test 3 week 3
test 3 week 3 Biol 2041
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Groups of infecting vertebrates ■ Non Enveloped,polyhedral double stranded DNA ● Adenovirus ○ Upper respiratory infections ● Papovavirus ○ Shope’s papilloma “human warts” ■ Enveloped, polyhedral double stranded DNA ● Herpesviruses ○ Herpes simplex ■ Cold sores and fever blisters type 1 ■ Genital herpes type 2 ○ Herpes zoster (shingles in middle age) ○ Infectious mononucleosis ■ Enveloped, complex, double stranded DNA ● Poxviruses ○ Variola (smallpox) very large size ■ Noneveloped, polyhedral, single stranded RNA ● Picornaviruses ○ Smallest RNA viruses known ■ Poliovirus ■ Rhinovirus (common cold) ■ Hepatitis ■ Nonenveloped , polyhedral, Single stranded DNA ● Parvoviruses ○ Infective to animals, rats, hamsters, mice ■ Enveloped, polyhedral, Single stranded RNA ● Togaviruses ○ Rubella (German measles) ○ Others transmitted by arthropod (eg, equine encephalitis) ● Retrovirus ○ RNA tumor viruses leukemia and other cancers ○ HIV (AIDS) ■ Enveloped, helical Single stranded RNA ● Paramyxoviruses ○ Rubeola (measles) and mumps ● Orthomyxovirus ○ Influenza ● Rhabdoviruses ○ Rabies ○ Vocabulary ■ Conventional virion ● Nucleic acid + protein ■ Unconventional prion ● Protein (infected) ○ Sheep scrapie ■ Viroid ● Nuclei can acid ○ Potato spindle tuber virus 300400 base pairs ○ How to tell if there is a virus present or that it is infected ■ Bacteria ● Mix the virus with the bacteria ● The cells are lysed and create and area of clearing known as plaques ● We then count the number of plaques (each plaque representing one virus) ● This is know as the viral titer to determine the viral count ■ Animals ● Propagate in living animals or in embryo acted eggs ○ Growth period ■ Onestep growth curve ● 1030 min for bacteriophage ● 68 hrs for picot a virus (common cold) ● 40 hrs for herpes ○ Life cycle ■ ■ Prophase ● Integration of virus into DNA ■ Prions ● How proteins can be infected ● ● causes neurological issues ○ Sheep scrape ○ Mad cow disease ○ Creutzfeldt Jakob disease ■ Cjd ○ Kuro (cannibalism) ■ Reason prions were discovered ● A cellular protein becomes a infected protein. ● Gene transfers ○ Mechanism ■ Transformation ● Naked DNA ■ Transduction ● Phage mediated ■ Conjugation ● Cell to cell contact mediated by a pilus ■ Avery,Macleod , McCarty 1944 ● discovery that DNA is transferable not protein ○ Work withStreptococcus pneumoniao recognize different colonies (smooth, rough) ■ Smooth colonies added to mice they will die ■ Rough colonies added to mice they will live ○ Avery discovered that you could add smooth colones to rough DNA and added this to mice and found that the mice would still die ○ ○ What happens to transferred DNA ■ Free existence in cytoplasm ● Autonomous replication ● Recombination (integration) ○ Plasmid ■ Plasmids replicate based off of an origin of replication ■ The replication fork goes in opposite directions from each other ■ ■ Plasmid integration ● ■ Homologous recombination ● ● codes for the same genes like eyes or hair ■ Non homologous recombination ● Uses transposons ○ Also known as jumping DNA ○ Nonhomologous recombination (transposable) carry mobile genes ○ Cannot code by its own self ■ ■
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