Test 3 Review
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robin Pham on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol3304 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Blaine Cole in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 234 views. For similar materials see Biology of Social Behavior in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Social Behavior Test 3 Study Guide November 4 Communication 0 Complexity of social organizationsorganisms complexity of communication Ex Chickadee o 2 part call chickapp dee dee deequot 0 some songs more complex than others In larger groups calls get more complex 0 Generalization some sort of connection Is there a causal relationship 0 Complex social behavior complex communication behavior Questions 0 How much has group size changed 0 How much has repertoire size changed Evolutionary changes that result in bigger or smaller group sizes 0 Plot group size contrast with brain size Larger group size contrast brain size contrast larger too 0 Questions raised Now How des brain size in uence the following innovation social learning tool use etc Traits in the calls that allow them to characteristically identify one another Need level of variabilityin groups 0 Examples of variation 0 Cardinals Looking at hue and plumage saturation o Individuality vs group size As group size increases individuality of vocal sounds also increases 0 Dolphins Signature whistle each has its own Signature whistle of calves not very like the sounds they re around often 0 More similar to stranger s whistle than family members 0 Sometimes calf will copy the mom s signature whistle o Wasps Variability of spots on face Questions raised 0 Use differences in appearance variability to be able to recognize Maybe 0 OR is it that the differences help them tell apart who is the dominant gure 0 But then why the need for black spots If it s good to be yellow why don t they just cover up Badges hierarchy marks 0 Highest ranking most number of spots 0 SOCIALLY ENFORCED o If she makes herself seem more higher ranking level of aggression towards her INCREASES The bottom line November 6 The Great Apes Orangutans o Borneo vs Sumtra o For the most part solitary o Flanged vs un anged maes Flanged maes sedentary aarm calls A39ITRACTIVE to females will cooperate during copulation Un anged maes move around more not really chosen by females 0 However un anged maes wi forces copulation aka rape Un anged males will develop into anged ONLY if there are no other anged maes around Gorillas 0 Eastern vs western Similar social structures Obiverous Mountain gorillas more than 1 adult male in groups Male interactions with female One females tends to give source to another females not v muchfemale to female aggression No one consoles females during this aggression as do males during malemale aggression 0 Females may be associating with silver back Chimpanzees 00000 0 Females reach sexual maturity around age 12 o Males reach sexual maturity AFTER that 0 Females in estress o quotPosessivenessquot high rankng mae can monopolize female in estress 0 Formation of consortship Female in estress and male go off together and stay there a while Consortship doesn t HAVE to occur with high ranking male 0 Lots of aggressive behavior between groupscommunities o Dominance v overt Once male reaches juvenile level becomes dominant to all females All males dominant to all females Males arrange themselves in dominant hierarchy Alpha male undisputedly the dominant Highest ranking male proportional to number of offspring sired November 11 Dominance and Aggression Dominance hierarchies 0 Any behavior associated with con ict threat display submissive behavior 0 Dominance attribute of repeated set of agnostic behavior if one party wins the other individual yields describe the dominance May have violent or timid interaction Someone consistently wins another consistently yields Can watch group interactions to gure out who is dominant and who is subordinate Group composition changes domsub set up 0 Some species have increased intensity of aggression 0 Only question is if it is 0 There s always on who is quottopquot and who is lower Bison have a hierarchy system hierarchy ranks may be associated with sex and o Broody children have a hierarchy but can increase in rank but the place of rank is unpredictable Animal size increases dominance trees increase 0 Resource value RV environmental vs Resource holding potential RHP o Likely relationship with dominance rank and RHP Studies look at best RV reproductive success 0 Reproductive success usually correlated with rank in the community 0 Increase in rank increase in reproductive success 0 Social cue hypothesis preexperience is 0 Can give info on relative rank by your observation 0 Less likely to attack a winner 0 Doesn t really alter your rank but may alter your RHP assessment Continuation of Dominance and Aggression Subordinate individual is far less aggressive than neutrals hasn t experience win or loss 0 Winner Effect winner more likely to win again within time interval say 20 minutes 0 Spider ex Spider size est I one tained with smaller spider trained as winner other trained with larger spider trained as loser l experimental contest staged between the spider trained to win and the spider trained to lose Odds of winning given that you already won vefold chance of winning 0 Betta ghting sh 0 Males not tolerant of one another 0 Modulate behavior based on what other sh do 0 Box plot Average time it takes for sh to react lf allowed to observe will be quick to react if they saw opponent lose lf allowed to observe will wait a lot if they saw opponent win November 13 Hormonal Consequences of Group Living 0 Why don t nonbreeders breed 0 No gonads No reproductive ability Ex have ovaries but can t make gametes o No suitable mates Hypothalamus D pituitary D gonads D behavioral output GnRH LHFSH androgensestrogens Banded mongoose 0 Females have their estress cycles nearly synchronized Clearly some sort of normal interaction that causes this synchronization o For banded mongoose no sort of behavioralreproductive suppression Mongoose 0 Female subordinate have lt LH o Stimulated with GnRH equal response 0 Common marmoset 0 Single breeding female the dominant o Subordinate female LESS LH etc o Caused by substance secreted by the dominant female to cause subordinate s suppression Mole ants 0 Have single breeding male and single breeding female 0 Nonbreeders are permanently nonbreeders Sterile don t breed for entire ives unless for example mom and dad die 0 Naked Mole Rats o Subordinates low level of sex hormone 0 Low LH 0 Even if you stimulate with GnRH NOTHING really happens 0 Suppressed at level of hypothalamusGnRH Aggression and Consequences of Hormones Aggression reproduction Staged ght between two rats 0 Dominantwinning rat GC levls don t peak as high and declinereach normal level quicker vs subordinate rat corticotestosterone conc Rises longerhigher 0 Low rank doesn t mean high stress Subordinate doesn t have any way to avoid dominant high stress 0 Relationship between GC s and hierarchy rank November 18 Division of Labor Learned efficiency you get better and better the more times you do task 0 One individual more innately better at task assigned based on natural abilities Some activities suitable for males some suitable for females some don t have pattern of one sex over another 0 Arctic regions don t have high rate of primary productivity Freshwater areas have HIGH primary productivity 0 Leaf cutter ants 0 Age based on workers 0 Physical differences between major and minor workers 0 Age important to activity of ants Age related division of labor 0 Bees 0 Single cohort all same age 0 Delay foragin delay task of foraging o Accelerate foraging 0 Feed beesstarved colony act as if colony is fed Respond to their own state not so much colony as a whole 0 WHY division of labor 0 All those dishes Who ends up washing them The one that it bothers the most and has a lower tolerance for it 0 EXAMPLE washing dishes 0 Leave dirty dishes in sink until someone who has a low tolerance for the dirty dishes washes them 0 When he washes them lowers the cue for everyone else 0 Therefore those with high tolerances never reach the response threshold Bees pollen vs nectar foragers o A speci c response tolerance is characteristic of pollen foragers and the a different response tolerance is characteristic of nectar foragers November 20 Group Building and Construction 0 Apostle Bird 0 Just because you re social doesn t make you better able to make a nest for example 0 No one person in charge of building particular structure 0 By themselves they end up constructing something that is very recognizable 0 And when they leave their nest and need to make another nest the new nest pretty much looks like the one they re leaving behind Wasp Nest 0 Pulp forager Drop off pulp get water get pulp drop off pulp 0 Water forager give water to pulp foragers so they can harvest the pulp to the builders and get more water 0 If builders need to build a lot going to need a lot of water from water foragers and a lot of pulp from pulp foragers Can t just decide to build more without in uencing pulp and water foragers 0 Experimental Remove pulp foragers Effect reduction in water foragerswater reducing number of pulp foragers for a while but it increases eventually over time and therefore increases waterwater foragers Add pulp As you add pulp number of pulp foragers is going down 0 Extra pulp foragers have this excess and quottrying to get rid of itquot 0 Number of pulp offer rejections increases 0 Cuing hormones LOTS of homeostatic interactions The same can be down to water foragers water etc o Diagrams Showing probability of transition between each of these behaviors N1 After someone is a pulp forager they 100 become a bquer As you add more and more to the group gets a little more complicated Termites o Stigmergy Always put the cell in a particular location that is dependent on previous activity 0 Given a set of rules you have an architecture November 25 Diseases parasite attack will cause death to nest o rinderpeit associated with domesticated December 2 Group membership Unifying symbols or signs of group membership 0 Identifying individuals to social group 0 Recognizing Individuals recognition facilitating some sort of social interaction 0 Know members learn remember 0 Recognize a membership badge Groups can be meaningful or meaningless o Recognize kin relatives Mechanisms that lead to cooperativity o Mutualism any recognition systems might be important 0 Reciprocity important to recognize individuals will pay back those that helped you in the past 0 Altruism kin recognition important Humans 0 Very good at facial recognition 0 Have certain region of brain responsible for this Make a mental model of familiarface So even at unusual angle can recognize face 0 Thatcher effect Faces are very similar to each other however we think of them as fairly distinct because we have these mechanisms that allow us to distinguish them Upside down images Here it becomes more difficult to detect local feature changes in an upsidedown face 0 Showing certain levels of recognition Chimpanzees pics 0 Capacity for individual recognition 0 Pick out the face of the individual whose voice your hear Recognition of individuals place them in some sort of context spatial context this one is always over there social context he is dominantshe is my kin etc 0 Horses Multimodal perception of individuals Penguins that have nests have chicks that make simple calls Visual stimulus Cong rueriit Auditory stimulus II 0 When they don t have nests chicks make more complex calls If there s a nest that parent can go to not as important to have a cue that is more individually recognizable Stripe Backed Wren cooperatively breeding bird 0 Defend territory operatively against everybody else 0 Make calls those calls give information to other birds When they make those calls others will respond in a variety of ways I May call on their own repeat the call 0 May approach the sound of the call 0 Response SCOFGE 125 la b 15 LEE ponse score 4325 l l 4395 l 35 Res Figure Mleans iSE of the scores uni the first principal component of responses to own calllls Ell nieig hih llllllr calllls E and stranger calllls ii iplllayed a all ternitnrjr boundaries and b near the centres of territories Responses to own calls neighbor calls stranger calls Played at territory boundaries don t respond much to neighbor callsown calls but DO respond strongly to stranger calls Played at center of territory don t respond much to own calls but DO respond strongly to stranger AND neighbor calls 0 Birds can recognize individuals Nonkin and kin are the same expression component no difference between kin and nonkin 0 Have to be somewhat different although that means that they may not be really treated differently 0 Detection component can t tell the difference even though there is one 0 Action component can tell the difference just don t do anything about it Able to tell the difference impulse to nurse young is so strong that they don t not nurse to nonkin Degree of familiarity used as cue to allow someone into the nest
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