History 3211 3211
Popular in Classical Greece
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Eschenbach on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3211 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Greg Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Classical Greece in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
4-5-16 READ THE SPEECH BY LYSIAS—DEFENSE SPEECH WHERE A MAN CATCHES ANOTHER MAN IN BED WITH HIS WIFE AND KILLS HIM ON THE SPOT—IS THIS MURDER OR NOT? —SPEECH ON THE SIDE OF THE DEFENSE 405 Aegospotami—Lysander o Long walls which kept the Athenians safe for so long were no longer any good—they only work if you have a powerful navy which they no longer did —Lysander able to do a 3-part attack on the city and take it over— effectively ends the war o 404—surrender of Athens to Sparta Conditions: Tear down the long walls All their main ships were to be surrendered Restore the exile of Athenians who supported Sparta—had to allow them back into Athens Become Sparta’s allies—have to go and help Spartans in times of attack Had to give up democracy—very different kind of regime ruling over them right after the war Have to give up their empire—Athenian Empire had to be effectively dismantled at this point Stripped of all the things we associate with Athens Athens will rebuild its navy, never as powerful, ultimately gets democracy restored o Sparta becomes the dominant force in Greece for the next 30 years— ultimately the other groups around will gang up on Sparta and overthrow them o Regime of the 30 is established April 404-September 403 30 tyrants—created a list of 3000 Athenians who were immune to all their laws (mostly wealthy Athenians, especially those with similar ideas to the 30) while everyone else had to abide by their rules Basically a reign of terror Odd logic to all this: wasn’t just mindless violence, had some meaning to all this—wanted to purify Athens of its corruption—ultimately wanted Athens to become like Sparta Called the 3000 homoioi—name for Spartan citizens—echoing Spartan practice—wanted to turn Athens into Sparta Comes to an end—didn’t last very long—700 of the people exiled were led by a famous one-time Athenian general went to Phyle then moved down—during the summer there were a series of battles between the 700 and the supporters of the 30 Eventually democracy is restored after all this Amnesteia— “not remembering”—Athenians choose to forget somehow all these events caused by the 700 and move on Evidence for lingering hard feelings—the trial of Socrates How could the most enlightened place execute one of its most enlightened citizens? Socrates Trial and ideals 399 o Would not have approved of what the 30 were doing 1 4-5-16 o Also not a great fan of democracy o Hard to know what his actual thoughts were because he never wrote anything down—anything we know about him is from secondary sources— from Plato himself—forced to rely on the words of others to reconstruct the ideals of Socrates o Plato and Xenophon—both wrote about Socrates, followers of him, both give reports of what he was like o Plato is the main source of information on Socrates o Strange, eccentric figure, rejected the claim he was any kind of Sophist—he didn’t charge money because he didn’t teach anything, he never even claimed to be a teacher—spent his life in Athens, only left on military service o Claimed he was not a teacher and took no money for anything o Didn’t officially have students, called them followers o Makes him pretty unusual—know for challenging the ideas of others— challenge others to philosophical face-off o Method of challenging others—Greek word for this—Elenchus (“testing”) o He interrogates the others, ultimately inducing them to repute their own argument—rigorous testing of other people’s ideals o This approach impressed a lot of aristocratic Athenians—intrigued by him o Also alienates people—his opponents, others who find his manner off- putting o Wins him friends and enemies o Actual views: Hard to know the difference between Plato and Socrates ideas Socrates vigorously opposed to the kind of thinking associated with Protagoras— “man is the measure of all things”—means truth is in the eye of the beholder—every single person has an idea of what is true— relativity—multiple truths Socrates opposed this kind of thinking—there are indeed ultimate, absolute truths It is this insistence that there are such absolute truths, ultimate rights, ultimate wrongs, ultimate goods (if you know what good is, you will behave accordingly, no one will knowingly commit wrongs), ultimate bads True knowledge is the ultimate good Not everyone knows what the ultimate truth is, people in the demos are very unlikely to ever know this—poor, uneducated How can it be expected that 70% of the demos are minimally literate— majority of people don’t even know the things they are actually voting on Would have rather supported an oligarchy ruled by intellectuals, philosophers The republic of Plato proposes exactly this type of ruling—kind of critique of Athenian democracy—proposes a utopian society in which the governors are all philosophers 2 4-5-16 30 tyrants was this type of rule which did not go well at all—actually experienced the idea of an oligarchy of philosophers—became a blood bath—bad idea—did not work at all Trial of Socrates—believe the type of ideas he is proposing wasn’t a coincidence—too easy to associate him with what happened with the 30 2 Athenians, Anytus and Meletus, call it upon themselves to prosecute Socrates—put him on trial with the general idea that he harmed the polis Can’t charge him with the crime with being associated with the 30 tyrants—amnestai prohibits prosecution for anyone involved with the 30 so they can’t directly accuse him Actual charges: Worship of unauthorized gods—trying to introduce new gods—very bad—polis itself has to agree upon the gods being worshiped o Refers to what Socrates called his daimonion—little demon— talks about it as if it is almost its own little guardian spirit which would deter you from doing bad or stupid things, encourage you to think of good and intellectual things o Similar to a conscience however people then felt this was introducing a new god Corrupting the youth of Athens o Similar to people such as Critias o Still in affect making him guilty by association with the 30 tyrants o Corrupting and polluting the future of Athens by corrupting the youth Before the Trial: The Symposium (drinking party)—Socrates, Alcibiades, about the nature of love—before Alcibiades defects to Sparta during the war Satyr—Alcibiades compares Socrates to this—half man half goat creature—famously wise, holy, otherworldly Silenus—famous satyr, a god When you look beneath the surface, you will find incredible wisdom and otherworldliness Alcibiades very aware that Socrates had a huge crush on him Apology (used in its original Greek sense—defense speech) of Socrates—how you justify your actions rather than saying you’re sorry During the trial, appeared before 500 judges none of whom had been to law school (didn’t exist)—these are the people who are deciding the case People defend themselves, one speaks for oneself Gives a defense for his entire career Tells the story of a friend of his, Chaerephon who went to the oracle of Delpha to asks the god in the form of the priestess if 3 4-5-16 there was anyone wiser than Socrates—replies no there is not— Apollo considers him the wisest of all human beings Practice of Elenchus—Socrates mission is to make people realize they don’t actually know anything when they think that they do Why would Socrates consider himself wiser than other human beings—claims to know nothing, but he’s the only one who knows he knows nothing—no one knows anything but the gods—only he realizes this, making him the wisest human being “I am god’s gift to you”—Socrates If you take my advice, you will not kill me He is a gadfly—sent to make people continue to progress to the truth—what is really right or wrong—has to do this task that makes people dislike him because god appointed him to do it—like a little fly annoying the beast into doing what he wants it to do Doesn’t appeal to the people very well—280 choose to condemn him, 220 choose to free him—actually pretty close—doesn’t say he’s sorry for doing what he’s done. Of you kill me you will be lucky if you come across anyone else who can play the same role he has been playing No set penalties for this situation—get a second phase of the trial— a punishment phase—prosecutors propose death—Socrates proposes free meals for himself in the town hall of Athens—great thing—done for great people—Socrates believes he has done everything for the people Gap is much larger between being killed and getting free meals— people don’t believe he should get off the way he wants to—in the end, he is condemned to death One last chance to address the judges before going off to prison and execution Apology actually written 10 years after the event itself (390) Socrates was certainly brave and unflinching in the eyes of death Final parting words is a request about the treatment of his own sons—when my sons are grown up, punish them, trouble them— don’t let them believe they are something when they are nothing— challenge them as I have challenged you o 2 dialogues with passages: Crito Asks Socrates why he has not escaped from the jail, easy enough task Says he wouldn’t do that because as a true born Athenian he must obey its laws, we raised you here, we made you who you are, you must go along with what we say, even if you don’t like it Phaedo Fly on the wall view of Socrates’ death See it in incredible, close-up detail 4 4-5-16 Friend and associate of Socrates and Plato—recorded what is was like to be Socrates during his final days Death of Socrates—use hemlock poison as the source of death Immortality of the soul—what death actually involves, why should a philosopher embrace the idea of death? —soul is the part of the human being capable of knowledge and thought—immortal soul— death separates immortal soul from the body, why wouldn’t you want that? No more distractions by becoming a “pure soul”— embrace the prospect of death because it allows for better thinking Cracking jokes through his final moments—keeps up cheerfulness Factors of killing Socrates Losing the war, animosity towards the 30 tyrants, his statement at the end saying you shouldn’t be killing me, you should be honoring me— people don’t like this 5
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