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UH / Biology / BIOL 3304 / How much has group size changed?

How much has group size changed?

How much has group size changed?

Description

School: University of Houston
Department: Biology
Course: The Biology of Social Behavior
Professor: Blaine cole
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Test 3 Review
Description: Social Behavior Test 3 Study Guide November 4 – Communication  Complexity of social organizations/organisms ~ complexity of communication  Ex: chickadee o 2 part call (“chickapp… dee dee dee”) o some songs more complex than others  In larger groups, calls get more complex o Generalization: some sort of connection? Is there a causal relationship? o Complex social behavior ~ complex communication
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Social Behavior Test 3 Study Guide


How much has group size changed?



November 4 – Communication

∙ Complexity of social organizations/organisms ~ complexity of communication ∙ Ex: chickadee

o 2 part call (“chickapp… dee dee dee”)

o some songs more complex than others

∙ In larger groups, calls get more complex

o Generalization: some sort of connection? Is there a causal relationship? o Complex social behavior ~ complex communication behavior ∙ Questions:

o How much has group size changed?

o How much has repertoire size changed?

∙ Evolutionary changes that result in… bigger or smaller group sizes o Plot group size contrast with brain size

 Larger group size contrast = brain size contrast larger too


How much has repertoire size changed?



o Questions raised:

 Now… How des brain size influence the following: innovation,  social learning, tool use, etc.

 Traits in the calls that allow them to characteristically identify  one another

 Need level of variability in groups

∙ Examples of variation:

o Cardinals

 Looking at hue and plumage saturation

o Individuality vs. group size  

 As group size increases, individuality of vocal sounds also  

increases

o Dolphins

 Signature whistle – each has its own

 Signature whistle of calves not very like the sounds they’re  

around often

∙ More similar to stranger’s whistle than family members


What are the characteristics of orangutans?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the content of the war of 1812?

∙ Sometimes calf will copy the mom’s signature whistle

o Wasps

 Variability of spots on face

 Questions raised:  

∙ Use differences in appearance variability to be able to  

recognize? Maybe?  

∙ OR is it that the differences help them tell apart who is the  

dominant figure?

∙ But then, why the need for black spots!? If it’s good to be  

yellow why don’t they just cover up?

 Badges = hierarchy marks

∙ Highest ranking = most number of spots

∙ SOCIALLY ENFORCED

∙ If she makes herself seem more higher ranking, level of  

aggression towards her INCREASES

The bottom line:

November 6 - The Great Apes

∙ Orangutans

o Borneo vs. Sumtra

o For the most part, solitary

o Flanged vs. unflanged males

 Flanged males = sedentary, alarm calls; ATTRACTIVE to females  (will cooperate during copulation)

 Unflanged males = move around more; not really “chosen” by  females

∙ However unflanged males will forces copulation (aka rape)

∙ Unflanged males will develop into flanged ONLY if there are We also discuss several other topics like Columbus was born when?

no other flanged males around

∙ Gorillas

o Eastern vs. western

o Similar social structures

o Obiverous

o Mountain gorillas – more than 1 adult male in groups

o Male interactions with female

o One females tends to give source to another females; not v.  muchfemale to female aggression

 No one consoles females during this aggression as do males  during male-male aggression

o Females may be associating with silver back (?)

∙ Chimpanzees

o Females reach sexual maturity around age 12

o Males reach sexual maturity AFTER that

o Females in estress

o “Posessiveness” – high rankng male can monopolize female in estress o Formation of consortship –

 Female in estress and male go off together and stay there a  while

 Consortship doesn’t HAVE to occur with high ranking male

o Lots of aggressive behavior between groups/communities We also discuss several other topics like Who is huckabee?

o Dominance – v. overt

 Once male reaches juvenile level, becomes dominant to all  

females

 All males dominant to all females

 Males arrange themselves in dominant hierarchy

 Alpha male = undisputedly the dominant

 Highest ranking male proportional to number of offspring sired November 11- Dominance and Aggression

∙ Dominance hierarchies –

o Any behavior associated with conflict (threat display, submissive  behavior  

o Dominance – attribute of repeated set of agnostic behavior if one party “wins” the other individual yields… describe the dominance. May have  violent or timid interaction

 Someone consistently wins, another consistently yields

 Can watch group interactions to figure out who is dominant and  who is subordinate If you want to learn more check out What is the age of the universe?

 Group composition changes dom/sub set up

∙ Some species have increased intensity of aggression

o Only question is if it is _________

o There’s always ______ on who is “top” and who is  

lower

∙ Bison have a hierarchy system, hierarchy ranks may be associated with sex  and

o Broody children have a hierarchy but can increase in rank but the place of rank is unpredictable  

∙ Animal size increases, dominance trees increase  

∙ Resource value (RV) – environmental vs. Resource holding potential (RHP) ∙ Likely relationship with dominance rank and RHP If you want to learn more check out Why do we call it comparative politics?

∙ Studies look at best RV (reproductive success)

∙ Reproductive success usually correlated with rank in the community o Increase in rank = increase in reproductive success

∙ Social cue hypothesis: pre-experience is  

o Can give info on relative rank by your observation

o Less likely to attack a winner

o Doesn’t really alter your rank but may alter your RHP assessment Continuation of Dominance and Aggression

∙ Subordinate individual is far less aggressive than neutrals (hasn’t experience win or loss)

∙ Winner Effect – winner more likely to win again within time interval (say 20  minutes)

∙ Spider ex:  

Spider size est.  one tained with smaller spider (trained as winner);  other trained with larger spider (trained as loser)  experimental Don't forget about the age old question of What do states do?

contest staged between the spider trained to win and the spider  trained to lose

Odds of winning, given that you already won = fivefold chance of  winning

∙ Betta fighting fish

o Males not tolerant of one another

o Modulate behavior, based on what other fish do

o Box plot

 Average time it takes for fish to react

 If allowed to observe, will be quick to react if they saw opponent  lose

 If allowed to observe, will wait a lot if they saw opponent win

November 13 – Hormonal Consequences of Group Living ∙ Why don’t non-breeders breed?

o No gonads? No reproductive ability

 Ex: have ovaries but can’t make gametes

o No suitable mates?

Hypothalamus  pituitary  gonads  behavioral  output

 GnRH LH/FSH androgens/estrogens  

∙ Banded mongoose

o Females have their estress cycles nearly synchronized  

 Clearly some sort of normal interaction that causes this  

synchronization

o For banded mongoose, no sort of behavioral/reproductive suppression ∙ Mongoose

o Female subordinate have < LH

o Stimulated with GnRH… equal response

∙ Common marmoset

o Single breeding female (the dominant)

o Subordinate female LESS LH, etc

o Caused by substance secreted by the dominant female to cause  subordinate’s suppression

∙ Mole ants

o Have single breeding male and single breeding female

o Non-breeders are permanently non-breeders

 Sterile; don’t breed for entire ives unless for example mom and  dad die

∙ Naked Mole Rats

o Subordinates low level of sex hormone

o Low LH

o Even if you stimulate with GnRH, NOTHING really happens

o Suppressed at level of hypothalamus/GnRH

Aggression and Consequences of Hormones

∙ Aggression ~ reproduction?

∙ Staged fight between two rats…

o Dominant/winning rat (GC levls. don’t peak as high and decline/reach  normal level quicker) vs. subordinate rat (corticotestosterone conc.  Rises longer/higher)

∙ Low rank doesn’t mean high stress

∙ Subordinate doesn’t have any way to avoid dominant = high stress ∙ Relationship between GC’s and hierarchy rank

November 18 – Division of Labor

∙ Learned efficiency - you get better and better the more times you do task ∙ One individual more innately better at task… assigned based on natural  abilities

∙ Some activities suitable for males, some suitable for females, some don’t  have pattern of one sex over another

∙ Arctic regions don’t have high rate of primary productivity

∙ Freshwater areas have HIGH primary productivity

∙ Leaf cutter ants

o Age based on workers

o Physical differences between major and minor workers

o Age important to activity of ants

 Age related division of labor

∙ Bees

o Single cohort = all same age

o Delay foragin, delay task of foraging

o Accelerate foraging

o Feed bees/starved colony… act as if colony is fed

 Respond to their own state not so much colony as a whole

∙ WHY division of labor?

o All those dishes…

 Who ends up washing them? The one that it bothers the most  and has a lower tolerance for it

∙ EXAMPLE – washing dishes

o Leave dirty dishes in sink until someone who has a low tolerance for  the dirty dishes washes them…

o When he washes them… lowers the cue for everyone else

o Therefore, those with high tolerances never reach the response  threshold

∙ Bees... pollen vs. nectar foragers  

o A specific response tolerance is characteristic of pollen foragers… and  the a different response tolerance is characteristic of nectar foragers 

November 20 – Group Building and Construction ∙ Apostle Bird

o Just because you’re social doesn’t make you better able to make a  nest, for example

∙ No one person in charge of building particular structure

o By themselves, they end up constructing something that is very  recognizable  

o And when they leave their nest and need to make another nest… the  new nest pretty much looks like the one they’re leaving behind ∙ Wasp Nest

o Pulp forager: Drop off pulp… get water… get pulp… drop off pulp o Water forager: give water to pulp foragers (so they can harvest the  pulp), to the builders, and get more water

o If builders need to build a lot… going to need a lot of water from water  foragers and a lot of pulp from pulp foragers

 Can’t just decide to build more without influencing pulp and  water foragers  

o Experimental…

 Remove pulp foragers

∙ Effect: reduction in water foragers/water, reducing number  

of pulp foragers for a while but it increases eventually over  

time (and therefore increases water/water foragers)

 Add pulp

∙ As you add pulp, number of pulp foragers is going down

∙ Extra pulp = foragers have this excess and “trying to get  

rid of it”

o Number of pulp offer rejections increases

o Cuing hormones

 LOTS of homeostatic interactions

 The same can be down to water foragers, water, etc.  

o Diagrams. Showing probability of transition between each of these  behaviors

 N=1: After someone is a pulp forager, they 100% become a  builder

 As you add more and more to the group: gets a little more  

complicated

∙ Termites

o Stigmergy: Always put the cell in a particular location that is  dependent on previous activity

o Given a set of rules, you have an architecture

November 25 – Diseases

∙ parasite attack will cause death to nest

o rinderpeit – associated with domesticated  

December 2 – Group membership  

∙ Unifying symbols or signs of group membership

∙ Identifying individuals to social group…

∙ Recognizing Individuals - recognition facilitating some sort of social  interaction

o Know members – learn, remember

o Recognize a membership badge

 Groups can be meaningful or meaningless  

o Recognize kin (relatives)

∙ Mechanisms that lead to cooperativity  

o Mutualism – any recognition systems might be important

o Reciprocity – important to recognize individuals, will pay back those  that helped you in the past

o Altruism - kin recognition important

∙ Humans  

o Very good at facial recognition

o Have certain region of brain responsible for this

 Make a mental model of familiar face  

 So even at unusual angle, can recognize face  

o Thatcher effect:  

 Faces are very similar to each other… however, we think of them as fairly distinct because we have these mechanisms that allow  us to distinguish them

 Upside down images

 Here it becomes more difficult to detect local feature changes in  an upside-down face

∙ Showing certain levels of recognition

∙ Chimpanzees pics

o Capacity for individual recognition

o Pick out the face of the individual

whose voice your hear

∙ Recognition of individuals… place them

in some sort of “context” (spatial

context… this one is always over there,  

social context… he is dominant/she is

my kin, etc)

o Horses

 Multimodal perception of

individuals

∙ Penguins that have nests have chicks

that make simple calls

o When they don’t have nests, chicks make more complex calls ∙ If there’s a nest that parent can go to, not as important to have a “cue” that  is more individually recognizable  

∙ Stripe Backed Wren – cooperatively breeding bird

o Defend territory operatively against everybody else

o Make calls – those calls give information to other birds

 When they make those calls, others will respond in a variety of  ways

 May call on their own (repeat the call)

∙ May approach the sound of the call

o Response score:

 Responses to own calls, neighbor calls, stranger calls

 Played at territory boundaries: don’t respond much to neighbor  calls/own calls but DO respond strongly to stranger calls

 Played at center of territory: don’t respond much to own calls but DO respond strongly to stranger AND neighbor calls

o Birds can recognize individuals??

∙ Non-kin and kin are the same expression component (no difference  between kin and non-kin)  

o Have to be somewhat different – although that means that they may  not be really treated differently

o Detection component (can’t tell the difference… even though there  is one)

o Action component (can tell the difference, just don’t do anything  about it

 Able to tell the difference, impulse to nurse young is so strong  that they don’t not nurse to non-kin

∙ Degree of familiarity used as cue to allow someone into the nest

Social Behavior Test 3 Study Guide

November 4 – Communication

∙ Complexity of social organizations/organisms ~ complexity of communication ∙ Ex: chickadee

o 2 part call (“chickapp… dee dee dee”)

o some songs more complex than others

∙ In larger groups, calls get more complex

o Generalization: some sort of connection? Is there a causal relationship? o Complex social behavior ~ complex communication behavior ∙ Questions:

o How much has group size changed?

o How much has repertoire size changed?

∙ Evolutionary changes that result in… bigger or smaller group sizes o Plot group size contrast with brain size

 Larger group size contrast = brain size contrast larger too

o Questions raised:

 Now… How des brain size influence the following: innovation,  social learning, tool use, etc.

 Traits in the calls that allow them to characteristically identify  one another

 Need level of variability in groups

∙ Examples of variation:

o Cardinals

 Looking at hue and plumage saturation

o Individuality vs. group size  

 As group size increases, individuality of vocal sounds also  

increases

o Dolphins

 Signature whistle – each has its own

 Signature whistle of calves not very like the sounds they’re  

around often

∙ More similar to stranger’s whistle than family members

∙ Sometimes calf will copy the mom’s signature whistle

o Wasps

 Variability of spots on face

 Questions raised:  

∙ Use differences in appearance variability to be able to  

recognize? Maybe?  

∙ OR is it that the differences help them tell apart who is the  

dominant figure?

∙ But then, why the need for black spots!? If it’s good to be  

yellow why don’t they just cover up?

 Badges = hierarchy marks

∙ Highest ranking = most number of spots

∙ SOCIALLY ENFORCED

∙ If she makes herself seem more higher ranking, level of  

aggression towards her INCREASES

The bottom line:

November 6 - The Great Apes

∙ Orangutans

o Borneo vs. Sumtra

o For the most part, solitary

o Flanged vs. unflanged males

 Flanged males = sedentary, alarm calls; ATTRACTIVE to females  (will cooperate during copulation)

 Unflanged males = move around more; not really “chosen” by  females

∙ However unflanged males will forces copulation (aka rape)

∙ Unflanged males will develop into flanged ONLY if there are

no other flanged males around

∙ Gorillas

o Eastern vs. western

o Similar social structures

o Obiverous

o Mountain gorillas – more than 1 adult male in groups

o Male interactions with female

o One females tends to give source to another females; not v.  muchfemale to female aggression

 No one consoles females during this aggression as do males  during male-male aggression

o Females may be associating with silver back (?)

∙ Chimpanzees

o Females reach sexual maturity around age 12

o Males reach sexual maturity AFTER that

o Females in estress

o “Posessiveness” – high rankng male can monopolize female in estress o Formation of consortship –

 Female in estress and male go off together and stay there a  while

 Consortship doesn’t HAVE to occur with high ranking male

o Lots of aggressive behavior between groups/communities

o Dominance – v. overt

 Once male reaches juvenile level, becomes dominant to all  

females

 All males dominant to all females

 Males arrange themselves in dominant hierarchy

 Alpha male = undisputedly the dominant

 Highest ranking male proportional to number of offspring sired November 11- Dominance and Aggression

∙ Dominance hierarchies –

o Any behavior associated with conflict (threat display, submissive  behavior  

o Dominance – attribute of repeated set of agnostic behavior if one party “wins” the other individual yields… describe the dominance. May have  violent or timid interaction

 Someone consistently wins, another consistently yields

 Can watch group interactions to figure out who is dominant and  who is subordinate

 Group composition changes dom/sub set up

∙ Some species have increased intensity of aggression

o Only question is if it is _________

o There’s always ______ on who is “top” and who is  

lower

∙ Bison have a hierarchy system, hierarchy ranks may be associated with sex  and

o Broody children have a hierarchy but can increase in rank but the place of rank is unpredictable  

∙ Animal size increases, dominance trees increase  

∙ Resource value (RV) – environmental vs. Resource holding potential (RHP) ∙ Likely relationship with dominance rank and RHP

∙ Studies look at best RV (reproductive success)

∙ Reproductive success usually correlated with rank in the community o Increase in rank = increase in reproductive success

∙ Social cue hypothesis: pre-experience is  

o Can give info on relative rank by your observation

o Less likely to attack a winner

o Doesn’t really alter your rank but may alter your RHP assessment Continuation of Dominance and Aggression

∙ Subordinate individual is far less aggressive than neutrals (hasn’t experience win or loss)

∙ Winner Effect – winner more likely to win again within time interval (say 20  minutes)

∙ Spider ex:  

Spider size est.  one tained with smaller spider (trained as winner);  other trained with larger spider (trained as loser)  experimental

contest staged between the spider trained to win and the spider  trained to lose

Odds of winning, given that you already won = fivefold chance of  winning

∙ Betta fighting fish

o Males not tolerant of one another

o Modulate behavior, based on what other fish do

o Box plot

 Average time it takes for fish to react

 If allowed to observe, will be quick to react if they saw opponent  lose

 If allowed to observe, will wait a lot if they saw opponent win

November 13 – Hormonal Consequences of Group Living ∙ Why don’t non-breeders breed?

o No gonads? No reproductive ability

 Ex: have ovaries but can’t make gametes

o No suitable mates?

Hypothalamus  pituitary  gonads  behavioral  output

 GnRH LH/FSH androgens/estrogens  

∙ Banded mongoose

o Females have their estress cycles nearly synchronized  

 Clearly some sort of normal interaction that causes this  

synchronization

o For banded mongoose, no sort of behavioral/reproductive suppression ∙ Mongoose

o Female subordinate have < LH

o Stimulated with GnRH… equal response

∙ Common marmoset

o Single breeding female (the dominant)

o Subordinate female LESS LH, etc

o Caused by substance secreted by the dominant female to cause  subordinate’s suppression

∙ Mole ants

o Have single breeding male and single breeding female

o Non-breeders are permanently non-breeders

 Sterile; don’t breed for entire ives unless for example mom and  dad die

∙ Naked Mole Rats

o Subordinates low level of sex hormone

o Low LH

o Even if you stimulate with GnRH, NOTHING really happens

o Suppressed at level of hypothalamus/GnRH

Aggression and Consequences of Hormones

∙ Aggression ~ reproduction?

∙ Staged fight between two rats…

o Dominant/winning rat (GC levls. don’t peak as high and decline/reach  normal level quicker) vs. subordinate rat (corticotestosterone conc.  Rises longer/higher)

∙ Low rank doesn’t mean high stress

∙ Subordinate doesn’t have any way to avoid dominant = high stress ∙ Relationship between GC’s and hierarchy rank

November 18 – Division of Labor

∙ Learned efficiency - you get better and better the more times you do task ∙ One individual more innately better at task… assigned based on natural  abilities

∙ Some activities suitable for males, some suitable for females, some don’t  have pattern of one sex over another

∙ Arctic regions don’t have high rate of primary productivity

∙ Freshwater areas have HIGH primary productivity

∙ Leaf cutter ants

o Age based on workers

o Physical differences between major and minor workers

o Age important to activity of ants

 Age related division of labor

∙ Bees

o Single cohort = all same age

o Delay foragin, delay task of foraging

o Accelerate foraging

o Feed bees/starved colony… act as if colony is fed

 Respond to their own state not so much colony as a whole

∙ WHY division of labor?

o All those dishes…

 Who ends up washing them? The one that it bothers the most  and has a lower tolerance for it

∙ EXAMPLE – washing dishes

o Leave dirty dishes in sink until someone who has a low tolerance for  the dirty dishes washes them…

o When he washes them… lowers the cue for everyone else

o Therefore, those with high tolerances never reach the response  threshold

∙ Bees... pollen vs. nectar foragers  

o A specific response tolerance is characteristic of pollen foragers… and  the a different response tolerance is characteristic of nectar foragers 

November 20 – Group Building and Construction ∙ Apostle Bird

o Just because you’re social doesn’t make you better able to make a  nest, for example

∙ No one person in charge of building particular structure

o By themselves, they end up constructing something that is very  recognizable  

o And when they leave their nest and need to make another nest… the  new nest pretty much looks like the one they’re leaving behind ∙ Wasp Nest

o Pulp forager: Drop off pulp… get water… get pulp… drop off pulp o Water forager: give water to pulp foragers (so they can harvest the  pulp), to the builders, and get more water

o If builders need to build a lot… going to need a lot of water from water  foragers and a lot of pulp from pulp foragers

 Can’t just decide to build more without influencing pulp and  water foragers  

o Experimental…

 Remove pulp foragers

∙ Effect: reduction in water foragers/water, reducing number  

of pulp foragers for a while but it increases eventually over  

time (and therefore increases water/water foragers)

 Add pulp

∙ As you add pulp, number of pulp foragers is going down

∙ Extra pulp = foragers have this excess and “trying to get  

rid of it”

o Number of pulp offer rejections increases

o Cuing hormones

 LOTS of homeostatic interactions

 The same can be down to water foragers, water, etc.  

o Diagrams. Showing probability of transition between each of these  behaviors

 N=1: After someone is a pulp forager, they 100% become a  builder

 As you add more and more to the group: gets a little more  

complicated

∙ Termites

o Stigmergy: Always put the cell in a particular location that is  dependent on previous activity

o Given a set of rules, you have an architecture

November 25 – Diseases

∙ parasite attack will cause death to nest

o rinderpeit – associated with domesticated  

December 2 – Group membership  

∙ Unifying symbols or signs of group membership

∙ Identifying individuals to social group…

∙ Recognizing Individuals - recognition facilitating some sort of social  interaction

o Know members – learn, remember

o Recognize a membership badge

 Groups can be meaningful or meaningless  

o Recognize kin (relatives)

∙ Mechanisms that lead to cooperativity  

o Mutualism – any recognition systems might be important

o Reciprocity – important to recognize individuals, will pay back those  that helped you in the past

o Altruism - kin recognition important

∙ Humans  

o Very good at facial recognition

o Have certain region of brain responsible for this

 Make a mental model of familiar face  

 So even at unusual angle, can recognize face  

o Thatcher effect:  

 Faces are very similar to each other… however, we think of them as fairly distinct because we have these mechanisms that allow  us to distinguish them

 Upside down images

 Here it becomes more difficult to detect local feature changes in  an upside-down face

∙ Showing certain levels of recognition

∙ Chimpanzees pics

o Capacity for individual recognition

o Pick out the face of the individual

whose voice your hear

∙ Recognition of individuals… place them

in some sort of “context” (spatial

context… this one is always over there,  

social context… he is dominant/she is

my kin, etc)

o Horses

 Multimodal perception of

individuals

∙ Penguins that have nests have chicks

that make simple calls

o When they don’t have nests, chicks make more complex calls ∙ If there’s a nest that parent can go to, not as important to have a “cue” that  is more individually recognizable  

∙ Stripe Backed Wren – cooperatively breeding bird

o Defend territory operatively against everybody else

o Make calls – those calls give information to other birds

 When they make those calls, others will respond in a variety of  ways

 May call on their own (repeat the call)

∙ May approach the sound of the call

o Response score:

 Responses to own calls, neighbor calls, stranger calls

 Played at territory boundaries: don’t respond much to neighbor  calls/own calls but DO respond strongly to stranger calls

 Played at center of territory: don’t respond much to own calls but DO respond strongly to stranger AND neighbor calls

o Birds can recognize individuals??

∙ Non-kin and kin are the same expression component (no difference  between kin and non-kin)  

o Have to be somewhat different – although that means that they may  not be really treated differently

o Detection component (can’t tell the difference… even though there  is one)

o Action component (can tell the difference, just don’t do anything  about it

 Able to tell the difference, impulse to nurse young is so strong  that they don’t not nurse to non-kin

∙ Degree of familiarity used as cue to allow someone into the nest

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