Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 13 Notes
Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 13 Notes PSYC 2544
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
I-O Psychology Notes Week 13 4/7/16 12:36 AM Attitudes, Emotions, & Work • Job satisfaction • Employee engagement • Organizational commitment • Organizational identification • Organizational justice • Mood and emotions Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement • Job satisfaction = positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job What leads to or “causes” job attitudes? • Performance • Pay • Feeling like you’re being rewarded for your effort • Meaningfulness/importance of the work you’re doing (task significance) • Relationships with coworkers • The commute (or lack thereof) • How challenging the work is • Hours you put in • Task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, job richness What are the consequences of job attitudes? • Productivity, better performance • Efficiency • Retention (employees stay) or turnover (employees leave) Measurement of Job Satisfaction Overall vs. Facet Satisfaction Overall satisfaction • Results either from mathematically combining scores based on satisfaction or a single overall evaluative rating of the job Facet satisfaction • Information related to specific elements of job satisfaction o Job, manager, coworker Satisfaction Questionnaires Job Description Index (JDI) • Assesses satisfaction with work itself, supervision, people, pay, and promotion • Heavily researched but tends to be lengthy • Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) Calculates “extrinsic” and “intrinsic” satisfaction scores Faces scale Genetics and Job Satisfaction • In a 1986 study, disposition in adolescence predicted job satisfaction as long as 50 years later • Additional research has been conducted in this controversial area, but considerably more research is necessary on the links between genetics and job satisfaction Work-Family Balance • Research investigating whether satisfaction one experiences at work is in part affected by satisfaction one experiences in non-work and vice versa • Negative influences on work-family balance o Electronically enhanced communications o Prevalence of multiple roles Employee Engagement • Positive work-related state of mind that includes high levels of energy, enthusiasm, and identification with one’s work • Overlaps positively with job satisfaction, org commitment, and job involvement • But is distinct from these constructs and has important organizational implications (i.e., increased engagement on the part of workers is related to increased task and contextual performance) Organizational Commitment and Identification Concept of Commitment Organizational commitment = Psychological and emotional attachment one has to an organization Organizational commitment has 3 elements: 1) acceptance and belief in an organization’s values 2) a willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization to help meet the goals o that organization 3) a strong desire to remain in the organization Forms of Organizational Commitment Affective commitment • Emotional attachment to an organization Continuance commitment • Perceived cost of leaving the organization Normative commitment • Obligation to remain in the organization Organizational Identification Organizational identification (OID) • Process whereby individuals derive a feeling of pride and esteem from their association with an organization • Individuals may also take pains to distance themselves from the organization for which they work 0 this would be called organizational disidentification Organizational Justice • Concerned with fair treatment of employees • Distributive justice o Outcomes • Procedural justice o Policies and procedures • Interactional justice o Interpersonal o Informational Mood and Emotion Satisfaction vs. Mood vs. Emotion Affect • Broad range of both mood and emotion Mood • Generalized feeling not identified with a particular stimulus, long- lasting Emotion • Discrete, target-specific feelings that are of relatively short duration Emotion Process emotions • Result from consideration of tasks one is currently doing • How you feel while you’re doing something Prospective emotions • Result from consideration of tasks one anticipates doing • Thinking of work due in the future Retrospective emotions • Result from consideration of tasks one has already completed Categories of Emotions Positive • Happiness, love, pride Negative • Sadness, hopeless, despair Existential Nasty Dispositions and Affectivity Negative affectivity (NA) • Often referred to as neuroticism • Individuals prone to experience diverse array of negative mood states Positive affectivity (PA) • Often referred to as extraversion • Individuals prone to describe themselves as cheerful, enthusiastic, confident, active, energetic Personality characteristics likely to influence moods, but not necessarily discrete emotions Emotions in the Workplace Emotional labor • Surface acting (alter outward emotion, but don’t change how they feel) • Deep acting (change internal emotions) Emotional regulation Emotional contagion • How contagious is emotion (tends to be quite contagious, can be negative or positive) 4/7/16 12:36 AM 4/7/16 12:36 AM
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