New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Sociology of the Criminal Justice System Week 2 Notes

by: Massiel Rivera

Sociology of the Criminal Justice System Week 2 Notes SOCI 161

Marketplace > Santa Clara University > Sociology > SOCI 161 > Sociology of the Criminal Justice System Week 2 Notes
Massiel Rivera

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

General week 2 notes: lecture + spoken dictations
Sociology of the Criminal Justice System
Professor Lopez Aguado
Class Notes
sociology, Criminal Justice
25 ?




Popular in Sociology of the Criminal Justice System

Popular in Sociology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Massiel Rivera on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 161 at Santa Clara University taught by Professor Lopez Aguado in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Criminal Justice System in Sociology at Santa Clara University.


Reviews for Sociology of the Criminal Justice System Week 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/06/16
Sociology of the Criminal Justice System , 2016 Know Your Rights: What to do when stopped by Police/Immigration Agents Your Rights ­ You have the right to remain silent. If you decide to exercise that right, say it out loud ­ You have the right to refuse consent to a search of yourself, your car, or your home ­ If you’re not under arrest, you have the right to leave ­ You have the right to a lawyer if you’re arrested, ask for one immediately ­ You have constitutional rights even when you’re not a citizen/undocumented Overview of the Justice System *sequence of events in criminal justice system General Process ­ Police o Crime is reported, arrest is made o Case referred to prosecutor ­ Courts o Prosecutor decides whether to file charges o Case goes to trial, plea deal is negotiated o Judge approves deal, sentencing ­ Corrections o If sentenced to custody, go to county jail for misdemeanors, prison for felonies o Released to parole for 3 years, can be sent back for violating terms o Either end parole, keep violating, or get new charges Police ­ Many federal and local branches o Quality varies greatly across communities o Little consensus on professional standards for personnel, equipment, practices  Very few require college degrees, about 20% don’t require a high school  education ­ Primarily white and male, some resistance to diversifying forces o Harassment, but also culture valorizing masculinity (hypermasculinity),  criminalizing non­whites o Policing is a “masculine operation” / male dominated field ­ Historical functions of local police to respond to urban crowds o Parallels to delinquency? ­ Overestimating violence Police Origins ­ Crowd control ­ Agencies develop as industrialization drives workers into cities and widens inequality  therein o New force needed to control threats posed by growing working class  Developed to defend unequal social order ­ Industrialization breaks down means to supervise workforce, leads to revolts Sociology of the Criminal Justice System , 2016 o Erosion of apprenticeships and journeymen craftsmen eliminates one­on­one  mentorship and supervision employers had over workers  Employers now in charge of several within factory  More workers + less money + less chance to advance = large scale worker  revolts  Organized police department developed in response to manage  large scale worker uprisings o State steps in to supervise working class within new socioeconomic arrangements ­ Changing work dynamic  changing means of production (assembly lines)  changing  worker/employer relationships Early Police Departments ­ Created to neutralize threats ­ London 1829: London Metro Police designed to non­lethally control and break up crowds of 50,000 to 80,000 striking workers without creating martyrs o Everyday policing of public space serves to control workers outside of crowds ­ New York 1845: NYPD created to manage frequent worker riots o Professionalized Night Watch – (before, made money off fines and returning  escaped slaves) ­ Charleston 1822: Charleston Watch and Guard response to planned insurrection o Industrialization created Black neighborhoods, fear of insurrection (usually  controlled via work regime and isolation of plantations) called for a new means of monitoring o Enslaved workers were isolated on plantations but the creation of Black  neighborhoods gave enslaved people the chance to mobilize with one another o Method of monitoring a community ­courts seem to be the smallest aspect of our justice system’s budget allocation      ­less ability to access a fair trial Courts ­ Only 3% of felony cases actually go to trial, 97% negotiated as plea deals o Even though most of the time, people haven’t been deemed guilty yet ­ Despite important role jury trial holds in due process, expediting large number of cases  means it rarely happens o Does this change what justice means? o Why do people plead guilty?  In best interest, lack of legal counsel  Charges can pile up Power of Prosecutors ­ Prosecutors essentially decide when a person is charged with a crime (unreviewable  discretion) o Defense attorneys often not well prepared Sociology of the Criminal Justice System , 2016  can be forced to negotiate deal before ability to see evidence  lower priority of legal practice for many attorneys o Judges’ decisions bound by appeals and sentencing laws ­ Lack of diversity in prosecutor’s office Corrections ­ Jail vs prison o Different staffing, funding, population, and programming o Jail: local funding, managed by sheriff officers, high degree of turnovers, >1 year o Prison: government institution, state/federal system, own correctional  agency/institution, ~2 ½ year sentencing ­ Public vs private o State institutions vs corporate owned o Lower pay, less training, and more turnover in private facilities o Private institutions rent space out to the state, claims to lessen burden/financial  state for government  Controversial: prison run for profit / limit cost of doing business leads to  less staff, less training, low quality food and education ­ Parole (release from prison still under state custody) o Extension of state supervision after release from confinement o Replaced indeterminate sentencing in California  Indeterminate sentencing: no definite time set during sentencing,  determined based on inmate conduct  Recitivism  ~70% violate parole, return to prison Culture of poverty: social theory explaining the cycle of poverty (poor people are poor because  they make decisions that keep themselves in that way of life) Penal welfarism: prisoners should have the right / motivation to gain opportunities for  advancement within the criminal justice system Political Economy of Contemporary Criminal Justice Federal Crime Bills ­ Repetitive political action/movements ­ Crime/crime control becomes a national platform issue ­ Gradual, annual budget increases for Law Enforcement Agencies Crime Control as Federal Priority ­ Federal crime bills from late 60s­mid 90s make billions available in annual funding  (product of campaigns in mid 60s) o More authority and legal tools for police (ie RICO indictment, provides for  extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part  of an ongoing criminal organization o Training (standardized requirements, new technology) Sociology of the Criminal Justice System , 2016 o Equipment (military grade equipment to law enforcement departments, ie tanks,  battering rams, helicopters) ­ Why did crime control become a national (as opposed to local) political issue? o Especially at the time that it did? o In mid 60s, because of the appearance of dramatic/radical social movements  which created public anxiety (Civil Rights Movement, Anti­War Movement) o Crime control was essentially a coded campaign that promised to address this  public anxiety Responding to Social Change ­ Panics over crime and safety as reaction to anxieties over civil rights and anti­war  movements o Law and order provides means of controlling political enemies and threats to  dominant social order  Appeals to votes frightened by social conflict and change o Police enforce state’s authority, pursue those who the state decides is criminal ­ We don’t see prisons filling with political radicals, so who is the system controlling? ­ Creation of suburbs; everyone who could move out of the city did (new homes, school  districts, etc) ­ Suburbs at the time of construction were still explicitly white­only ­ Desegregation was seen as an impending threat ­ Voting public scared black/latinx families would move into neighborhoods ­ Crime control: coded way of speaking to these anxieties o Police acting in interest of existing state, responding to threats of an already  existing power ­ Buildup of police forces + changing economy  expanding prison population A Changing Economy ­ Record profitability and growth post WWII soon led to overproduction and economic  decline ­ To regain profitability, owners tried to keep more money generated by the economy for  themselves o Lowering costs of labor ­ Value of goods decreases (overproduction)  stagnant economy ­ State and business owners collaborated and disempowered labor ­ Moving industrial labor overseas ­ The more vulnerable a worker, the cheaper their labor is ­ Intervening state in unionizing/striking workers Controlling Labor ­ Lower labor costs by disempowering workers o Undermine labor negotiations, outsource jobs to foreign worksites ­ State collaborates with business interests Sociology of the Criminal Justice System , 2016 o Cuts “safety nets” while also cutting taxes for wealthy  Accomplish by criminalizing the poor as undeserving of support  People receiving help from government considered “lazy”  Welfare receivers seen as dangerous/criminal  This justifies the lack of public support and negatively impacts public  perception, new ideal of who is considered dangerous (poor, POC) ­ Has contributed to public idea about who criminals are that is heavily classed and  racialized Bruce Western ­ “criminal possession has replaced the vagrancy as the  main statutory of control of the  poor” o Vagrancy laws made it illegal to be homeless o Justification to arrest/run poor people out of town o No need to prove intent, or prove that anyone was victimized. It is merely the  presence thereof, that isn’t itself illegal o Black codes introduced these vagrancy laws  Anti­freed slaves, excluding black people from a free/public space o The connection Western is trying to make: the poor are criminalized simply for  being poor, for being in a public space o The presence is the threat, status is being policed Policing Status ­ Race and education level are most important factors in determining likelihood for  incarceration o Histories of racial conquest affect who the assumed criminals are, who is  monitored, arrested, and imprisoned o Education level points to class status and incorporation into restructured economy  Harder to access, and those without are more susceptible to arrest and  prison  Disproportionate incarceration of black drug users/dealers  Symbolic of socioeconomic class, especially as an adult  Class status signifies visibility and the ability to defend onesself


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.