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Lecture 19 - Stereotypes and Discrimination

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 19 - Stereotypes and Discrimination PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 19 Stereotypes and Discrimination
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

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About this Document

We finish our discussion of how certain groups are treated unfairly due to the groups they belong. This includes race, ethnicity, gender, and many other things. We review the different factors that...
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
Stereotypes, discrimination, Gender, race, ethnicity, social situation, social psychology, persistent, ultimate attribution error, illusory correlation, confirmation bias, self-fulfilling prophecy, consistent, inconsistent, threat, universal, Society, lea
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/06/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  04/06/2016 ­ ​ tereotypes & Discrimination    How do stereotypes persist?  ➢ Social cognition  ➢ Stereotype­consistent information is processed more quickly and remembered  better  ➢ Stereotype­inconsistent information is discounted or dismissed  ➢ Ambiguous information is interpreted to fit the stereotype  ➢ People seek out information that confirms their stereotypes (confirmation bias)  ➢ Ultimate Attribution Error:​  make dispositional attributions about an entire group  ➢ Stereotype­consistent behavior ­ Dispositional **  ➢ Stereotype­inconsistent behavior ­ Situational **  ➢ Positive Behavior  ○ Dispositional for in­group  ○ Situational for out­group  ➢ Negative Behavior  ○ Situational for in­group  ○ Dispositional for out­group  ➢ Illusory Correlation:​  tendency to see relationships (correlations) between  events that are actually unrelated  ○ Most likely to occur when the events of people are distinctive  ■ Distinctiveness leads to the creation of an illusory correlation which  is then applied to all members of the group  ○ Ex(s): mentally ill assassins, sexually promiscuous athletes, Muslim  terrorists, etc  ➢ Confirmation Biases and Self­fulfilling prophecies (as discussed in earlier  classes) **  ➢ People seek out information that confirms their original hypothesis. Thus, we  tend to only find information that is consistent with our stereotypes.  ➢ Our expectations about others can lead us to act in ways toward them that  causes them to behave in ways consistent with our stereotypes  ➢ Interview Studies  ○ Study 1: When job applicant was Black, interviewers:  ■ Sat further away, ended interview 25% sooner, made 50% more  speech errors  ○ Study 2: Interviewees who were treated like Black applicants:  ■ More nervous, less effective performance, perceived interviewer as  less adequate and friendly  ➢ Stereotype Threat:​  a fear of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s own  group (Steele & Aronson, 1995)  ○ Stereotype is made visible  ○ Fear of confirming stereotype  ○ Performance decreases  ○ Study: African­American and White participants administered the same  SAT­Type test  ■ Diagnostic condition  ■ Non­diagnostic condition  ■ Results: African­Americans performed worse than Whites when  under threat (diagnostic contribution)  ○ Universal Phenomenon: positives and negatives stereotypes  ■ Gender, SES, White males compared to Asian males, Black  athletes compared to White athletes  ○ Ex: Women are not as good at math as men are  ■ 2 Conditions:  ● 1) Women were told that a test shows gender differences in  math ability; 2) Other women were not told this  ● Women did worse when under the stereotype threat    Discrimination  ➢ Def:​  an unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of a group  simply because of their membership to that group  ○ Stereotypes and prejudices can ultimately manifest in behavior  ○ Blatant acts generally less frequent  ○ Many convert forms:  ■ Nonverbal behavior, Microaggressions, Institutionalized forms  ➢ Impact  ○ Internalizing Symptoms  ■ Ex(s): depression, anxiety, self­esteem  ○ Externalizing Behaviors  ■ Ex(s): anger and hostility, aggressive behaviors  ○ Physical Health Problems  ■ Ex(s): increased blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular  response  ○ Academic Problems  ■ Ex(s): academic achievement, self­concept  ➢ Protective Factors Against Racial Discrimination  ○ Racial Identity:​  the significance and qualitative meaning that individuals  attribute to their racial or ethnic group  ■ Identification to one’s racial/ethnic group  ■ Perceiving one’s group positively  ■ Feeling close to members of one’s group  ○ Racial Socialization:​  the process of communicating behaviors and  messages to children for the purpose of enhancing their sense of racial /  ethnic identity, partially in preparation for racially hostile encounters    Reducing Prejudice  ➢ Contact Hypotheses ­ Groups need to interact OR have repeated contacted  ➢ Problem ­ Contact does NOT guarantee liking  ➢ Conditions for contact to reduce prejudice: ***  ○ Mutual Interdependence  ■ 2 or more groups depend on each other to accomplish a goal  important to each of them  ○ Common Goal  ○ Equal Status  ○ Friendly / Informal Setting  ○ Multiple Contact with Multiple Members  ○ Social norms promote equality  ➢ Superordinate Goal = unite different groups and require cooperative effort **  ➢ Back to Robber’s Cave  ○ Eliminating competition wasn’t enough  ○ Hostility wasn’t reduced until both groups have to cooperate to overcome  a shared obstacle 


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