Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Test 3
Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Test 3 SO 1003
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Smith on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Robert Montgomery in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Intro to Sociology Study Guide for Test 3 (Vocab words are in bold) Chapter 6 Social Deviance and Control Social deviance o Any transgression of socially established norms Minor transgressions of these norms can be described as informal deviance Formal deviance is the same as crime because it involves violation of laws Social cohesion o The way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along everyday Emile Durkheim o Theorized that social cohesion is established through: Mechanical solidarity Based on sameness of society’s parts Found in smaller groups Organic solidarity Based on interdependence of specialized parts leading to diversity Found in bigger groups Strain Theory Robert Merton o Developed the strain theory which argues that deviance occurs when society doesn’t give everybody equal opportunity to achieve societal goals o Difference between people is found in how they respond to goals and means to goals Conformists Accepts goals and means of society Innovators Accept goals but not means Breaks rules and finds new means to goals Ritualists Accepts the means and rules But doesn’t care about the goals Retreatists Don’t accept goals or means of society Separates themselves from society Rebels Don’t accept goals or means Wants to change society with own goals and means Other vocab terms Social control o mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals Formal social sanctions o mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior Informal social sanctions o the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership; the unspoken rules of social life Social integration o how well you are integrated into your social group or community Social regulation o the number of rules guiding your daily life and, more specifically, what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis Egoistic suicide o suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group Altruistic suicide o suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration Anomie o a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation; normlessness Anomic suicide o suicide that occurs as a result of insufficient social regulation Fatalistic suicide o suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation Labeling theory o the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self-identity Primary deviance o the first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of "deviant" and thus influence how people think about and act toward you Secondary deviance o subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people's expectations of you Stigma o a negative social label that not only changes others' behavior toward a person but also alters that person's own self-concept and social identity Broken windows theory of deviance o theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly; specifically, whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts Street crime o crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty White-collar crime o offense committed by a professional (or professionals) against a corporation, agency, or other institution Corporate crime o a particular type of white-collar crime committed by the officers (CEOs and other executives) of a corporation Deterrence theory o philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits Recidivism o when an individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts to criminal behavior Total institutions o an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority Panopticon o a circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve as a prison in which the guards, housed in the inner ring, can observe the prisoners without the detainees knowing whether they are being watched Chapter 7 Stratification Refers to systematic inequalities in any given society between groups of people that come about intentional or unintentional consequences of social processes Views of Inequality Jean-Jacques Rousseau o In the 18 century, argued that private property creates social inequality which leads to social conflict Thomas Malthus o Believed inequality is good because it creates motivation for social position growth o If a person has capabilities, they can climb the ladder of success which is called meritocracy o The best and brightest go to the top while the others stay at the bottom George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel o Proposed the master-slave dialectic o Ongoing cycle between thesis and antithesis where when a new thesis develops an antithesis follows soon after o Said most social relationships are based conflicts like master-slave model Forms of Stratification Karl Marx o Used Hegel’s ideas to come up with a two class system made up of Bourgeoisie The few top people who are the owners Proletariat The many bottom people who are the workers Erik Olin Wright o Said it is a lot more complicated than just two classes o Developed the concept of classes that fall in between the two extreme classes calling it contradictory class locations Inherited rich Nouveau rich Upper middle class Lower middle class Working class Underclass Max Weber o Adds value, religion, and social prestige to the system of stratification C. Wright Mills o Came up with the “power elite” or elite-mass dichotomy system o A handful of people move back and forth between decision making positions Other vocab terms Social equality o a condition in which no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural conventions exist equality of opportunity o the idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game, so to speak, are the same for everyone Bourgeois society o a society of commerce (modern capitalist society, for example) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive Equality of condition o the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point Equality of outcome o the idea that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the "game" Free rider problem o the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight Estate system o a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility Caste system o a religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility Class system o an economically based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility Status hierarchy system o a system of stratification based on social prestige Socioeconomic status o an individual's position in a stratified social order Income o money received by a person for work, from transfers (gifts, inheritances, or government assistance), or from returns on investments Wealth o a family's or individual's net worth (that is, total assets minus total debts) Upper class o a term for the economic elite Middle class o a term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line—though this is a highly debated and expansive category, particularly in the United States, where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class Social mobility o the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society Structural mobility o mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy Exchange mobility o mobility in which, if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade jobs not one-to-one but in a way that ultimately balances out Status-attainment model o approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations
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