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Animal Sci Week 3 (lectures 5 & 6)

by: Sheridan Lantz

Animal Sci Week 3 (lectures 5 & 6) 4569

Marketplace > Washington State University > 4569 > Animal Sci Week 3 lectures 5 6
Sheridan Lantz
GPA 3.89
Introductory Animal Science
Martin Maquivar

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About this Document

My notes are on lectures 5 & 6: Animal Reproduction. These notes have everything from the lecture slides with side notes on what the professor went into detail about. I also added in definitions to...
Introductory Animal Science
Martin Maquivar
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Monday February 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4569 at Washington State University taught by Martin Maquivar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 144 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/15
Animal Reproduction Lecture 5 Fertility Pregnancy rates to a single insemination Sheep 85 Pigs 90 Horses 40 Beef cows 45 Dairy cows 35 or lower Humans 25 lnfertility and subfertility are major problems in humans domestic animals and companion animals Pregnancy loss is a major limitation to adoption and efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies ART Reproductive Biology gt Physiology Study of integrated functions of the body and the functions of all its parts gt What is reproduction 0 Series of anatomical endocrinological physiological and behavioral changes that occurs in the animal for the propagation and continuation of the species gt Why is important to study reproduction 0 Clinical applications 0 Food production 0 You name it Factors that affect reproduction efficiency Environment season Nutrition Maturation Reproductive stage Lactation Disease Management Endocrinology branch of science which studies hormones and endocrine glands Specialized gland 9Hormone 9Target cell Physiology of reproduction gt What is a hormone o Secretions from glands that have an effect in target cells containing specific receptors to activate or inhibit a specific functions gt What is a gland o Specialized tissue that synthesized and secretes chemical signals released to the bloodstream or outside of the body gt What is a receptor 0 Specific proteins found embedded in the plasma membrane cytoplasma or nuclear membrane of a cell that receives chemical signals Hormonal action gt Autocrine o Hormone released and acts on receptors locates on the same cell gt Paracrine o Hormone released and perform functions on neighboring cells gt Endocrine o Hormone released and circulate through the bloodstream to target cell gt Exocrine o Hormone released outside of the body and act on other individual pheromones Hypothalamus Hypophysis Gonads Ovary Testicle Orientation of Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gonadotropin Hormone that acts in the glands Produced from Hypothalamus Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH 9 Produced from Pituitary Hypophysis Luteinizing Hormone LH amp Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH 9 Produced from Gonads Ovariesl Testicles Estrogen Testosterone and Progesterone Ovary Func ons gt Production of oocytes gametes gt Production of hormones o Progesterone P4 0 Estradiol E2 0 Otherhormones gt Follicles o Estradiol o lnhibin o Activin gt Corpus Luteum o Progesterone Oxytocin Relaxin lnhibin Activin OOOO Oviduct Functions Secretory transportation selective barrier gt Made up of several structures 0 lnfundibulum o Amulla o Isthmus o Uterotubal junction UIJ gt Delicate tubeOIike structure extending from the uterus to the ovary gt Connected with the uterus but not the ovary gt Mesosalpinx supports the oviduct Uterine Horns and Uterus gt Prominent organ of the female reproductive tract organ of pregnancy gt Primates posses a uterine body and no uterine horns gt Muscular organ most variable organ in size and other features in the female reproductive system 1 Support embryonic fetal development 2 Expulsion of newborn at parturition Duplex Bicornuate Two cervices Poorly to moderately developed uterine horns Marsupials Bicornuate Simplex No uterine horns Highly developed uterine horns Primate it Bitch Queen Sow il Cervix Rigid portion of female tract Lumen of cervix in ruminants Annular ringsfinger like projection that act to seal the cervical lumen Lumen of cervix in swinerings are called interdigitating prominenses and boar penis becomes locked Func ons Transportation vehicle for sperm mucus Selection of viable sperm Sperm reservoir sperm can be found localized in the crypts Prevents entry of foreign material into the uterus Expansiondilation parturitionenzymatic degradation of connective tissue VVVV O39TBF ONT Vagina gt Region between the external vestibule and cervix gt Two regions cranial vagina and caudal vagina vestibule Func ons Copulatory organsight of semen deposition in many species with excep ons Passageway for fetus at parturition External Genitalia Labia majoria and minora collectively known as vulva Clitoris Vulva Labia major and minor Only visible part of reproductive tract Hormonal fluctuations Hyperemic blood engorged and reddened in estrus Pale reduce when progesterone high Function is to separate the reproductive tract from the outside world VVVVVVVV Reproductive Terminology Estrous cycle reproductive cycle of majority of mammals Menstrual cycle primates elephant shrew bat Estrous cycle characterized by estrus heat 0 Period of time when the female is sexually receptive to the male Anestrus Absence of sexual receptivity Polyestrous multiple estrous cycles in a period of time VV V VV Estrus cycles according to frequency POLYESTRUS MONOESTRUS POLYESTRUS What is puberty gt First behavioral estrus accompanied by development of a Corpus Luteum gt Is the process of acquiring reproductive competence Definition or onset of puberty in females 1 Age of first estrusmenstrual cycle 2 Age of first ovulation 3 Age at which a female can support pregnancy without deleterious effects Estrus cycle and Sexual receptivity Species Female Alpaca2 1 yr Bovine 11 mo 924 Camel 3 yrs Canine 12 mo 624 Equine 18 mo 1219 Feline 8 mo 412 Llama2 612 mo Ovine 7 mo 414 Porcine 6 mo 57 gt Length of time of estrous cycle and estrus varies depending on species gt 21 i 2 days in mare cow pig gt 6 mo ln dog 3 months of cycle 3 months anestrus Estrusheat gt Cow 1224 hr gt Mare 7days gt Dog amp Cat 89 days Estrus and ovulation spontaneous versus induced ovulators Estrous cycle 1 Proestrus d Estms 111 Metestms d Diestrus d Cow 1014 Ewe 1012 Sow quotr U 1113 R39Iare to I L 1012 A A Follicular phase Luteal phase PROESTRUS ESTRUS METAESTRUS DIESTRUS Follicular growth Tertiary follicle FSH Estrogens Formation of a CL Corpus haemorraghicum Courpus Luteum Progesterone 2 r Ovulation gtgt Regression of CL C Prostaglandin FZOL Follicular phase is variable and Luteal phase is set k Follicular phase Proliferative phase gtgt gt 3 gtgt gtgt Endometrial development Follicular development Ovulation occurs at the end of the proliferative phase FSH Estrogen LH Luteal phase Secretory phase gt Mature endometrial glands Menstruation occurs at the end of the secretory phase Formation of CL Progesterone Animal Reproduction 2 Lecture 6 Male reproductive anatomy Hypothalamus and hypohysis pituitary Main Structures General Functions Testis Production of spermatozoids Epididymis Synthesis of hormones Scrotum gt39 Deivery of semen in the female Vas deferens reproductive tract Accessory Sex Glands Urethra Penis Testicular Thermoregulation Epididymis Func ons 1 2 3 Sperm transport Concentration Fluid absorption sertoli and rete testis derived fluid in the caput sperm concentration increases Secretion Various segments of the epididymis contribute materials proteins etc to the fluid Storage Cauda functions are the major storage regions sperm can remain viable in the cauda for up to 60 days Maturation Provide environment for final maturation Sperm are not competent for motility or fertility until they transit through the epididymis sperm are completely formed morphologically but they are not mature Sperm Production VVVVVVV Both testes weigh about 800 grams Bull produces1015 billion spermday Ram 26 milliongday 14 billionday Boar 30 milliongday 25 billionday Stallion 18 milliongday 3 billionday Quail 100 milliongday Humans low end of sperm production 425 milliongday 130200 millionday testis 4O g 1500 every heart beat Accessory Glands Void secretions into the urethra secretions make up the bulk of semen seminal plasma provide a vehicle for sperm transport and provide nutrients for sperm Semen organic fluid secretions of testis epididymis accessory sex glands complex solution with cells sugars amino acids etc Not required for fertility Accessory Glands Vesicular Prostate Prostate Bulbourethral Ampulla gland Body Dlssemlnate gland Bull Ram Boar Stallion Dog NA NA Asia sng Human Cat NA NA Penis plural penes Composed of three parts Base Shaft Glans of the penes There two types of penes gt Vascular musculocavernous gt Stallion dog cats human gt Fibroelastic gt Ruminants boar Major difference between the two types proportion of vascular to fibroelastic ssue Thermoregulation gt Normal status of the mammalian male 0 Testis is suspended outside the body in the scrotum and maintained at a temp approx 46 C cooler than body temperature gt Lower temperatures are critical for sperm production gt High temp even for a short time will lead to germ cell death in the testis also increase DNA damage to developing germ cells Reproductive behavior Copulation gt Sustained copulators o Boar dog and camelids gt Short copulators 0 Bull ram buck tom Postcopulation gt Refractivity 0 Period after copulation that male and female will not engage in copulatory behavior Early embryo development gt Ootide 0 Male and female pronuclei can be observed 0 Large amount of cytoplasm gt Zygote 0 Single cell embryo o Mitotic divisions cleavage divisions gt Morula o 8 cell embryo gt Blastocyst o Embryo hatching Maternal recognition of pregnancy I Embryo signaling to the dam I Prevention of luteolysis I Progesterone must be maintained Placental functions Regulates exchange of nutrients I Simple diffusion Gases and water I Facilitated diffusion o Glucose and aminoacids I Active transport 0 Ca Na K pumps Maternal proteins do not cross the placental barrier I Immunoglobulins transference in hemochorial and endotheliochorial Classification of the placenta Distribution of chorionic villi Difuse Pigs Mares Zonary Dogs and cats Discoid Rodents and primates Cotyledonary Ruminants Parturition Uterine pressure Fetus of the cow mare and ewe rotate Front feet and head are positioned Dilation of the cervix Lactation Morphogenesis The formation and differentiation of tissues and organs Mammogenesis The development of the mammary gland Milk is derived from blood One gallon of milk requires 500 gallons of blood being passed through the udder Ratio may increase in low producing cows Milk ejection Neuroendocrine re ex Sensory activation auditory tactile and visual Neuronal activation to the Hypothalamus Oxytocin release into the blood Contraction of myoepithelial cells Mechanical transfer of milk form alveoli into ducts and into the teat nipple


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