Popular in Psychology 210
Popular in Psychlogy
This 13 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Corinne Caro on Monday February 2, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to PSY 210 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Amy Schaffeur in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology 210 in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/02/15
Anatomy SPRING 01132015 Chapter 2 The Cell Smallest unit of life made up of trillions and trillions of cells to study we group them 0 5 different types according to tissue 0 many are analogous perform many complex functions 2 types of cells 0 sex cells sperm and oocytes somatic cells all other cells that are not sex cells Cytology study of cells 0 We use different types of microscopes Within each group there is a number of different cells we group according to tissue Smooth muscle celltissue that transports material Blood cell white and red blood cells Platelets not really cells they are fragments of other types of cells Sex cells only sex cells in the body Question Hermaphrodites with sex cells Neural cells cells vary a lot neuroglia supporting cells hat provides support for neurons Neurons talk to tissue outside of the system excitable cells or communicate by neurotransmitters they are critical Without them muscles will not contract Botox blocking acotyledon in the forehead muscles are paralyzed Epithelial cells cells that line intestinal tract perform process of absorption Microvilli increase the surface area offer absorption areas all along its borders Fat cells adipocytes store fat more fat you eat more is stored Majority of energy resource is stored as fat Glycogen stored in liver energy between meals when run out we go into fat cells Glucose lasts 30 minutes during intense exercise Cytoplasm internal part of cell all organelles found Plasma membrane only in plant cells humans have cell membrane 0 Phospholipid bilayer Cell membrane isolate internal structures in cell from external lntra and external cellular compartment 2 things Men have only one agellated sperm has a quotwhipquot Cytoskeleton transport and attachment for other organelles Microvillisurface area Cilia nd in cells that are located in parts of body that move something respiratory tract moves mucus when you are sick replaced by metaplasia smokers can not move mucus due to damage of the epithelial cilia cells on trachea Protein synthesis process where cells generate material and are either used or move somewhere else in the body ATP moecue of energy for the cell Apoptosis natural process of cellular death normal 0 Abnormal necrosis pathological it generates global immune reaction Smooth no ribosome attached to it Golgi apparatus packages everything that is synthesizing in the endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria very important Powerhouse But only after krebs cycle and phosphorylation Electron transport chain last molecule acceptor is OXYGEN if oxygen is not presented it can shut down and this marks beginning of death eventually shut down of mitochondria Nucleus contains all genetic material what and how much Posttranslational things are further processed into Golgi apparatus and stored in lysosomes Cell membrane determines cellular functions regulates what goes in and out of cell Question Organ transplants with foreign body Question Cystic brosis Active transport uses some use of energy Passive no energy Diffusion passive form of transport Osmosis passive form of transport Most of our cells contain iron pump maintain concentration and existence Ligand binds to receptor Centrioles important for cell replication Cilia movement of stuff The cell has a lot of mitochondria Semen has sugar this has energy to swim Cellular respiration use of oxygen and carbon dioxide comes out Question Chapter 3 Cells vary with function and tissue Classify with different methodologies classify cells with different proteins and service Classify by speci c protein and cell Golgi apparatus packaging of vesicles some material is stored and excreted upon demand Digestive enzymes are stored in lysosomes not good to have them freely Peroxisome contain catalyst break down H202 otherwise similar to lysosomes Cell membrane phospholipid bilayer selectively permeable lipid soluble bacterial meningitis example We need cells to stick together and be attached to become tissue Adhe ngjunc ons Tight little space close any potential space between cells in tubules of kidneys Anchoring anchor cells to a membrane Gap junctions connect inside of one cell to one another cells mostly function electrically communicate from one cell to the next change in electronegativity Desmosome mechanical integrity of cell tissue Cell reproduction Mitosis Prophase rst phase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Overlaps with anaphase and telophase Neurons and Muscle Cells never replicate 0 Tissue grows through hypertrophy growth by increase of size of individually cells 0 Growth of heart pathological 0 Normal 0 abnormal Hyperplasia by number of cells 0 Normal increase in uterine size 0 Abnormal growth in cervix precancer Cells that do not replicate stay in GO phase interphase DNA replication 0 Need to uncoil to replicate make parallel Helicase uncoiling DNA 0 DNA polymerase begins replicating one single strand on a new strand 0 Okazi fragments incomplete strands of DNA 0 Ligands ties or binds the fragments and helps to synthesize material Olfactory factor stem cells factored into neurons making new neuron from stem cell Stem cell becomes a cell depending on the tissue Meiosis Chapter 3 lntegumentary System Houses biggest organ skin Skin most visible organ of the body protect and isolate your body 0 Vitamin D3 promotes calcium to bones CALCIUM IS IMPORTANT A lot of immune system Hair Nails no evolutionary purpose for nails Sweat glandssecrete watery substance Sweating cool the body regulate of body temperature Controlled by parasympathetic system Oi glandssebum Mammary glands o Prolactin Modi ed sweat glands Oxytocin contraction secretion of milk promotes tissue contraction All internal diseases manifest to the skin Cutaneous membrane 0 Epidermis 0 Thick skin Found on palms and soles Made of ve layers of cells 0 Thin skin Found on the rest of the body Made of four layers of cells 0 Dermis o Papillary layer Nourishes and supports epidermis o Reticular layer Restricts spread of pathogens penetrating epidermis o Hypodermis subcutaneous layer Accessory Structures 0 Hair follicles Exocrine glands o Nails Question The disease where you do not feel pain MRSA make an entry point in the skin causes infection of soft tissue resistant to penicillin Burn Unit Dehydration 0 Infection Pathogens Most sensitive area of the skin is the lips Least sensitive area of the body is the calf 4 Cell types found in the epidermis Keratinocytes bound together by desmosomes Most abundant cells The skin is not good for diagnosis all the time but good for con rming the existence and progression of the condition Each layer has a speci c function Epidermis Stratum basale o Deepest layer active cells of skin that continue to replicate and push up we constantly shed dead skin cells MYTH Hair and nails keep growing when you die Epidermal ridges ngerprints Increase in body response for SS creates quotstressquot Fingerprints are very identical Skin colorthermal blood supply Dermis o Papillary layer 0 Dermal papillae o Capillaries deliver blood collect and drain blood 0 Nerve axonsreceptors mechanical nos and thermal receptors respond in order pressure pain and temperature Question what happens to the skin when someone gets pregnant or has a weight reduction surgery If no circulation then it will eventually die when there is already poor circulation at certain times 0 Reticular Layer Consist of Interwoven network of dense irregular connective tissue Hair follicles some people have oily hair Sweat glands its too cool body down but also excretes waste Sebaceous glandseverywhere in body secrete sebum oil especially during puberty Fat usually deposits where there is blood capillaries Papillary plexus skin of neurons 0 Wrinkles 0 They are inevitable o Fibers of reticular layer of the skin stretch and recoil 0 Due to Age UV light Radiation causes mechanical cells to die Melanocarconoma very rough rough cancer Stretch marks 0 Extensive stretching during pregnancy causes reticular bers to break 0 Skin does not recoil 0 Skin wrinkles and creases resulting in stretch marks Lines of cleavage o Fibers have a tendency to organize themselves in a parallel fashion 0 Certain areas of the body there is a pattern 0 Reduce scar formation surgeons try to cut following line of cleavage 0 Best CSection is vertical Subcutaneous layer 0 Has Adipose tissue Major blood vessels 0 Due to location Hair 0 Made of keratin Hair Follicles 0 Cells are layered in concentric cells 0 Types of Hair 0 Vellus Covers most of the body Peach fuzz Intermediate Purpose for nose hair and ear hair MOM PASSES GENE FOR HAIR LOSS As we age hair growth has different rates of growth Women have diffused hair loss Men only at the top Gland combination of speci c cells that manufacture speci c substance There are sebaceous glands everywhere except palm of hand and sole of feet 0 GET ESSENTIAL SKELETON Chapter 5 the Skeletal System Composed of skeletal bones cartiage igaments connective tissue Auditory ossicles 3 smallest Femur is largest Articulatory cartilageany two bones that have cartilage in the middle Bone marrow yellow and red critical for survival immune and red blood cells are in bone marrow and storage of calcium External skeleton Lobster Shrimp 0 Bugs Bones are very strong it takes a lot to fracture the skull mostly made of same material A lot of cell function in body is controlled by hormones Osteobone Cytesces Bone repair works similar to scare tissue Archaeologist can tell how someone died based on the bone many infectious diseases can leave marks on the bone Bones tell us a lot of the person height and gender race and ethnicity and approximate age Question transgender surgery Does the bone structure change Osteoclasts Bone reabsorption Calcium is essential When levels of calcium are low the thyroid tes osteoclasts to break down so calcium can be absorbed Not every bone has bone marrow o Medullary cavitywhere we have bone marrow make white and red blood cells Osteon O CO 00 Central canal passage of blood vessel Canaliculi little lagoons in bone structure Central canal has branches that distribute blood of rest of body Osteocytes Lacunae Lamellae lrrigational blood to bones it is dif cult as medication travels through body it is metabolize we have to insert directly now Bones form around circles Most bones have 1 or 2 arteries Trauma loss of an artery then loss of vessels that deliver blood to artery Spongy bonemakes the bone lighter and creates cavity we need for medullary cavity Outside of bone usually has compact bone Outer membrane periosteum strong a Active in process of growth and repair of bone a Allows tendons to attach to surface of bone a Very strong a Joints hold ligaments to bone lnner membrane endosteum Compact bone Every cavity has a membrane Femur bone that has the most bone marrow n Yellowfatlipids a Red where we make white and red blood cells n Femoral fractures medical emergency next to femoral artery and vein 0 Ex Surgical assassination o Embolism 0 Characteristics 0000 CO Bones have a proximal and distal articulation Head of the femur is proximate head of the femur that ts into socket of hip quotball and socket jointquot Below head is the neck of the femur joins the head with the rest of the femur Any fossa foramina or canal has a purpose Metaphysismade of cartilage growth plates we grow lineally n Chondrocytes Cartilage cells constantly growing rapidly Shaft has largest medullary cavity Traumatic issues can have growth issues Dwarfism genetic condition early ossi cation achondroplasia ack of cartilaginous growth Giagantism n Increases cartilaginous growth and that person is huge I Caused by pituitary gland a Not agile a Problem with articulation a Body is too heavy Achromegary disease where you grow after puberty There is uid because of synovial joint prevents erosion of bone Osteoarthritis erosion of the bone Ossi cation Appositional growthlayering and layering of bones As bone deposits it leaves a canal Cell in the body needs to have oxygen without it there will be no ATP Vitamin D critical for absorption of calcium Jeggren Syndrome by 13 years old child is stiff and paralyzed genetic Osteroporosis
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