Lecture 19 - Stereotypes and Discrimination
Lecture 19 - Stereotypes and Discrimination PSYC 2012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 04/06/2016 tereotypes & Discrimination How do stereotypes persist? ➢ Social cognition ➢ Stereotypeconsistent information is processed more quickly and remembered better ➢ Stereotypeinconsistent information is discounted or dismissed ➢ Ambiguous information is interpreted to fit the stereotype ➢ People seek out information that confirms their stereotypes (confirmation bias) ➢ Ultimate Attribution Error: make dispositional attributions about an entire group ➢ Stereotypeconsistent behavior Dispositional ** ➢ Stereotypeinconsistent behavior Situational ** ➢ Positive Behavior ○ Dispositional for ingroup ○ Situational for outgroup ➢ Negative Behavior ○ Situational for ingroup ○ Dispositional for outgroup ➢ Illusory Correlation: tendency to see relationships (correlations) between events that are actually unrelated ○ Most likely to occur when the events of people are distinctive ■ Distinctiveness leads to the creation of an illusory correlation which is then applied to all members of the group ○ Ex(s): mentally ill assassins, sexually promiscuous athletes, Muslim terrorists, etc ➢ Confirmation Biases and Selffulfilling prophecies (as discussed in earlier classes) ** ➢ People seek out information that confirms their original hypothesis. Thus, we tend to only find information that is consistent with our stereotypes. ➢ Our expectations about others can lead us to act in ways toward them that causes them to behave in ways consistent with our stereotypes ➢ Interview Studies ○ Study 1: When job applicant was Black, interviewers: ■ Sat further away, ended interview 25% sooner, made 50% more speech errors ○ Study 2: Interviewees who were treated like Black applicants: ■ More nervous, less effective performance, perceived interviewer as less adequate and friendly ➢ Stereotype Threat: a fear of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s own group (Steele & Aronson, 1995) ○ Stereotype is made visible ○ Fear of confirming stereotype ○ Performance decreases ○ Study: AfricanAmerican and White participants administered the same SATType test ■ Diagnostic condition ■ Nondiagnostic condition ■ Results: AfricanAmericans performed worse than Whites when under threat (diagnostic contribution) ○ Universal Phenomenon: positives and negatives stereotypes ■ Gender, SES, White males compared to Asian males, Black athletes compared to White athletes ○ Ex: Women are not as good at math as men are ■ 2 Conditions: ● 1) Women were told that a test shows gender differences in math ability; 2) Other women were not told this ● Women did worse when under the stereotype threat Discrimination ➢ Def: an unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of a group simply because of their membership to that group ○ Stereotypes and prejudices can ultimately manifest in behavior ○ Blatant acts generally less frequent ○ Many convert forms: ■ Nonverbal behavior, Microaggressions, Institutionalized forms ➢ Impact ○ Internalizing Symptoms ■ Ex(s): depression, anxiety, selfesteem ○ Externalizing Behaviors ■ Ex(s): anger and hostility, aggressive behaviors ○ Physical Health Problems ■ Ex(s): increased blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular response ○ Academic Problems ■ Ex(s): academic achievement, selfconcept ➢ Protective Factors Against Racial Discrimination ○ Racial Identity: the significance and qualitative meaning that individuals attribute to their racial or ethnic group ■ Identification to one’s racial/ethnic group ■ Perceiving one’s group positively ■ Feeling close to members of one’s group ○ Racial Socialization: the process of communicating behaviors and messages to children for the purpose of enhancing their sense of racial / ethnic identity, partially in preparation for racially hostile encounters Reducing Prejudice ➢ Contact Hypotheses Groups need to interact OR have repeated contacted ➢ Problem Contact does NOT guarantee liking ➢ Conditions for contact to reduce prejudice: *** ○ Mutual Interdependence ■ 2 or more groups depend on each other to accomplish a goal important to each of them ○ Common Goal ○ Equal Status ○ Friendly / Informal Setting ○ Multiple Contact with Multiple Members ○ Social norms promote equality ➢ Superordinate Goal = unite different groups and require cooperative effort ** ➢ Back to Robber’s Cave ○ Eliminating competition wasn’t enough ○ Hostility wasn’t reduced until both groups have to cooperate to overcome a shared obstacle
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