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test 3 week 3

by: UNT_Scientist

test 3 week 3 Biol 2041


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About this Document

all notes for the third week of test 3
Daniel Kunz
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 04/06/16
Groups of infecting vertebrates   ■ Non Enveloped,polyhedral double stranded DNA   ● Adenovirus   ○ Upper respiratory infections   ● Papovavirus   ○ Shope’s papilloma “human warts”  ■ Enveloped, polyhedral double stranded DNA  ● Herpesviruses   ○ Herpes simplex  ■ Cold sores and fever blisters ­type 1  ■ Genital herpes ­type 2  ○ Herpes zoster (shingles in middle age)  ○ Infectious mononucleosis   ■ Enveloped, complex, double stranded DNA   ● Poxviruses­  ○ Variola (smallpox) very large size  ■ Noneveloped, polyhedral, single stranded RNA  ● Picornaviruses  ○ Smallest RNA viruses known  ■ Poliovirus  ■ Rhinovirus (common cold)   ■ Hepatitis   ■ Nonenveloped , polyhedral, Single stranded DNA  ● Parvoviruses  ○ Infective to animals, rats, hamsters, mice  ■ Enveloped, polyhedral, Single stranded RNA   ● Togaviruses   ○ Rubella (German measles)  ○ Others transmitted by arthropod (eg, equine encephalitis)  ● Retrovirus   ○ RNA tumor viruses leukemia and other cancers   ○ HIV (AIDS)  ■ Enveloped, helical Single stranded  RNA  ● Paramyxoviruses  ○ Rubeola (measles) and mumps   ● Orthomyxovirus  ○ Influenza   ● Rhabdoviruses   ○ Rabies   ○ Vocabulary   ■ Conventional virion   ● Nucleic acid + protein   ■ Unconventional prion   ● Protein (infected)  ○ Sheep scrapie  ■ Viroid    ● Nuclei can acid   ○ Potato spindle tuber virus 300­400 base pairs   ○ How to tell if there is a virus present or that it is infected   ■ Bacteria   ● Mix the virus with the bacteria   ● The cells are lysed and create and area of clearing known as  plaques   ●  We then count the number of plaques (each plaque representing  one virus)  ● This is know as the viral titer to determine the viral count   ■ Animals   ● Propagate in living animals or in embryo acted eggs   ○ Growth period   ■ One­step growth curve   ● 10­30 min for bacteriophage   ● 6­8 hrs for picot a virus (common cold)   ● 40 hrs for herpes   ○ Life cycle   ■ ■ Prophase   ● Integration of virus into DNA  ■ Prions   ● How proteins can be infected  ●   ● causes neurological issues   ○ Sheep scrape   ○ Mad cow disease   ○ Creutzfeldt Jakob disease   ■ Cjd   ○ Kuro (cannibalism)  ■ Reason prions were discovered  ● A cellular protein becomes a infected protein.   ● Gene transfers  ○ Mechanism   ■ Transformation   ● Naked DNA  ■ Transduction   ● Phage mediated  ■ Conjugation   ● Cell to cell contact mediated by a pilus   ■ Avery,Macleod , McCarty 1944   ● discovery that DNA is transferable not protein  ○ Work with​Streptococcus pneumonia​o recognize  different colonies (smooth, rough)  ■ Smooth  colonies added to mice they will die   ■ Rough colonies added to mice they will live   ○ Avery discovered that you could add smooth colones to  rough DNA and added this to mice and found that the mice  would still die   ○   ○ What happens to transferred DNA  ■ Free existence in cytoplasm  ● Autonomous replication   ● Recombination (integration)  ○ Plasmid   ■ Plasmids replicate based off of an origin of replication   ■ The replication fork goes in opposite directions from each other   ■   ■ Plasmid integration   ● ■ Homologous recombination   ● ● codes for the same genes like eyes or hair   ■ Non­ homologous recombination   ● Uses transposons   ○ Also known as jumping DNA   ○ Non­homologous recombination (transposable) carry  mobile genes  ○ Cannot code by its own self   ■   ■  


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