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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Slawski on Monday February 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TAL590 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Avalos in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Bilingual Education in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Week 2 Diversity amp Students l quotThe Girl Who Wouldn39t Singquot by Kit Yuen Quan Immigrant child from Hong Kong spoke Cantonese immigrated to San Francisco when she was 8 Forced to speak English in school did not receive any support as an English Language Learner ELL felt ostracized humiliated alone transitioned into quotsurvivor modequot 14 Became a limited bilingual barely maintained her Cantonese vocabulary but wasn39t able to fully develop her English language skills either battled throughout her life language barriers and insecurities Identi es different uses of English through tutoring the Cambodian refugees 39English was used for schoolwork and to talk to me They did not try to express their thoughts and feelings in Englishquot 18 Children enjoyed language learning more through play than through textbooks quotl have had to create my own literary program I had to recognize that the school system failed to meet my needs as an immigrant and that this society and its institutions don39t re ect or validate my experiences I have to let myself grieve over the loss of my native language and all the years wasted in classrooms staring into space or dozing off when l was feeling depressed and hopeless My various activities now help to remind me that my relationship with language is more complex than just speaking enough English to get byquot 21 ll Espinosa quotThe Changing Face of Early Childhood in the United Statesquot Almost 30 of Latino children live in poverty in the US approximately 20 of all children under the age of 5 live in poverty and this percentage dramatically increases for those who are recent immigrant families for those who cannot speak English immigrant families are more likely to be poor than nativeborn poverty rates for immigrant families vary by state 14 in NJ to 40 in TX preschool age Latino children are the least likely of any ethnicracial group to attend preschool or child care in the nation but this is more of a result of nancial constraints and lack of access to information about these schools 22 quotThe average cognitive scores of preschoolaged children in the lowest socioeconomic group are 60 lower than the average scores of children in the highest socioeconomic group 11 ELL children enrolled in Head State speak the following languages at the following frequencies from highest to lowest 0 Spanish 84 East Asian Languages Middle EasternSouth Asian languages EuropeanSlavic languages Native CentralSouth American languages Native Mexican languages Paci c Island languages African languages Ca bbeanlanguages 0 Native North AmericanAlaska Native languages 36 states serve more than 8 language groups gateway states like NY IL CA TX etc are more prepared for the needs of preschool ELL children but with the increase in new immigrant destination states like in the Midwest and not mentioned in this article but also in the southeast language development programs are needed in Head Start schools Fun facts about Latino families Latinos more likely to speak their native language in the household than other ethnic groups they are less likely to have a uent Englishspeaking adult in the household Latino parents often want their kids to retain Spanish while learning English quotthe use of Spanish has traditionally served as a culturally unifying aspect of Latino family life as well as a potential social and economic resourcequot 16 Latino families have a shared set of values such as la familia el respeto el cari o la responsibilidad y la educaci n and educators need to be aware of these values when teaching and interacting with these kids quotIt appears that as children become more assimilated and uent in English their commitment to this value familia weakens Portes and Rumbaut 2001 found that Latino children of immigrants who were predominantly English speakers were less familistic than their bilingual or nativespeaking peers While adding English to the home language does not appear to weaken famil values replacing home language with English is associated with a decreased commitment to familiaquot 17 Four main groups of Asian Americans 0 East Asian such as Chinese Japanese and Korean 0 Paci c Islander such as Filipinos 0 Southeast Asian such as Thai and Vietnamese and 0 South Asian such as Indian and Pakistani Increase in East Asian languages within Head Start programs not all Asian students are academically superior they are raised under Confuscian values and are told to respect authority quotTo what extent do the learning expectations for monolingual USborn Englishspeaking children re ect the progression of ELL childrenquot 24 Some steps that can be taken are the following 0 Special attention to English vocabulary oral development time with Englishspeaking peers 0 Build systematic connections to families 0 Support for the home language visavis language interactions literary activities and some instruction in the language OOOOOOOO 0 Quali ed teachers and staff in not only ELL teaching but also in cultural practices of the diverse student population 0 Working with families to ensure that children don39t lose their home language lll LessowHurley quotCulture and Academic Successquot 0 Three perspectives to explain differences in academic achievement among different ethnic groups 0 Genetic lnferiority Assumes that certain groups are inherently incapable of academic achievement rooted in 19th century colonialism justi es cultural domination and enslavement Nowadays used to victim blame instead of nding fault in the educational system itself 0 Cultural De cit Suggests that ethnic minorities fail bc their cultures are inadequate In some way Blames the victim like the genetic inferiority model but insists that through remediation these problems can be corrected Ignores social and political context of schooling 0 Cultural Mismatch Claims that members of minority groups do not succeed in school because the characteristics of their cultures are incongruent with the mainstream schooling system While this might not be the most allencompassing answer it provides researchers with a more detailed look at invisible or deep culture Critics claim that if there are simply issues in miscommunication among people of different cultures why don39t the actors negotiate them among themselves Humans are very well capable of doing this 0 Student 5 from different racial and ethnic backgrounds may have different cognitive styles eld dependent sensitive or independent communication styles and interaction styles o quotIs it possible that minority children in school fail to negotiate miscommunications because they resist the notion of acculturation Acculturation after all implies the superiority of a particular groupquot 104 Ogbu has characterized minorities into 3 different groups 0 Autonomous minorities like Jews and Mormons thy maintain a distinct cultural identity but are not socially or politically isolated o Immigrant minorities positive selfconcept in spite of social and political subordination o Castelike minorities incorporated into the society involuntarily such as African Americans and Native Americans even Mexican immigrants For the mainstream school isn39t an institution that challenges them and their beliefs However quotfor the people whose cultural social economic or political perspectives differ from the mainstream schools may represent a power structure that will indoctrinate their children away from the ways of living that their families value and cherishquot 107 IV Wolfe quotChanging Metaphors for Secondary ESL and Bilingual Education quotMetaphor allows people to map a more abstract domain onto a more concrete one and therefore gives them a way of conceptualizing the abstract domain in terms of something they have already 39named39quot 255256 This is something that Kit could not do quotit is argued that the metaphors that shape second language participation in secondary school are being used without thoughtful analysis trapping educators into ways of talking about secondary ESL and bilingual students that require critical examinationquot 256 Eg quotlearning as acquisitionquot metaphor quotShe lost her mother tonguequot the human brain is a container into which information can be added Metaphors serve as a frame
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