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Recent Critical Thinking Notes

by: Andrew Edwards

Recent Critical Thinking Notes PHIL 103

Marketplace > SUNY College at Oneonta > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL 103 > Recent Critical Thinking Notes
Andrew Edwards
SUNY College at Oneonta
GPA 3.91

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About this Document

These notes cover some of the basics of inductive generalizations.
Critical Thinking
Dr. Michael Koch
Class Notes
PHIL 103
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Edwards on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 103 at SUNY College at Oneonta taught by Dr. Michael Koch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at SUNY College at Oneonta.

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Date Created: 04/06/16
Critical Thinking:  Inductive Arguments Lecturer:  Dr. Koch By:  Andrew Edwards What are the three varieties of inductive arguments?  Inductive Generalizations  Causal Arguments  Analogical Arguments What are inductive generalizations?  Inductive generalizations are inductive arguments that arrive at a conclusion about a class or category of things based on incomplete evidence. What terms are associated with inductive generalizations?  Example:  Used to show something  Sample:  Represents a population and is based on incomplete evidence What does an inductive generalization do?  It makes a claim about a population. What is important to be mindful of with inductive arguments?  One must be aware of how the population is described.  Statistics are part of inductive reasoning.  They need a representative sample of the population. What are causal arguments?  Arguments that involve making a conclusion about an event based on the existence of  some event or entity based on the claim that the event was caused by another event or  entity. What is important to be mindful of with causal arguments?  Mill’s Methods:  Methods for finding out if there is a causal relationship between one  event and another.  Method of difference:  If one event and a different event occur, you take away one factor  from what causes the second event.  As a result, the second event should not occur. What are analogical arguments?  You guess that some entity has a trait on the premise that it is akin to another entity that  has the same trait. Example: A has traits x, y, and z. B has traits x, y, and z. A has trait q. Therefore, B has trait q. How are analogical arguments different from a generalization?  Generalizations focus on categories or classes and move from a sample to a population.  Analogies are based on entities, the premises are similar to evidence, and they move from one entity to the next. How are an argument and an explanation different?  An argument is supported by premises or evidence and the truth of a conclusion is argued for.  An explanation uses examples that are based on the assumption that what is being  explained is true. What must be done when moving from expressions of preference to claims about what is true?  There must be criteria that are established and fulfilled to prove whether or not people’s  preference would or would not provide a solid argument. Why are quantifiers important?  They clarify what the conclusion’s argument is.  If they are left out initially, they will have to be sought out eventually is order to know  the argument of the conclusion.  Quantifies are implemented to discuss a population. What is important to be mindful of with quantifiers?  They are not always easy to identify.


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