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FOS2001 Module 4 (Food-Borne Diseases)

by: Haley Kairab

FOS2001 Module 4 (Food-Borne Diseases) FOS 2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > Nutrition and Food Sciences > FOS 2001 > FOS2001 Module 4 Food Borne Diseases
Haley Kairab

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About this Document

These notes cover notes from Man's Food Module four, Food-Borne Diseases.
Man's Food
Dr. Agata Kowalewska
Class Notes
Man's Food, Science
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
FOS2001 Module 4 Food­Borne Disease   KEY TERMS: • Closed or "coded" dating ­ Refers to the packing numbers  that are decodable only to manufacturers; often found on  nonperishable, shelf­stable foods • Danger zone ­ Range of temperatures between 40 F and  140 F at which food­borne bacteria will multiply most rapidly, increasing risk of a food­borne disease • Fecal­to­oral transmission ­ The spread of pathogens by  putting something in the mouth that has been in contact with infected  stool • Gastroenteritis ­ Inflammation of the stomach and intestines • GRAS (generally recognized as safe) ­ A substance that is  believed to be safe to consume based on a long history of use by  humans or a substantial amount of research that documents its safety • Guillain­Barre syndrome ­ A condition that can result from a  Campylobacter infection; causes the immune system to attack its own  nerves, and can lead to temporary paralysis • High­pressure processing (HPP) ­ A process that  pasteurizes foods by exposing them to pulses of high pressure, which  destroy the microorganisms • Host ­ A living plant or animal that harbors a virus, allowing it to survive and reproduce • Irradiation ­ Subjecting foods to a radiant energy source that  kills pathogens by breaking up the cells’ DNA • Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) ­ A food preservation technique that changes the composition of the air surrounding the food  in a package to extend its shelf life • MDG symptom complex ­ Reactions such as numbness,  burning sensation, facial pressure or tightness, chest pain, rapid  heartbeat, and drowsiness that can occur in some individuals when  they consume the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) • Nitrates (nitrites) ­ Reactions such as numbness, burning  sensation, facial pressure or tightness, chest pain, rapid heartbeat, and drowsiness that can occur in some individuals when they consume the  food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) • Norovirus ­ The most common type of virus that causes  food­borne illness; can cause gastroenteritis (the stomach flu) • Open dating ­ Refers to the calendar dates typically found on perishable items that can be easily read by consumers • Parasites ­ Organisms that live on or in another organism • Pasteurization ­ The process of heating liquids or food at  high temperatures to destroy food­borne pathogens • Retort canning ­ The process of subjecting already­canned  foods to an additional high­temperature heat source • Spores ­ Hardy reproductive structures that are produced by  certain bacteria; some can survive boiling temperatures • Sulfites ­ Preservatives that help prevent foods from turning  brown and inhibit growth of microbes • Toxins ­ Poisons that can be produced by living organisms • Virus ­ A microscopic organism composed of protein and  DNA that can infect a host and cause illness           Occurrence of Food­Bourne Disease • The following terms are used to figure out how often food­ borne illnesses occur: ◦ Case: one individual illness ◦ Sporadic case: one illness unrelated to any other ◦ Outbreak: two or more related cases (often reported in  the news) • Illnesses can come from food from home or public places ◦ 5% can go back to foods bought from the grocery store ◦ 15% occur at home ◦ 40% occur with foods from restaurants ◦ 40% occur from other unidentified substances • Some symptoms of food­borne disease are  similar to other ailments making it hard to definitively blame  food   Bacteria in Food • Scientists identify harmful bacteria in food with the following  techniques: ◦ Staining ­ bacteria are stained with die and the  resulting color identifies the structure of the cell wall and  membrane, and helps the initial identification of the bacteria ◦ Biochemical testing ­ helps identify the genus of the  microorganism ◦ Serology ­ the study of blood serum, and is used to  identify if, or how, the immune system is reacting to bacteria ◦ Genetic testing ­ the most specific and costly testing,  and requires DNA mapping to distinguish one bacterium from  another • Identifying which bacteria is responsible for specific diseases is important for things like treatment plans.   The Salmonella Family • One of the most common bacteria found in food • Over 2,000 species of salmonella have been identified • Estimated to cause over 2 million food­borne illnesses ◦ Usually not life­threatening, but estimated 500­1,000  deaths per year • Most frequent cases associated with poultry and  raw/uncooked eggs • Onset can be from 12­24 hours after ingestion and lasts 4­10 days   Causes of Food Contamination • Exposing food to contaminated water: Water can carry  harmful organisms, especially if it is contaminated with human or  animal fecal matter. One hypothesis as to why certain pathogens have  been found in fruits and vegetables is that fecal matter from farm  animals runs into streams, and the stream water is then used to irrigate crops. In addition, water used to wash food can be a source of  contamination.  • Poor personal hygiene: Common sense dictates that you  wash your hands before preparing food.  • Insufficient or uneven cooking: Most meat must be  cooked thoroughly to eliminate harmful bacteria.  • Slow cooling of cooked foods: Cooked foods, such as  leftovers, should be cooled quickly, instead of leaving them out in the  air for an extended length of time.  • Temperature regulation: The danger zone in terms of  cooking is between 40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Hot foods should  be kept hot (140 degrees or above) and cold foods should be kept cold  (40 degrees or cooler). Anything in between is the danger zone in  which microorganisms grow rapidly. Food left at temperatures between  40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit for more than four hours is potentially  at risk and should be discarded.  • Cross­contamination: This occurs when raw food and  cooked food share the same preparation and/or serving area. Putting  cooked chicken back on the surface you used to prepare the raw  chicken (without cleaning the surface) is an example of cross­ contamination.  • Unsanitary preparation areas: Food preparation areas  must be kept clean to avoid becoming hospitable environments for  microorganisms. • Inadequate refrigeration: Refrigerators should be set to 40  degrees or below (but not low enough to freeze the food) to keep food  out of the danger zone.  • Improper thawing procedures: Thawing food by placing it  on a countertop thaws only the outer surface and lets bacteria grow.  Proper thawing can be accomplished by running water constantly over  the item, or by keeping it refrigerated as it thaws. • Human error: This can result from either an inadvertent  mistake, or a lack of education about proper food preparation  procedures.   Monitoring the Food Supply • Absolute food safety cannot be guaranteed, however: ◦ Food Safety Initiative (FSI) started in 1997 where  several government agencies work together to safeguard  America's food supply from food­borne illnesses • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), The  United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Food and Drug  Administration (FDA)  work together to identify and trace causes of  food­borne illnesses as quickly as possible • The law states that all food can contain a limited amount of  defects   Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) • This type of bacteria resides in all animal intestines  • Most are harmless but there are three that are harmful ◦ Enterotoxigenic ­ produces a toxin in the gut that  causes watery diarrhea ◦ Enteroinvasive ­ penetrates the intestinal wall causing  colitis (inflammation of colon) and dysentery  ◦ Enterohemorrhagic ­ combination of the first two, plus  additional symptoms of hemorrhagic colitis (overtly bloody kind of  diarrhea) and painful cramping  • Infectious and easily spread • Most pathogens require millions of cells to do damage, but  E. Coli if only 1 of 10 cells are present    Vibrio Cholerae • The bacteria that causes cholera • Found in contaminated water or food; caused by unsanitary  conditions • Expresses itself as extreme, watery diarrhea which causes  dehydration (it is the dehydration that causes death) • Changed history more than any other disease because it has happened in huge epidemics • Can be defined by three types: ◦ Asymptomatic (no symptoms) ◦ Mild diarrhea ◦ Cholera gravis (a condition of dehydration and shock ­  leads to the most deaths) • Ubiquitous in marine waters   Listeria  • Bacteria that causes listeriosis (a meningitis type of infection  that attacks brain lining or septicemic, i.e. contributory to blood  poisoning) • Grows even food that is refrigerated/frozen • Found in soil, water, air, and has a fairly high mortality rate ◦ Unborn fetuses have higher risk from this bacteria • Symptoms for healthy individuals: ◦ Fever, vomiting, malaise, diarrhea • Symptoms usually last 7 to 14 days longer for people in  high­risk categories • Onset of the disease can happen from 3­70 days after  ingestion  ◦ Most reported incidents are reported 48­72 hours after  ingestion • An outbreak in 1985 showed how serious the effects could  be  ◦ The bacteria were found in a soft cheese that was sold  commercially  • Foods that are susceptible  ◦ Cheese, seafood salads, ready­to­eat foods, smoked  fish/meats, ice cream, raw vegetables   Staphylococcus Aureus and Clostridium Botulinum • Staphylococcus Aureus ­ a bacterium that produces a toxin  ◦ More that 100,000 organisms per gram are needed for  toxicity  ◦ Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping  ◦ Onset is rapid and acute because you are ingesting the toxin ◦ Duration can last from 2­4 days and is serious  ◦ Foods associated with it: poultry, meat, egg, bakery  products, foods that are handled a lot • Clostridium Botulinum ­ organism closely related with home  canning preparations  ◦ Usually referred to as botulism ◦ Bacterium that created a very potent neurotoxin,  characterized by putting the body into paralysis ◦ Other symptoms: weakness, vertigo, double vision,  blindness ◦ An anaerobic organism (grows well in foods that are  packaged without oxygen) • Non­acidic foods and cooked foods that are then  left out with no refrigeration are also susceptible  ◦ The toxin is heat­resistant  • To destroy you must rigorously boil the entire food component food underwater for 15 minutes ◦ Incidence for botulism is very low but has high mortality rate   Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Cyclospora • These three types of organisms are eukaryotic cells ­ they  have a defined nucleus that has a nuclear structure  • The Giardia organism  ◦ Results in giardiasis which is very infectious ◦ Usually found in water, like streams in national/state  parks ◦ Outbreaks are caused by animals defecating and  excrement getting washed in to streams and food handlers not  using proper hygiene • Cryptosporidium ◦ Another infectious disease present in water  contaminated by animal fecal matter (usually cattle) ◦ Symptoms: severe diarrhea and coughing ◦ Onset is immediate and lasts for 2­4 days ◦ Can be serious for people with weakened immune  systems • Cyclospora ◦ Relatively new to the U.S.  ­ originally thought to be  only in Peru and Tibet ◦ Three outbreaks in Florida in 1995, 1996, 1998 ◦ Raspberries were the primary cause for the first two  and the third  was caused by contaminated lettuce ◦ Has no known hosts associated with it ◦ Research is still being done to determine how it  spreads   Hepatitis A and the Norwalk Agent • In addition to bacterial diseases, water or food contaminated  by fecal matter can also lead to viruses • All viruses are parasites: need a living cell/host to function • Hepatitis A ◦ Virus that results when fecal matter is allowed to  contaminate food or water which is then ingested ◦ Most humans are exposed to it in childhood and build  up an immunity ◦ Has a long incubation period (10­70 days) which is why is difficult to trace the source ◦ Most common symptom is jaundice ◦ Other symptoms (fever, malaise, nausea, anorexia) ◦ Treatment: those who are exposed to it take pooled  gamma globulin to help immune system fight the virus • The Norwalk Agent ◦ Also caused by the fecal­oral route of transmission  ◦ Can be contracted by ingesting contaminated water or  food ◦ It is thought to be second only to the common cold as  an infectious agent  ◦ In 1987, outbreaks occurred in Pennsylvania and  Delaware that were traced to contaminated ice • Outbreaks have also occurred on cruise ships ◦ Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping ◦ Poor food handling is suspecting of spreading the  agent        


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