  are  scalar,  only  making  sense  within  groups   a.   Compare  “a  small  elephant”  vs.  “a  big  spider”   7.   Negative  adjectives,  too,  can  only  be  understood  in  relation  to  their  NPs   a.   “a  fake  diamond”  only  tells  you  about  “fakeness”  vis-­‐‑à-­‐‑vis  “diamondness”   8.   Conjectural  adjectives  (“ostensible,”  “alleged,”  “possible”),  while  speaking  more  to   opinions/beliefs  of  the  speaker,  work  the  same  way,  but  even  less  understandable  outside  of  their   NPs     Review:   1.   To  determine  the  truth  condition  of  a  sentence  (i.e.  whether  it’s  true  or  false),  we  compile  the   words  of  the  sentence,  piece-­‐‑by-­‐‑piece   a.   [[Proper  Noun]]  =  its  referent  in  the  “real”  world   b.   [[N]],  [[V]],  or  [[intersectional  A]]  =  the  group  of  relevant  referents  (i.e.  the  things  they   refer  to)   c.   [[scalar,  negative,  conjectural  A]]  =  the  referents  for  that  A  within  a  given  [[NP]]   d.   [[D]]  determine  relationships  between  NP  and  T’  (which  is  what  we  would  call  VP  in  our   syntax)     3/21  –  Semantic  Perspectives  on  Determiners  etc.     Conservativity  in  Ds   1.   We  saw  many  different  determiners,  but  all  determiners  (in  all  languages),  from  “every”  to  “no”   refer  explicitly  to  their  NPs  à  they  are  conservative   a.   A  D  is  conservative  whenever  [D  N]  is  a  DP  in  a  sentence  [D  N  T’],  the  sentence  [D  N  T’]   entails  and  is  entailed  by  [D  N  is  a  N/are  Ns  that  T’]   b.   They’re  “conserving”  the  number  of  referents   2.   Stabler’s  hypothetical  D  “aln”  as  in  “aln”  platypuses  are  ordinary  things”  used  a  non-­‐‑conservative   D  which  would  have  referents  outside  of  the  relevant  [[NP]]     Pronouns   1.   Recall  our  PSRs  for  DPs:   a.   DP  à  Proper  noun   b.   DP  à  D  NP   c.   DP  à  Pronoun   2.   We’ll  focus  on  the  last  one  (DP  à  Pronoun)   3.   Its  meaning  can  be  derived  alinguistically,  in  which  case  it  is  a  referential  pronoun:   a.   (1)  Every  cowboy  knows  Rusty’s  lonely.   b.   (1’)  Every  cowboy  knows  he’s  lonely.   4.   But,  out  of  context,  1’  could  have  another  meaning,  indicated  with  co-­‐‑indexing  below:   a.   (2)  Every  cowboy  knowsi  he’s  loneli   5.   Not  only  are  the  pronoun  and  the  DP  co-­‐‑indexed  (assigned  the  same  referent),  the  pronoun  DP  is   bound  by  the  earlier  DP   6.   The  following  sentences  show  some  ways  in  which  pronoun  DPs  cannot  be  indexed/bound  (co-­‐‑ indexing  is  ungrammatical)   LING  202     a.   *  (3)  Every  cowboy  rides  alone.  He’s  lonely.   i i i.   “He”  here  cannot  refer  to  “every  cowboy”   ii.   A  DP  cannot  bind  a  pronoun  DP  in  another  sentence  à  the  second  sentence  employs   a  referential,  not  bound,  pronoun   iii.   Co-­‐‑referents  are  individualized  (not  syntactic  –  depend  on  the  speaker  and  what  is   on  their  mind)   b.   *  (4)  He i knows  every  cowboy  is  loiely.   i.   The  bound  pronoun  must  be  at  a  “lower”  level  of  syntactic  structure,  i.e.  in  the   syntax  tree   c.   *  (5)  Every  cowboy  and i every  cattle  rustler  knows  thjt  he’s  lonely.   j i.   The  binding  DP  must  be  at  a  “higher”  level  of  syntactic  structure   7.   To  be  precise  about  “higher”  and  “lower”  syntactic  structure,  we  introduce:   a.   DP c-­‐1  ands  (transitive  verb)  DP  if  either  DP 2 and  DP  are  1isters,  or 2 if  a  sister  of  the   DP  includes  DP   1 2 8.   We  can  now  state  our  precise  binding  requirement:   a.   An  antecedent  (preceding,  co-­‐‑indexed  element)  must  c-­‐‑command  a  pronoun  in  order  to   bind  it  (be  interpreted  as  referring  to  it)   b.   Will  this  notion  contribute  to  our  understanding  of  language?  Can  we  explain  what  we   could  not  explain  before?   i.   An  antecedent  must  c-­‐‑command  a  pronoun  in  order  to  bind  it.   1.   (2)  Every  cowboy  knows i he’s  lonely i  a.   Every  cowboy  is  a  DP  directly  connected  to  a  sentence   2.   *  (3)  Every  cowboy  ridesi  alone.  He’s  lonelyi     3.   *  (4)  He  knows  that  every  cowboy  is  loiely.   a.   “Every  cowboy”  doesn’t  c-­‐‑command  “he”     4.   *  (5)  Every  cowboy  and i every  cattle  rustler  knows  thjt  he’s  lonely.   j a.   Ungrammatical  with  this  co-­‐‑reference  à  referents  are  cousins  to  the   pronoun   b.   Only  allowed  to  go  up  one  node  before  starting  to  go  down  the  tree   9.   Pronouns  of  the  type  we’ve  been  looking  at  (“him,”  “her,”  it,”  and  “them”)  can  be  contrasted  with   reflexive  pronouns  (“himself,”  “herself,”  “itself,”  “themselves”)   a.   *  (6)  Every  First  Lady  writes  about  her.   i i i.   Bad  because  of  the  binding  principle  (B):   1.   (B)  A  non-­‐‑reflexive  pronoun  cannot  be  bound  in  the  smallest  S  that  contains   it   b.   (7)  Every  First  Lady  writesi  about  herself.   i i.   Good  because  of  the  binding  principle  (A):   1.   (A)  A  reflexive  pronoun  must  be  bound  (i.e.  must  have  a  c-­‐‑commanding   antecedent)  in  the  smallest  (the  lowest  syntactic  level)  S  that  contains  it   c.   (8)  Every  Senator  knew ithat  the  president  was  writing jabout  him   i. i.   Good  because  of  binding  principle  (B):   1.   (B)  A  non-­‐‑reflexive  pronoun  cannot  be  bound  in  the  smallest  S  that  contains   it   d.   *  (9)  Every  Senator  knew i  that  the  president  was  writing j  about  himself   i. i.   Bad  because  of  the  binding  principle  (A):   1.   (A)  A  reflexive  pronoun  must  be  bound  (i.e.  must  have  a  c-­‐‑commanding   antecedent)  in  the  smallest  (the  lowest  syntactic  level)  S  that  contains  it     Reference  and  movement:   LING  202     1.   (10)  Felicia  loves  pictures  of  herself.     i i 2.    (11)  Which  picture  of  herself  does  Feiicia  love  most? i 3.   (12)  I  know  which  picture  of  herself  Felicia  lovis  most. i 4.   Analysis:   a.   In  (10),  the  reflexive  pronoun  is  bound  in  the  smallest  S,  but  in  (11)  and  (12)  (on  the   surface),  the  proper  noun  does  not  c-­‐‑command  the  pronoun   b.   Before  the  DP  “which  picture  of  herself”  moved  to  the  position  below  CP,  it  was  c-­‐‑ commanded   c.   This  suggests  that  c-­‐‑commanding  requirements  apply  before  movement    Anna iworries  that  no  one  likes  her   i  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.