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Bio 106 Week 3 (Lectures 6, 7 & 8)

by: Sheridan Lantz

Bio 106 Week 3 (Lectures 6, 7 & 8) 2570

Marketplace > Washington State University > 2570 > Bio 106 Week 3 Lectures 6 7 8
Sheridan Lantz
GPA 3.89
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee

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My notes are on lectures 6:The Evolution of Populations, 7:The Origin of Species (Species and Speciation) & 8: Plant Structure, Growth and Development. These notes have everything from the lectu...
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Monday February 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/15
The Evolution of Populations continued Lecture 6 Concept 232 The HardyWeinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving Frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population s gene pool remain constant from generation to generation Conditions for nonevolving population Rarely met in nature Extremely large population size No gene flow no migrations No mutations Random mating No natural selection Frequency of an allele can be calculated gt For diploid organisms the total number of alleles at a locus is the total number of individuals times 2 gt The total number of dominant alleles at a locus o 2 alleles for each homozygous dominant individual 0 1 allele for each heterozygous individual 0 The same logic applies for recessive alleles gt If there are 2 alleles at a locus p and q are used to represent their frequencies gt The frequency of all alleles in a population will add up to 1 0 Example p q 1 For example consider a population of wildflowers that is incompletely dominant for color 50 red flowers CRCR 100 pink flowers CRCW 50 white flower CWCW Calculate OR 50 x 2 100 2oo CW 50 x 2 100 2oo Calculate frequency p freq CR 200200200 05 q freq CW 200200200 05 gt The sum of alleles is always 1 Gametes are drawn at random from the gene pool Conditions for HardyWeinberg Equilibrium gt The Hard Weinber theorem gt In real problems 0 Allele and genotype frequencies do change over time Concept 233 Natural selection genetic drift and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population gt Three major factors alter allele frequencies and bring about most evolutionary change Genetic drift s 5 3 2 3 cRcR cRcR plants cc cc plants g cc g CRW leave leave R GRCR C CCR g g sgrfifng Xe sgififng gs CWCW CRCR gt CRCR CWCW CRCR CRCR w C Ea c c CRCR cRcR cRcR CRCW CWCW CRCR C C 9e cRcR CRCW cRcW cRcW CRCR cRcR Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 p frequency of CR 07 p 05 p 10 q frequency of 039 03 q 05 q 00 gt In the Bottleneck effect 0 A sudden change in the environment may drastically reduce the size of a population 0 The gene pool may no longer be reflective of the original population s gene pool gt The Founder effect 0 Occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population 0 Can affect allele frequencies in a population Effects of Genetic Drift Summary 1 Genetic drift is significant in small populations 2 Genetic drift causes allele frequencies to change at random 3 Genetic drift can lead to a loss of genetic variation within populations 4 Genetic drift can cause harmful alleles to become fixed Gene Flow Causes a population to gain or lose alleles Gene flow tends to reduce differences between populations over time Concept 234 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution gt Natural selection gt From the range of variations available in a population 0 Natural selection increases the frequencies of certain genotypes o Fitting organisms to their environment over generations Three modes of selection are Favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range Favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range Favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes l Original population Frequency of individuals 4 L 2 original EVOIVed Phenotypes fur color population population l U I I39 I 0 r 539 V a quot 391 quot 1 39 g a Directional selection b Disruptive selection c Stabilizing selection Natural Selection in Adaptive Evolution gt Natural selection increases the frequencies of allele that enhance survival and reproduction gt Adaptive evolution occurs as the match between an organism and its environment increases Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Prefect Organisms 1 Selection can act only on existing variations 2 Evolution is limited by historical constraints 3 Adaptations are often compromises 4 Chance natural selection and the environment interact The Origin of Species Species and Speciation Lecture 7 Speciation gt Explains differences and similarities between species gt Microevolution versus Macroevolution Two patters of evolutionary change Anagenesis Cladogenesis The origin of new species or speciation ls focal point of evolutionary theory because new species are source of biological diversity Evolutionary theory Must explain how new species originate in addition to how populations evolve Concept 241 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation Species is a Latin word meaning kind or appearance The Biological Species Concept A species is a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature And produce viable fertile offspring But are unable to produce viable fertile offspring with members of other populations Reproductive Barriers Block fertilization by o Prevent attempting to mate 0 Prevent the successful completion of mating o Hinder fertilization if matin is successful Prezygotic barriers Postzygotic barriers Speciation Concept 242 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation gt Speciation can occur in two ways 0 Allopatric speciation o Sympatric speciation Sympatric Speciation gt Takes place in geographically overlapping populations 0 Polyploidy extra sets of chromosomes 0 Can also result from the appearance of new ecological niches Polyploidy Accidents during cell division Autopolyploid individual with more chromosome sets from one species Allopolyploid A species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species Habitat Differentiation Exploitation of new habitat or resources Sexual Selection Breeding coloration Allopatric and Sympatric Review gt Geographic isolation restricts gene flow between populations gt Reproductive barrier can isolate a subset of a population without geographic separation Adaptive Radiation Evolution of a new species upon introduction to new environmental oppo unMes Mammal adaptive radiation after the dinosaur extinction The Hawaiian archipelago great showcases of adaptive radiation Concept 243 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation Region where different species meet and mate and produce some viable offspring Hybrids are the result of mating between species with incomplete reproductive barriers Hybrid Zones over Time Isolated population diverges Possible outcomes Hyb d zone Reinforcement 1quot 392 1102 o 9t 93 R 7 OR y JZ o Fusion Hybrid 0R Barrier to Population gene flow five individuals Stability Copyright 0 zone Pearson Education lnc publishan as Pearson Beulamm Eiu quotDA 4A Plant Structure Growth and Development Lecture 8 Concept 351 Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of organs tissues and cells Plants like multicellular animals Have organs composed of different tissues which are in turn composed of cells The three basic plant organs 1 Roots 28mms 3 Leaves They are organized into a root system and a shoot system Simpli ed ower sturcture Simpli ed plant life cycle Germinated pollen grain n male gametophyte Anther Stamen Pollen tube Ovary Anther Stigma Carpel Style Filament l Embryo sac n female gametophyte ll M ll ll Sperm n l a Mature sporophyte Zyg te i Key plant 2n 2quot Haploid n Germinating Seed Diploid2n seed V Receptacle The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds gt A seed may remain dormant until favorable conditions trigger germination gt Are a variety of dispersal agents wind animals water gt Stored supply of food The Angiosperm Life C cle develops into with rudimentary meristems SAM amp RAM and A Embryo 2n Simple sporophyte fruit A root Is an organ that anchors the vascular plant Absorbs minerals and water from the tip Often stores organic nutrients Tiny root hairs increase surface area of the root Many plants have modified roots Prop roots adventitious Storage roots Strangling aerial roots Buttress roots Pneumatophores A stem is an organ consisting of An alternating system of the points at which leaves are attached the stem segments between nodes An axillary bud Is a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch A terminal bud ls located near the shoot tip and causes elongation of a young shoot Many plants have modified stems Stolons Blubs Tubers Rhizomes Leaves generally Is the main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants A flattened blade and a stalk which joins the leaf to a node of the stem Modified leaves that serve various functions Spines Bracts Storage leaves Reproductive leaves Tendrils is a single undivided blade Blade consists of multiple leaflets notice that a leaflet has no axilla bud at its base h Each leaflet is divided into smaller leaflets The three tissue systems Each plant organ has dermal vascular and ground tissue Dermal Tissue Outer protective covering dermal tissue usually a single layer of tightly packed cells in wood plants replaces epidermis in older tissue Vascular Tissue Carries out longdistance transport of materials between roots and shoots Consists of two tissues xylem and phloem Ground Tissue Includes various cells specialized for functions such as and Parenchyma generally lack secondary walls perform of metabolism amp contain plastids Collenchyma Flexible support cells without secondary wall Sclerenchyma thick secondary walls primarily for support l clicker Questions Consider a population of wildflower that is incompletely dominant for color 300 red flowers CRCR 100 pink flowers CRCW 50 white flowers CWC Calculate the number of copies of each allele 300 red and 50 white 400 red and 150 white 700 red and 150 white 700 red and 200 white 400 red and 200 white WUOWFD Which of the following is a requirement for a non evolving population A Small ioiulation size C High rate of mutations D Nonrandom mating sexual selection E Natural selection Which of the following is not a major factor in altering allele frequencies and bringing about evolutionary change Nonrandom mating Gene Flow Bottle Neck effect Founder effect Natural selection WUOWFD Which are components of the biological species concept Be able to produce viable off spring Potential to breed in nature Not able to reproduce with other populations A and B are correct A B and C are correct WUOWFD ThinkPair Share clicker f p 05 and q 05 calculate frequency of the homozygous dominate heterozygous and homozygous recessive genotypes 035 02 025 05 05 05 025 025 025 010 010 010 025 05 025 WUOWFD


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