History 104 Notes from 4/6/2016
History 104 Notes from 4/6/2016 HIS 104
Popular in History of Western Civilization 1815-Present
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 104 at Pace University taught by Michael Rosenfeld in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization 1815-Present in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
The First World War Was not called this until after 1939 Beforehand it was called "the Great War" "A war to end all wars" - American idea "War to make the world safe for democracy"- another American ideal The United states entry into the war came three years after the war started August 1914- start of World War I America joins April 1917 with the effective American help not coming until August- Sept. 1918 o They only helped for 18 months. Fatalities in world war one for civilians was not as big as in WWII First world war sees the evolution of war from something that is conventional war fare to total warfare Total warfare is o `a technique o And description Barbara Tuckman Guns of August Raymond Aron Century of Total War o A description of war fare in the 20th century We are detached from war because none of us are affected o Not up close o Anestesigzed o Distant o The war is not where we are o Since the 21st century it has become a people to people issue because of 9/11 and ongoing terrorist issue. o Sheltered o America used to think we could never lose a war, and were invincible Our defense budget is huge What does the above have to do with WWI? o Contentious objectors began during this war Total War o The home front and war front lines begin to blur in WWI o Women make bullets in the home front o Men use those bullets in the war front o The Germans shot a nurse in 1914 and everyone was horrified o Mata Hari was shot in 1918 and no one said anything. o The war is so terrible it changes the western world's meaning of war. We look at poetry that was written in 1914 Rupert Brookes The Soldier Dying was considered noble Allen Segar I have a rendezvous with death Duty Obligation This kind of poetry is very different as of 1918 and is very very angry Ezra Pound Hugh Sell and Moberly "An old bitch gone in the teeth" When the war began most people greeted the war with a claim. They were happy and cheered and thought it was great that war would come. Women rushed to train stations to wave men off the wars. o Erich Maria Remarque. All Quiet on the Western Front (1928) Paul Baumer Why did World War I happen o Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 o System of entangling alliances in Europe Impossible to have a limited war Triple Entendre : Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Triple Alliance: Italy, England, France, Russia France had an alliance with Russia and England so England therefore had an alliance with Russia and etc. etc. o National aspirations for independence (suppressed nationalities, like Poland) o Colonial Rivalries (imperialism) They straight up decide to start going after Africa and the Middle East and Pacific islands By early 1900s, all that was left of independent countries in Africa were super small countries. Liberia and Ethiopia, everything else was something else. Colonies were called upon in WWI , because they had to o Military and Naval arms race More the tensions mounted the more they tried to make sure they would be safe from their rivals. Kaiser Wilhelm hated his uncle, King Edward but loved Queen Victoria and demanded to be the grandkid who handled her corpse. o Also loved wearing uniforms o Loved England and wanted Germany to compete with it. Why did the war become global? o Imperialism and huge spider web of alliances. Why did the war come into being ? o The Austrian empire gave the Serbians a huge list of things they had to agree with and the Serbians did not. Why did the assassination happen? o Nationalism, o Franz Ferdinand was not supposed to become the heir. He hated his uncle. Archduke Rudolph, his cousin however had committed suicide in a scandal ( Sitting in a royal box at the opera he sees a young lady (14) and meets with her. They become attracted to one another and fall in love. The relationship since he is married and she is young becomes tortured. They bang and then they kill themselves. This nearly destroys Fran Josef.) Franz Ferdinand was thinking about adopting the ideas that how Austria and Hungary worked ( Dualism). He was going to create Trialism and create a thing with the Balkans. What the Serbians feared that with thatit would ruin their idea of a greater Serbia. They give high schoolers weapons to do get rid of Franz Ferdinand. They throw a bomb and the bomb bounces out of their car when they in Sarenvajo. Then a kid with a gun comes up. The gun does not work. They get to city hall and Ferdinand is really angry. They change the route of the motorcade but the chauffer does not get the message. He pulls up right next to the third assassin ( Gavrello Princip) he takes out his gun and starts firing wildly. He kills both the Archduke and Duchess. Austria decides to get rid of Serbia. Wilhelm who was best friends with Franz and told the German foreign office to do whatever they had. The Serbians were given an ultimatum. They went to go talk after the last few minutes of 72 hour wait time and the Austrian ambassador was gone. They were all expecting a quick war, the economic lives of nations made it so that people believed that the economy was so closely tied to the nations that they could not survive a long war. Schleiffen plan o Destroy Russia and France at the same time within 6 weeks. o Once Russia declares war Germans have 6 weeks to destroy the Russians. o The Tzar cancels it. Then the generals get him to change their mind. Once they do overall mobilization Germans do emergency preparatory mobilization. It literally does not matter that the tzar, the king of England and the Kaiser are all related. o The Germans need to borrow Belgium. They think a nice note to the king is gonna get them Belgium. The King of Belgium is like. "uh no." The Germans then have to fight through Belgium. The fighting costs them time they didn't calculate to get to France. Britain ends up getting involved because hey, they like Belgium. o The Germans fight through Belgium and stay in Belgium in the war. They get stopped by the Battle of Marne in France. They begin since they are worried about Russia, sending troops towards Russia. The German forces in France are weak and France and Britain are both fighting them. This means the war continues going. o Italy originally had an agreement with German. But the Italian lawyers find a clause in the agreement and say "hahaha no. It says if you are attacked we have to help you. But you were the attacker. How much will you give us to have us stay neutral?" The Germans start negotiating to keep them out. The Italians go to the British and French to see what they will give them to join the war. Basically. Everyone is negotiating with Italy. Spring 1915, the Italians enter the War on the side of the British and French and fight mostly the Austrians. o Because Europe is connected to the Colonial world the colonies are joined into the war too. o America says they will be neutral, except then after three years we are not. We nearly join because of the Lusitania. It was full of munitions It also filed false papers, which isn't very cool. True manifest was filed after it was in international waters. This was lost, great. Found 20 years later. Homework: None
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