Learning week 6
Learning week 6 Psyc 4450
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Heitmann on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 4450 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Christopher L. Hubbell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Learning in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Week of April 4 Details II II. The Problem of Maintaining Behavior a. To be successful, a program must continue until natural reinforcement takes over b. Techniques to maximize persistence of behavior: i. Intermittent reinforcement ii. Variety of settings iii. Gradual, rather than abrupt, cessation of program III. Harmful Effects of Reinforcement a. Moral Objections i. Looks like bribery 1. Suspicious of offering a reward to someone to do something they should already be doing ii. Promotes greed 1. Person might demand reward to doing other tasks 2. Lesser reinforcers are devalued b. Undermine Intrinsic Motivations i. Behavior should be self-satisfying ii. Use of reinforcers may devalue the activity iii. Gold Stars and Children Drawing 1. Children allowed to draw 2. 2 groups, one is rewarded for drawing, the other is not 3. Phase I: Baselinetest how much children draw before reinforcement 4. Phase II: Reinforcementgiven gold start to reward group for drawing 5. Phase III: Testhow much children draw without given reward 6. Experimental group spent less time drawing when they weren’t being rewarded anymore iv. Aversion to being controlled 1. Child will engage in a task to get a reward 2. Sense of being controlled can be seen as aversive 3. The over justification effect: a. Rewarding behavior that already occurs decreases that behavior c. Evaluating reinforcement: When is it harmful? i. Doesn’t always reduce interest, that depends on the circumstances ii. There is no need to reinforce behavior that is already intrinsically motivated IV. Alternatives to Reinforcement: Modeling a. Modeling or Observational Learning i. Behavior learned from watching adults or peers b. Modeling in the treatment of Phobias i. Bandara, Blanchert and Ritter (1969) 1. Trained people to not be afraid of snakes 2. Procedure a. Group 1: controlno treatment b. Group 2: systematic desensitizationrelaxation training and then relaxing through fear hierarchy c. Group 3: Filmwatched film of people handling snakes without fear d. Group 4: modelinglive model with active participation e. 29 stage test i. Stage 1: approach caged snake ii. Stage 29: let snake crawl all over them f. % of subjects reaching stage 29 i. Control: 0% ii. SD: 25% iii. Film: 33% iv. Live: 92% c. Determinants of Imitation i. Characteristics of a Model ii. Consequences of the Model’s behavior 1. Children watch a video of an adult hitting a doll a. ½ saw reinforcementmore likely to hit the doll b. ½ saw punishmentless likely to hit the doll V. Alternatives to Reinforcement: Self-control a. Seen as a behavior that alters future behavior b. Techniques of Self-control i. Stimulus control 1. Insomnia a. Worries and problems become associated with bed b. Need to associate only sleep with bed ii. Distraction 1. Concentrate on something else when doing something aversive iii. Self-reinforcement 1. Reinforcement is sometimes too delayed to work 2. When environment does not provide reinforcement, do it yourself 3. Bandara and Perloff (1967) a. Task: children had to turn a wheel b. Group 1: controlno reinforcement for turning wheel c. Group 2: self-reinforcementtake as many tokens as desired for turning the wheel x times, with no experimenter present d. Group 3: reinforcementexperimenter matches tokens taken by group 2 with children in group 3 e. Groups 2 and 3 were equally likely to spin the wheel i. Self-reinforcement is just as effective c. Development of Self-control i. A reinforcement analysis 1. Why didn’t group 2 cheat? a. Skinner would say that they reinforced appropriately because they had previously learned that self-control was reinforced positively ii. Self-control and modeling 1. Mischel and Liebert (1966) a. Children brought in to test a toy b. Model demonstrated toy and congratulated himself when he received a good score c. Stringent Group: saw model say good score only when he scored a 20 d. Lenient group: saw model say good score between 15 and 20 e. Take tokens as often as they want i. Stringent group only took tokens when they scored a 20 ii. Lenient group took token when they scored between 15 and 20
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