Sociology, Exam 3 Study Guide
Sociology, Exam 3 Study Guide 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amneris Santiago on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Old Dominion University taught by Mrs. Whitaker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Old Dominion University Spring 2016 Sociology 201 Exam 3 Study Guide Exam 3 Monday April 4 Exam 3 will cover Chapter 5 (Groups and Organizations) and Chapter 7 (Deviance) 1) Understand the sociological definition of a group and the difference between primary and secondary groups and their functions. Social group: two or more people who identify with and interact with one person. Primary Groups: a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. Secondary group: a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity. 2) Understand the types of group leadership styles. TWO LEADERSHIP ROLES: Instrument leadership: group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks. Expressive leadership: group leadership that focuses on the group’s well-being. THREE LEADERSHIP STYLES: Authoritarian leadership: focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making, and demands that group members obey orders. Although this leadership style may win little affection from the group, a fast-acting authoritarian leader is appreciated in a crisis. Democratic Leadership: is more expressive and makes a point of including everyone in the decision-making process. Although less successful in a crisis situation, democratic leaders generally draw on the ideas of all members to develop creative solutions to problems. Laissez-faire leadership: allows the group to function more or less on it’s own. (laissez-faire in french means “leave it alone”). This style is typically the least effective in promoting group goals. 3) Understand the dynamics of Group Conformity (Asch and Milgram experiments) , Group Think Groupthink: the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue. Reference group: a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions. The Asch, Milgram, and Janis research shows that group members often seek agreement and may pressure one another toward conformity. Individuals use reference groups—including both in-groups and out-groups—to form attitudes and make evaluations. 4) Understand the dynamics associated with reference groups, in groups and out groups. in-group: a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty. out-group: a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition. 5) Understand the sociological definition of a formal organization and the types of formal organizations. Formal organization: a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently. Utilitarian organizations: pay people for their efforts, (examples include a business or government agency.) Normative organizations: have goals people consider worthwhile, (examples include voluntary associations such as the PTA.) Coercive organizations: are organizations people are forced to join, (examples include prisons and mental hospitals.) 6) Understand what a bureaucracy is, the characteristics of a bureaucracy, and the advantages and disadvantages of bureaucratic organizations. Bureaucracy: an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently. There are 6 key elements to a bureaucracy: Specialization: Our ancestors spent most of their time performing the general task of looking for food and shelter. Bureaucracy, by contrast, assigns people highly specialized jobs. Hierarchy of positions: Bureaucracies arrange workers in vertical ranking. Each person is supervised by someone “higher up” in the organization while in turn supervising others in lower positions. Usually, with few people at the top and many at the bottom, bureaucratic organizations take the form of a pyramid. Rules and regulations: Cultural tradition counts for the little in a bureaucracy. Instead, rationally enacted rules and regulations guide a bureaucracy’s operation. Ideally, a bureaucracy operates in a completely predictable way. Technical competence: Bureaucratic officials have the technical competence to carry out their duties. Bureaucratic officials have the technical competence to carry out their duties. Bureaucracies typically hire new members according to set standards and then monitor their performance. Such impersonal evaluation congrats with the ancient custom of favoring relatives, whatever their talents, over strangers. Impersonality: Bureaucracy puts rules ahead of personal whim so that both clients and workers are treated in the same way. From this impersonal approach comes the image of the “faceless bureaucrat.” Formal, written communications: It is said that the heart of bureaucracy is not people, but paperwork. Instead of the casual, face-to-face talk that characterizes interaction within small groups, bureaucracy relies on formal, written memos and reports, which accumulate in vast files. Problems with bureaucracy include: bureaucratic alienation, bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism, bureaucratic inertia, and oligarchy. Oligarchy: the rule of the many by the few. bureaucratic inertia: the tendency of the bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves. 7) Understand the concept of the McDonaldization of society Recently, the rise of a postindustrial economy has created two very different types of work: -highly skilled and creative work, (examples include designers, consultants, programmers, and executives.) -low-skilled service work associated with the “McDonaldization” of society, based on efficiency, uniformity, and control, (examples include jobs in fast-food restaurants and telemarketing. McDonaldization has four main principles: Efficiency, Predictability, Uniformity, and Control. 8) Understand what deviance is from a sociological perspective. Understand how and why deviance and crime are not the same. Deviance: refers to norm violations ranging from minor infractions, such as bad manners, to major infractions, such as serious violence. Sociological Theories: view all behavior—deviance as well as conformity—as products of society. Sociologists point out that: -What is deviant varies from place to place according to cultural norms. -behavior and individuals become deviant as other define them that way. -what and who a society defines a deviant reflect who has and does not have social power. 9) Understand the relationship between deviance and social control Deviance: the recognized violation of cultural norms Crime: the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law. Social Control: attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior. 10) Understand the Structural functional approach to deviance (Durkheim) Durkheim claimed that deviance is a normal element of society that affirms cultural norms and values, clarifies moral boundaries, brings people together, and encourages social change. 11) Understand Merton’s Strain Theory and Cloward and Ohlin’s theory on deviant subcultures. Merton’s strain theory explains deviance in terms of a society’s cultural goals and the means available to achieve them. Collard and Ohlin’s theory on deviant subcultures extended Merton’s theory, proposing that crime results not simply from limited legit legal opportunity but also from readily accessible illegal opportunity. In short, deviance or conformity arises from the relative opportunity structure that frames a person’s life. 12) Understand the Labelling Theory’s explanation of deviance including: primary and secondary deviance, stigma and retrospective and projective labelling. Labeling theory: the idea that deviance and conformity results not so much from what people do as from what people do as from how others respond to those actions. Stigma: a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity. Edwin Lemert observed that some norm violations—say, skipping school or underage drinking— provoke slight reaction from others and have little effect on a person’s self concept. Lemur calls such passing episodes primary deviance. But what happens if people take notice of someone’s deviance and really make something of it? After an audience has defined some action as primary deviance, the individual may begin to change, taking on a deviant identity of talking, acting, or dressing in a different way, rejecting the people who are critical, and repeatedly breaking the rules. Lemur calls this change of self-concept secondary deviance. Once people stigmatize an individual, they may engage in Retrospective labeling, interpreting someone’s past in light of some present deviance. For example, after discovering that a priest has sexually molested a child, others rethink his past, perhaps musing, “he always did want to be around children.” Retrospective labeling which distorts a person’s biography by being highly selective typically deepens a deviant identity. Similarly, people engage in projective labelling of a stigmatized person, using the person’s deviant identity to predict future actions. Regarding the priest, people might say, “He’s going to keep at it until he is caught.” the more people in someone’s social world think such things, the more these definitions affect the individuals self-concept, increasing the chance that they will come true. 13) Understand Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory and Hirsch’s Control Theory Sutherland’s differential association theory links deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior. Hirshi’s control theory states that imagining the possible consequences of deviance often discourages such behavior. People who are well integrated into society are less likely to engage in deviant behavior. 14) Understand What is meant by white collar crime and corporate crime and how these forms of crime difference from organized crime Based on the Karl Marx’s ideas, social conflict theory holds that laws and other norms operate to protect the interests of powerful members of any society. In a capitalist society, law operates to support the capitalist economy. White collar offenses: are committed by people of high social position as part of their jobs. Sutherland claimed that such offenses are rarely prosecuted and are most likely to end up in civil rather than criminal court. Corporate Crime: refers to illegal actions by a corporation or people acting on its behalf. Although corporate crimes cause considerable public harm, most cases of corporate crime go unpunished. Organized crime: has a long history in the United States, especially among categories of people with few legitimate opportunities. 15) Understand the basic profile of the Street Criminal (as discussed in your text). Why and how are arrest rates associated with race and gender? Age: official crime rates rise sharply during adolescence, peak in the late teens, and then fall as people get older. Gender: Although eat sex makes up roughly half the country’s population, men are arrested almost twice as often as women for property crimes. In the case of violence crimes, the difference is even greater. How do we account for the dramatic difference? It may be that some law enforcement officials are reluctant to define women as criminals. In fact, all over the world, the greatest gender differences in crimes rates occur in societies that most severely limit the opportunities for women. Social Class: Research has long indicated the street crime is more widespread among people of lower social position. Race & Ethnicity: There are several reasons for the disproportionate number of arrests among African Americans. First, race in the United States closely relates to social standing, which, as already explained affects the likelihood of engaging in street crimes.
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