Week 11 notes Feeds and Feeding
Week 11 notes Feeds and Feeding ANSC 3232
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dragon Note on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 3232 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Meyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
09: High Energy Feedstuffs: Soluble Fiber ANSC 3232 Dr. Meyer What is soluble fiber? Hemicellulose> easiest to digest, most soluble Lignin> very difficult to digest, less digested, least soluble High soluble fiber feedstuffs Co product feeds • Soyhulls • Oat hulls • Beet pulp • Oat mill by-product • Corn bran • Sunflower hulls • Corn screenings • Sunflower screenings • Wheat bran • Rice bran • Wheat midds • Rice by-products fractions • Wheat mill run • Rice hulls • Sorghum germ millfeed • Rice mill run • Barley hulls • Rye middlings • Barley malt product • Grain sceenings, chaff, • Cottonseed hulls dust, fines T erms used = variable • Bran: course outer covering of cereal grain kernel, removed during milling Outer cover=fiber • Hulls: outer coverings of grain kernel or seed • Middlings/Midds: layer of grain kernel inside the outer bran, endosperm, and some bran particles Endosperm=starch of cereal • Mill run: bran, middlings, and sometimes including starch Wheat, after flour (most of starch removed) • Shorts: fine particles of bran, germ, starch, and tailings Most of the components of a kernel + starch • Screenings/fines: result from cleaning grains/seeds Super variable • Pulp: residue after processing, extracting, orjuicing Sugar beets, citris Example: Wheat Feed CP % Fat % NDF % Parent compound Wheat 14 2.3 12 Wheat bran 17 4 46 Mostly outer Wheat midds 19 2 36 More starch Wheat mill run 17 0 37 Wheat shorts 20 0 30 Higher than parent compound Some protein comes out with starch When using oilsees(SB) get oil and have SBM left overSheep NRC, 2007 Feeding high fiber co-products • High in soluble fiber-variable- how digestable • Can be moderate in CP – concentrating CP- very depedent on parent compound – AA?- look like parent compound • Low niacin • Often higher Ca (than parent), can be high P and Mg – Usually higher in trace minerals> outer coating Soybean hulls or “Soyhulls” Outer covering of soybeans Feed mostly to ruminants • Can contain urease % DM basis Soyhulls % CP 12-13 % RDP 55-60 % Fat 2 % NDF 60-70 Hemicellulose + cellulose % ADF 40-50 % Lignin 3 NEm, Mcal/kg 1.94 NEg, Mcal/kg 1.3 % Ca 0.53 % P 0.18 Beet Pulp Fed mostly to ruminants and horses, sometimes to gestating sows • Nutrient content varies % DM basis Beet pulp with molasses inclusion % CP 9-10 % RDP 40-45 • Can be fed wet or dry % Fat <1 % NDF 45 % ADF 20-25 % Lignin 3.5-4 NEm, Mcal/kg 1.76 NEg, Mcal/kg 1.14 % Ca 0.68 % P 0.10 Wheat midds Universal- available Fed to pigs and poultry • Vary by wheat variety % DM basis Wheat midds – Red, white, hard, soft % CP 18 % RDP 75-80 Mill run and shifts= more variable % Fat 3-3.5 % NDF 35-40 lower in fiber % ADF 10-15 But high in starch % Lignin 6 NEm, Mcal/kg 2.03 NEg, Mcal/kg 1.37 % Ca 0.15 % P 1.00 Cottonseed hulls Fed to ruminants • Fuzzy or delinted % DM basis Cottonseed hulls % CP 4 Low CP • Gossypol % RDP 50 Decrease male % Fat 1.5-2 Fertility- don’t feed to males % NDF 85-90 Highest % ADF 65-70 fiber % Lignin 24 NEm, Mcal/kg 0.79 NEg, Mcal/kg 0.25 % Ca 0.15 % P 0.09 Sunflower hulls Poorest quality Fed to ruminants % DM basis Sunflower hulls % CP 4 % RDP 15 % Fat 2-2.5 % NDF 70-75 % ADF 60-65 % Lignin 20-25 NEm, Mcal/kg 0.90 NEg, Mcal/kg ND % Ca 0 % P 0.11 Other co-products or wastes? Feed to ruminants, They can eat more feedstuff successfully DDGS, WDGS- higher fiber Apple pulps Coffee filters Coffee grounds Peanut shells Feeding considerations • Bulky-storage, feeding – Usually pellet • Low density – How to feed? – Usually pellet more cosistant in size increased density Feeding considerations • Variable palatability- product dependent – Pellet, add molasses • Can have variable quality> be on safe side, test or feed to lower risk animals Why feed fibrous co-products? • Ruminants? • Non-ruminants? – Cheaper – Cheaper – Can get more fiber> – Species and timing more energy specific – Available fill/effective – Gestating sows fiber – Pet foods – + associative effects • Decrease nut. Den. • Forage based diet • Improve fecal consistancy – humans Associative Effects • Definition: Animal performance from a combination of feedstuffs is different from that expected from adding the individual feedstuffs – + benefit of feeding soluble fiber with low quality forage – Feeding 2 or more feedstuffs • Doing so sometimes gets added benefit than expected • Other times get less than expected benefit Positive Associative Effects Feeding a combination • Improves nutrient use> improved digestability or balancing nutrient availability • Improves animal performance over what was expected from those 2 feeds • Examples: soluble fiber/ high fiber co products – Structural carbohydrates to forage-based diets ru– Protein to low-protein forage diets – Correct AA profile Positive Associative Effects • Structural carbohydrates (soluble fiber) to forage- based diets • Soyhulls + all fescue hay • WHY? • Rumen environment: fiber digestion, hay based diet – Higher pH (7.0) – + fiber(soyhulls)> more easily digestible » Made of same things Negative Associative Effects • Decreases nutrient use> decreased digestibility or imbalance • Decreases animal performance – Relative to what we expected based on the 2 feeds • Examples: – Cereal grains to forage-based diets – Imbalance of RDP and soluble CHO’s for microbes – Imbalance of essential AA Negative Associative Effects • Cereal grains to forage-based diets • Corn to tall fescue hay • WHY? – Hay(forage) digestibility decreases – Hay > rumen microbes fibrolytic – pH (7.0) – Add corn(starch) >change in rumen microbial population • Amylotylic Can cause decreased digestibility of both feeds Learning Objectives 1. What is soluble fiber? – Why do we feed it? To what animals? 2. How do common high soluble fiber co- products compare to one-another? – Positives and negatives 3. What are some concerns with feeding high soluble fiber co-products? 4. What are associative effects? – What are examples of associative effects? 10: High Energy Feedstuffs: Liquid Feeds, Sugar , and Fat ANSC 3232 Dr. Meyer Example Liquid Feedstuffs • Molasses • Concentrated Separator Byproduct • Condensed Corn Distillers Solubles(CCDS) • Steep liquor • Condensed soybean solubles • Condensed whey Come from corn ethanol CCDS production Increased availability Most commonly used Molasses • Types: • 70 to 80% DM – Beet • > 40% sugars • Separator by-products – 35-40% sucrose – Cane – Rest = glucose and – Citrus fructose – Starch • Ca and K – Wood – Variable • Energy and palatability Sugar Refinement Less than 40% sugar Most sugar produced goes to human consumption Cane Molasses Nutrient Content Standardized molasses • 73% DM • 74% TDN • 1.72 Mcal NEm/kg Lots of energy coming from sugar • 1.17 Mcal NEg/kd • 5% CP- low CP • 0.9% Ca • 0.09% P • 4% K • 12-14% Ash- inorganic (mineral) Why Use Molasses? Add energy – ration balancing • Conditioner- controlling dust, keep feed together • Palatability- sweet- creep, starter, show feeds • Pellet binder • Feed additive vehicle, minerals + vitamins • Liquid supplement base- ruminant supplement – Tubs/cakes/bricks Sugar-based Co-products and Waste Bakery waste-some have more sugar Candy waste Some have more starch whey Dried whey Milk co products lactose Milk By-products Wet or dry? Non avian – Protein basis • Whey – Fresh • 10 to 13% - cereal grains • 4 to 5% DM • Albumin- AA profile – Lactose – Condensed- partially dried • 55 to 70% • 40 to 50% DM – Minerals- Ca – Dehydrated • Others • > 90% DM – Lactose removal • Starter feeds- swine – Albumin removal • Milk replacers Added Fat in Diets Oil and non oil • Swine – 5 to 10% in starter diets 100% DM – Sparingly in finishing diet- suppl. energy • Poultry – Up to 5%- low fat • Ruminants – 10 to 30% in milk replacers- neonates need more fat - energy – Up to 4% in finishing and lactation diets • Low fat • Fat> decreased rumen microbes Fats and Oils> energy One nutrient> fat> energy • Animal fats goal is not • Blended products to get EFA – Yellow grease – Prime tallow (restaurant) – Bleachable fancy tallow – Vegetable-animal blend – Choice white grease – Poultry grease • Vegetable fats – Refining vegetable oil – Acidulated vegetable soapstock – Lecithin Why Feed Liquid Fats and Oils? 1. Energy 2. Feed chemistry/ delivery conditioner 1. decrease dust, 2. pellet binder, 3. increase palatability 4. Reduce bloat How else to increase fat/energy in diet? • Pick feeds with higher energy • Add a feed only providing energy(sugar/fat)- whole oilseeds Learning Objectives 1. When/why do we feed molasses? – Nutritional reasons – Non-nutritional reasons 2. What nutrients do milk co-products contain? 3. When/why do we feed high fat feedstuffs? 4. What high sugar and high fat feedstuffs are available for use in livestock feeds?
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