Abnormal Psych Exam 3 study guide
Abnormal Psych Exam 3 study guide PSYC 3560
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3560 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Fix in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
1. What is malingering? How do you detect it? • Malingering: deliberately faking a symptom or disorder to avoid an unwanted situation to gain something • Detection- Stroop test o Congruent vs. Incongruent trials o Congruent: red is written in red, green written in green, etc. o Incongruent: the color word is written in a different color (red is written in green, etc.) 2. What is Somatic Symptom Disorder? • One or more somatic symptoms that are distressing or result in significant disruption of daily life • Excessive thoughts, feelings, behaviors OR associated health concerns as manifested by: o Disproportionate and persistent thoughts about the seriousness of one’s symptoms o Persistently high level of anxiety about health or symptoms o Excessive time and energy devoted to these symptoms or health concerns • Often seeks medical care excessively, may see multiple practitioners for the same symptoms 3. What is Illness Anxiety Disorder? • Preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness o Also known as hypochondriasis • Two types o Care-seeking type: frequently uses services of medical practitioners o Care-avoidant type: rarely uses services of medical practitioners • Unlike somatic symptom disorder o Seeks medical care at a comparable rate to general public o Often feel they are not being taken seriously by physicians 4. What is Conversion Disorder? • Symptoms o Sensory § Special sensory symptoms (blindness, deafness, skin sensations) § Anesthesia (loss of sensation) o Motor § Weakness or paralysis § Aphonia (faint speech) § Swallowing symptoms o Seizures (very intense and dangerous symptom) § Pseudoseizures § Coma (medical testing can rule out) • Treatment o Not much known due to lack of research o Behavioral approaches § Identify and remove any reinforcement for “abnormal” behaviors- remove any primary and secondary goals § Reinforce “normal” behaviors § Exposure therapy if trauma identified o Hypnosis may be useful • Link between conversion disorder and stressful life events o Primary gain à escape or avoidance of stressful situation (unconscious) § The individual gets to avoid doing what traumatized them o Secondary gain à external circumstances that maintain disability (e.g., attention from family) § The individual get extra attention from people o Little is known about the link between stressful life events and conversion disorder, despite the role it is proposed to play 5. What is Factitious disorder or Factitious Disorder imposed on another? • Factitious disorder (Munchausen’s syndrome): intentionally produces symptoms to obtain and maintain the personal benefits that playing the “sick role” may provide (including attention from others) • Factitious disorder imposed on another: intentionally causing symptoms in another person or pet • Case example from class o Watched a video about Kathy having factitious disorder imposed on another (she placed it on her daughter) 6. What is pseudocyesis? • False pregnancy • Many, if not all, symptoms of pregnancy • Can happen to biological males or females 7. Dissociative Identity Disorder • Presence of two or more distinct personality states or an experience of possession • Hosts and alters can have completely different demographic characteristics 8. Dissociative Amnesia • Characterized by an ability to recall autobiographical information. May be: o Localized (i.e., an event or period of time) o Selective (i.e., a specific aspect of an event) o Generalized (i.e., identity and life history) 9. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder • What characteristics are typically observed for each of these dissociative disorders? o Elevated rates of comorbid anxiety and odd disorders, as well as avoidant, borderline, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders o Average age of onset of 23 o Majority- fairly chronic course (little or no fluctuation in intensity) • How are they similar/dissimilar? o In both, you experiences a detachment from something o In depersonalization, it’s from yourself but derealization is from surroundings • What is depersonalization? o Experiences of unreality or detachment from one’s mind, self or body • What is derealization? o Experiences of unreality or detachment from one’s surroundings • What is a mental status exam (i.e., the test we use to gauge conception of reality)? What questions might be asked during such an exam? o Intact reality testing o What is your name, what is the year, what day of the week is it? Count backwards by 7’s from 100 (100, 93, …) • In what types of situations do we see people experience dissociative amnesia (e.g., what types of information/events do people forget in these states)? o Gaps in remote memory of personal life events § Periods of youth; important life events, like death of a grandparent, getting married, giving birth o Lapses in dependable memory § What happened today; well-learned skills such as how to do their job, use a computer, read, drive o Discovery of evidence of their everyday actions and tasks that they do not recollect doing § Finding unexplained objects in their shopping bags or among their possessions; finding perplexing writings or drawings that they must have created; discovering injuries; “coming to” in the midst of doing something 10. Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder Due to xxxx • What can (and cannot) contribute to a neurocognitive disorder? • How do you determine whether someone has a neurocognitive disorder? • Have broad familiarity with protective factors against Alzheimer’s 11. Compared to all other disorders discussed, what theme is most present for Sexual/Gender Disorders (hint: determining abnormality)? • There must be distress/impairment or a victim 12. Sociocultural influences on sexuality • Sexual “standards” of one’s culture tend to drive what is considered acceptable or not • Abstinence Theory (1800s) • Ritualized homosexuality in the Sambia Tribe (only between males) • Some sexual standards are culturally consistent o Men: great emphasis on partner’s attractiveness o Taboos against incest • Kinsey’s research (1950s): developed a scale that looks at people’s sexual orientation o 37% of males reported engaging in some kind of sexual activity at least once o Comparable numbers among women o 7 point scale § 0: entirely heterosexual § 7: entirely homosexual • Sexual Minorities o Kinsey: 10% homosexual, 37% men have at least one experience o Removed from DSM in 1973 o “Homosexuality” is often not a preferred term to refer to people who identify as gay, queer, or lesbian o By 2010, majority of Americans view same-sex relations between adults to be morally acceptable o 2015 Nature twin study revealed 5 DNA markers associated with sexual orientation o Epigenetic markers (chemical changes to DNA that affect how genes are expressed, but not the information they contain) • An algorithm they developed based on the 5 epi-marks could correctly predict the sexual orientation of men in the study 67% of the time 13. Psychiatry/psychology and homosexuality • Around 1950, view of homosexuality as sickness began to be challenged- primarily due to Kinsey’s research • Gay men and lesbians also began to challenge the psychiatric orthodoxy that homosexuality is a mental disorder • 1960s- radical gay liberation movement • 1974- APA voted to remove homosexuality from DSM-II 14. What are paraphilias? (generally speaking) • Paraphilias: unusual sexual interests • Not necessarily a disorder 15. Paraphilia vs. paraphilic disorder • For it to be a disorder, there has to be distress or a victim • Paraphilia: unusual sexual interests • Paraphilic disorder: unusual sexual interests that cause harm 16. Be able to identify the 8 paraphilic disorders recognized by the DSM-5 (and know the information presented in class about each disorder, including causal factors and treatment) • Fetishistic Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving inanimate objects or highly specific focus on non-gential body parts to obtain sexual gratification • Transvestic Disorder: heterosexual men- fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing • Voyeuristic Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the observation of an unsuspecting person who is undressing or engaging in sexual activity o Aka “peeping toms” o Most commonly reported to police • Exhibitionistic Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving exposure of one’s genitals to others in inappropriate circumstances and without consent • Sexual Sadism Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the infliction of psychological or physical pain on another individual o Themes- dominance, control, humiliation • Sexual Masochism Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the real act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer o Autoerotic asphyxia: “self-strangulation” – leads to 500 – 1,000 accidental deaths/year • Frotteuristic Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving touching or rubbing against a non-consenting person • Pedophilic Disorder: fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the sexual activity with a pre-pubertal child o Perpetrator is at least 16 years old and at least 5 years older than the victim o Hebephilia: having fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving adolescents • Which is believed to be most common overall? 17. Pedophilic disorder (demographics of individuals with pedophilic disorder) • Nearly all individuals are male • About 2/3 of pedophilic offenders’ victims are girls (between ages of 8-11 typically) 18. Gender Dysphoria? • Discomfort with one’s sex-relevant physical characteristics or with one’s assigned gender 19. What is Transsexualism? • Refers to adults with gender dysphoria who desire to change their sex (fits under the “umbrella” of gender dysphoria) 20. Four phases of human sexual response • Desire • Excitement/Arousal • Orgasm • Resolution 21. What are disorders of sexual dysfunction? (generally speaking) • Sexual desire & arousal disorders o Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder: little or no sex drive or interest o Erectile disorder: difficulty obtaining/maintaining an erection o Female sexual interest/arousal disorder: little or no sex drive or interest and/or reduced sexual excitement/pleasure • Orgasmic disorders (most common) o Premature ejaculation: onset of ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation (before 3-5 minutes of sexual stimulation) § Treatment: masturbation, trying to go longer without climaxing § Anxiety can cause it à if you think too hard about climaxing too early, it can actually cause it to happen o Delayed ejaculation: delay on almost all occasions (after 15-20 minutes) o Female orgasmic disorder: delay of orgasm following appropriate sexual stimulation • Sexual pain disorder o Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder (one or more of the following) § Difficulties with vaginal penetration § Pain during intercourse § Fear/anxiety about pain related to vaginal penetration § Tensing/tightening of pelvic floor muscles during penetration • For all of the above, know causal factors and treatments as discussed in class o Treatment for sexual desire and arousal disorders § Sometimes medications or psychotherapy o Treatment for orgasmic disorders § Psycho-education about sexuality/anatomy, masturbation, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and meds o Treatment for sexual pain disorders § Treatment à banning intercourse, training vaginal muscles (vaginal dilation), CBT, relaxation, surgery Other things to know for the exam Aphonia: faint speech How do we know it’s a pseudoseizure? à Do an EEG to test if it’s a real seizure
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