New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

VEN 003 Intro to wine making: Notes week 2

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

VEN 003 Intro to wine making: Notes week 2 Ven 3

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Art History > Ven 3 > VEN 003 Intro to wine making Notes week 2
AlexandraRita Notetaker
GPA 4.2

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Week 2 notes from tuesdays and thursdays lecture. NEw notes will be posted before thursdays quiz along with a study guide.
Intro to wine making
Jean-Jacques Lambart
Class Notes
VEN 003, Intro to Winemaking, Wine, Davis, UC Davis, University, popular, important, notes, great notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to wine making

Popular in Art History

This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ven 3 at University of California - Davis taught by Jean-Jacques Lambart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to wine making in Art History at University of California - Davis.


Reviews for VEN 003 Intro to wine making: Notes week 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/07/16
Intro  To  Wine  Making     th Class  Day  3  (April  5 )-­‐  “It’s  All  in  the  Vine!”   Annual  Cycle  Typical  Dates  in  California   •    Spring   –  Bud  break,  April  1    –  Flowering,  May  15   •    Summer  ripening     –  Veraison,  July  15   •    Fall  Harvest,  September  15   •    Winter  Dormancy,  November-­‐March     The  Significance  of  Dormant  Buds   •    The  number  of  buds  left  after  pruning  determines  the  number  of  fruit   clusters   –  Affects  the  amount  of  crop!   •    This  year’s  events  affect  next  year’s  crop                         The  Shoot     Tendril             Leaf   Cluster         Bud     Cane             Start  of  Bloom     2   Fruit  Set   Pea  Size  Berries   •    Hard  and  green   •    Seed  development     Berry  Structure   Skin                   Pulp  No  Pigment           Seeds  Tannins             Tannins  à  bitterness  à  astringency       Veraison   •   Softening     •   Color  Change                   3         Grape  Berry  Components   •    Water     •    Sugar   –    Glucose  &  Fructose,  20-­‐25%   •    Acids   –    Malic,  tartaric,  0.5-­‐1%   –    Essenfal  to  taste  of  wine   •    Pigments   •    Tannins   •    Aroma  compounds   –    Trace  quanffes,  but  key  to  high  quality     Sugar  Increases,  Acid  Decreases                                         4           The  Decision  To  Harvest   •    Sugar  must  be  high  enough   •    Acid  must  not  be  too  low   •    Varietal  flavor  optimal  –  Taste  the  fruit!   •    Many  berries  must  be  sampled  so  that  the  analysis  represents  the  whole   vineyard   –    Each  berry  ripens  at  a  slightly  different  rate     Importance  Of  The  Environment   •    Temperature     •    Water   •    Soil     Vineyard  Heat  Index   •    “Degree  days”   –    Developed  in  1940’s  at  UCD   –    Cumulative  measure  of  heat   •    Uses  daily  average  temp   –    Add  up  each  day  during  the  season  for  which  average  temperature   is  >50F  between  April  1  and  October  31.   –    i.e.  if  max  90,  min  60:  average  75ààadd  25  for  this  day   –    i.e.  if  max  110,  min  80:  average  95ààadd  45  for  this  day   –    i.e.  if  max  60,  min  40,  average  50ààadd  zero  for  this  day   –    Take  the  sum  of  all  days  throughout  the  growing  season   •    California  Has  Five  Regions:   –    RegionI<2,500degreedays;  Region  V>4000degreedays   •    Useful  in  new  plantings   –    Varieties  are  adapted  to  particular  heat  levels           5       Different  Grape  Varieties  Have  Different  Heat  Requirements   •    Some  need  more  heat  to  ripen     –  e.g.  Cabernet  Sauvignon,  Zinfandel  (warmer  origins)     •    Some  need  less  heat  to  ripen   –  e.g.  Chardonnay,  Pinot  noir,  Riesling  (cooler  origins)     Hotter  Places   •    More  sugar   –  More  tons  per  acre    –  Ripe  earlier   •    Lower  acid   –  Malic  acid  is  respired   •    Less  color     •    Less  flavor     Very  Hot   •    Shriveled  fruit   •    Sunburn   •    Sugar  accumulation  stops     Cooler  Places   •    Less  sugar   –  Sugar  addition  may  be  necessary   •    More  acid   –    Wine  will  be  more  tart  or  sour  tasting   •    More  color  and  more  flavor   •    Overall,  better  quality  areas  (CA)     Very  Cold   •    Winter  kill     •    Spring  frost   –  Important  in  California   •    Poor  fruit  set   •    Fruit  won’t  ripen   6     Effects  of  Different  Climates  (California)         Warmer     Cooler   SUGAR   Higher     lower   ACID       lower       higher   COLOR     lower       higher   FLAVOR     lower       higher   YIELD     higher     lower   VALUE   lower       higher     Effects  of  Water  Availability   •    When?   –  Winter  rain  ideal  (deep  roots)     –  Summer  rainàrot   •    How  much?   –  Too  littleàlow  production     –  Too  muchàpoor  quality     IRRIGATION  PRACTICES   •    Europe   –    NOT  permitted  for  many  traditional  wines   •    New  world    –    widely  used     Soil  Effects  on  Wine   •    Wine  differences  that  are  attributed  to  soil  are  probably  due  more  to   differences  in  the  water  holding  capacity  of  the  soil  than  to  any  other  factor     A  New  Vineyard   •    Not  from  seeds   •    Plant  a  piece  of  cane   –    a  piece  of  wood  cut  off  in  pruning    •    Field  budding    OR   •    Bench  grafts   7       PLANTING  A  NEW  VINEYARD   •    3  to  4  years  to  get  first  crop     •    Very  expensive   –    Vines,  trellising  and  training,  irrigation  system     •    Typical  life:  20  -­‐  25  years   •    Cost:  $10,000-­‐50,000+  per  acre     VINEYARD  YIELD   •    Range  in  California     –  2-­‐20  tons  per  acre   •    Typical  high  quality  area    –  4-­‐7  tons  per  acre   •    Typical  moderate  quality    –  8-­‐12  tons  per  acre   •    Typical  low  quality     –  15+  tons  per  acre     WINE  YIELD   •    160  gallons  per  ton  (80%  of  weight)    •    5  bobles  per  gallon  (750  mL)   •    20  acre  vineyard,  7  tons  per  acre     –  20  x  7  x  160  x  5  =  112,000  bottles  =  9133.33  cases     VINE  MANAGEMENT   •    Training     •    Trellising     •    Pruning   àControl  size  and  shape  of  vine  ▯ à  Influence  wine  flavor             8                           Pruning   •    Removes  most  of  last  year’s  shoot   •    Determines  number  of  dormant  buds     Pruning  Controls  Amount  of  Crop   •    Number  of  buds    –  Number  of  clusters   •    Number  of  clusters     –  Maximum  amount  of  fruit       9       PRUNING   •  Too  few  buds   àexcessive  vegetation   àpoor  flavor   •  Too  many  buds   àover  cropped     àwon’t  ripen     CANOPY  MANAGEMENT   •    Optimizing   –  Ratio  of  fruit  to  foliage  –  Amount  of  light  reaching  fruit   •    By     -­‐trellising     -­‐training     -­‐pruning       Summary   •    Annual  cycle=bud  break,  flowering,  veraison,  harvest,  dormancy;  this   year’s  events  affect  next  year’s  crop   •    Harvest  occurs  when  composition  (sugar,  pH,  color,  flavor)  is  optimal  for   winemaking   •    Climate/environmental  factors  influence  varieties  planted,  vineyard   management  practices   •    Grazing  (rootstock  and  scion)  used  to  establish  vineyard   •    Vine  management  practices  used  to  optimize  yield  and  flavor     End  of  Day  3  Notes               10       Notes  Day  4  (April  7 )  Wine  Microorganisms  and  Fermentation     Wines  were  made  by  4000  BC   A  Cave  near  Areni,  Armenia     BRIEF  HISTORY  OF  THE  KNOWLEDGE  OF  FERMENTATION   •    Many  different  cultures  used  a  system  of  trial,  error  and  careful   observation  to  produce  fermented  beverages   •    Production  of  mead,  using  honey  by  the  Vedic  cultures,  the  Greeks,  Celts,   Saxons,  Vikings   •    Produc1on  of  wine  from  grapes  and  beer  from  malted  barley  in  Babyl on,   Egypt,  China,  Greece   •    Produc1on  of  Chicha  (Peru)  from  grain  (corn)  or  fruit,  and  oc1  (aka   pulque)  from  agave  in  America     DISCOVERY  OF  FERMENTATION   •    For  a  long  time,  no  one  understood  why  leaving  fruit  or  grain  in  a  closed   container  for  some  1me  produced  wine  or  beer.   •    The  Romans  used  the  la1n  term  “fervere”  (i.e.  to  boil)  to  describe  the   bubbles  produced  by  crushed  grapes  or  fruit  in  a  container.   •    They  learned  empirically  that  exposure  to  air  and  temperature  were   essential  to  the  process  of  producing  alcohol.   •    No  one  knew  that  the  agents  responsible  were  micro-­‐organisms.     The  Discovery  of  Micro-­‐Organisms  Was  Very  Slow!   •    17th  century:  a  Dutchman,  van  Leeuwenhoek,  making  high  quality  lenses,   mistakes  yeasts  for  starch  particles.   •    1755:  Samuel  Johnson  describes  yeast  as  an  organic  chemical  agent  used   for  fermenting  beverages  and  bread,  not  a  living  organism.   •    18th  and  19th  century:  Lavoisier  understands  the  structure  of  sugars  (O,   C,  H)  and  the  fact  that  cane  sugar  is  transformed  into  alco hol  and  carbon   dioxide  during  fermenta1on.       11       French  Chemist  Louis  Pasteur  Explains  Fermenta1on  (1876)   •    Demonstrated  experimentally  that  fermented  beverages  result  from  the   action  of  living  yeast  transforming  glucose  into  ethanol.   •    Showed  that  only  microorganisms  are  capable  of  converting  sugars  into   alcohol  from  grape  juice;  and  that  the  process  occurs  in  the  absence  of   oxygen.   •    He  concluded  that  fermenta1on  is  a  biological  process,  not  a  chemical   process.   •    Pasteur  identified  yeasts  and  a  smaller  microbe  (likely  Acetobacter).     Important  Terms   Alcohol                                          Ethyl  alcohol,  EtOH,  ethanol   Must                                                  Crushed  grapes  and/or  juice   Brix                                                      %  sugar   Pomace                                        Seeds  and  skin  after  pressing     Fermentation   Grapes à Yeast à Fermentation à Processing and Aging à Wine Yeast:  the  other  organism  required  to  make  wine   •    Kingdoms  of  living  things:     –  Animals;  Plants;  Fungi   •    Yeast:  Mainly  unicellular  fungus   –  About  1500  yeast  species  currently  identified  (there  may  be  more   than  1  million  species  of  fungi  not  yet  identified)     Wild  Yeast   •    Live  on  the  surface  of  the  grape  berry   •    BUT  not  ideal  for  wine  produc1on   •    Do  not  confuse  with  “feral”  wine  yeast  (“escapees”)  !!         12       Characteristics  of  Wild  Yeast   •    Produce  strong  flavors  during  fermentation   •    Alcohol  intolerant   -­‐Residual  sugar  means  wine  is  microbiologically  unstable     •    Unpredictable   •    SO2  sensi1ve   •    Examples     -­‐Kloeckera,  Pichia,  Dekkera,  Brelanomyces,  Candida     The  Wine  Yeast  Saccharomyces  cerevisiae   •    Used  for  making:   •    Wine   •    Beer   •    Bread   •  Distilled  beverages   •    Also  found  on  the  surface  of  grape  berries  as  ‘FERAL’  wine  yeasts   •    BUT  in  much  lower  numbers  than  wild  yeast   •    Can  become  established  on  winery  equipment   •    Can  build  up  in  vineyards  if  pomace  is  deposited   •    Out-­‐competes  wild  yeast  in  a  mixed  fermentation     •    The  Must  is  usually  inoculated  with  a  commercial  strain  of  wine  yeast     What  is  a  “Natural”  Fermentation?   •    A  fermentation  that  is  NOT  inoculated   •    Sometimes  called  “wild”  or  “na1ve”  fermentations  (but  the  yeast  is  not   truly  wild)   •    Usually  a  resident  “house  strain”  of  Saccharomyces  on  equipment   conducts  the  fermenta1on     What  are  the  ADVANTAGES  of  Saccharomyces  Over  Wild  Yeast?   •    Most  important:▯     àMore  alcohol  tolerant   àVigorous  fermentor     àLess  sensitive  to  SO2   13       Characteristics  of  a  Commercial  Yeast   •    Reproducible  and  predictable     •    Vigorous   •    Ferments  to  dryness   •    Alcohol  tolerant     Characteris1cs  of  a  Commercial  Yeast   •    High  temperature  tolerant   •    Minimal  off  flavors   •    SO2  tolerant     Choosing  A  Strain   •    Flavor  differences  between  strains  are  not  very  significant  except  in  very   young  wines  due  to  ester  formation   –  Exceptions:  New  Zealand  Style  Sauvignon  blanc  (formation  of   positive  thiols)   •    A  Yeast  strain  is  not  usually  chosen  for  flavor   –    Except  for  sparkling  wines  where  LACK  of  flavor  is  desired     What  Yeast  Needs   •    Sugar  (carbon  source)  –  Glucose,  fructose  (from  grape)     –  Sucrose  (if  permiled)   •    Nitrogen   –  Add  diammonium  phosphate  (DAP)  if  needed   •    Vitamins   –  Makes  all  except  bio1n                   14     What  Yeast  Needs   •    Sugar   •    Nitrogen   •    Vitamins   •    Minerals,  especially  Phosphorus   •    Low  pH  (acidic)   –    Between  3  and  4   –    Too  acidic  for  most  other  microorganisms     –    Too  acidic  for  ALL  toxic  spoilage  organisms   •    Temperature  50  to  100°  F   –    Fermenta1on  is  fastest  at  80-­‐85°  F   •    Ethanol  below  16%   –    But  most  table  wines  are  between  10-­‐14%  ethanol     Yeast  Budding   •   Wine  yeast  reproduce  by  budding     WHAT  IS  FERMENTATION?   •    The  conversion  of  sugar  into  alcohol  and  carbon  dioxide   •    With  the  resulting  release  of  ENERGY   •    The  yeast  uses  the  energy  that  is  generated  in  order  to  grow  and  ca rry  out   essential  metabolic  functions     Yeast  Cells  Can  Metabolize  Glucose  Through  Respiration  or  Fermentation                       15       RESPIRATION:   •   Another  way  yeast  (and  people)  can  get  ENERGY  from  SUGAR   -­‐C6H12O6  +6O2  6CO2  +6H2O     -­‐glucose  oxygen  carbon  water   •   Provides  680  kcal  energy/mole  of  sugar   •   Lots  of  Energy,  BUT  Requires  Oxygen!     Fermentation   -­‐C6H12O6  2  CH3CH2OH  +  2  CO2     -­‐glucose            2  ethanol                2  carbon  dioxide   •   Provides  only  56  kcal  energy/mole  of  sugar   •   Provides  much  less  energy  than  Respiration,  BUT  no  oxygen  is  needed!     Fermentation   •    The  oxygen  in  grape  juice  is  rapidly  depleted  by  respiration  after  yeast  is   added   •    Fermentation  provides  a  way  for  yeast  to  keep  getting  energy  in  order  to   live  after  oxygen  is  depleted.   •    Ethanol  is  just  a  byproduct   •    Ethanol  is  toxic  to  yeast     Where  Does  The  Energy  From  Fermenta1on  Go?   Of  the  56  kcal  produced...   •    Some  stored  as  ATP  (22  kcal)   •    Most  (34  kcal)  lost  as  HEAT   •    1°  Brix  dropè▯2.3°F  rise  (1.3°C)   •    Final  temp  of  a  wine  if:   –    starting  must  55°F,  22°  Brix  (assume  no  heat  loss)   –    55  +  (22  x  2.3)  =  105°F  final  temp   –    Unlikely  that  temp  will  exceed  100°F  by  much  due   to  death  of  yeast           16       Managing  This  Heat  is  Very  Important  in  the  Winery!   •    The  heat  produced  in  a  fermenting  must  can  get  high  enough  to  inhibit   the  yeast  and  stop  the  fermentation.   •    Heat  is  crucial  to  warming  red  must,  to  ensure  adequate  color  and  t annin   extrac1ons   •    It  must  be  removed  for  low  temperature  fermenta1ons   –    Cooling  systems  are  needed  for  white  fermentations  (and   sometimes  red  wines     –  climate  dependent)     Calculating  Ethanol  Yield   •    Assume  approximately  55%  by  volume   •    Multiply  initial  sugar  concentra1on  x  0.55=  final  alcohol  %   •    Example:  If  you  start  with  grapes  at  20°  Brix  (20%  sugar),  then  you  get   about  11%  EtOH  by  volume  in  the  wine   -­‐20  x  0.55  =  11     Fermentation  Time   •    A  few  days  to  a  few  weeks   •    Temperature  is  the  most  important  factor   –  Red  wines:  70  -­‐  90°F,  Faster   •    Good  for  extrac1on  of  color  and  tannin   –  White  wines:  55  -­‐  70°F,  Slower     •    Good  for  better  fruity  aromas     Fermentation  Nutrition  vs.  Wine  Type   •    Red  wines  ferment  faster   –    Skins  and  seeds  provide  more  nutrients  for  yeast   •    White  wines  ferment  more  slowly   –    No  skins  and  seeds,  so  less  nutrients  for  yeast           17       “Stuck”  Fermentation   •    UNPLANNED:  Fermentation  stops  before  sugar  is  used  up   –    Lille  or  no  change  in  Brix  readings     •    Caused  by:   –    Depletion  of  an  essential  factor,  e.g.  N,  P   –    Overheating   •    More  common  with  white  wines    –  Lower  level  of  nutrients     Lac1c  Acid  Bacteria   •    Also  important  in  sauerkraut,  yogurt,  cheese,  pickles,  etc.   •    Wine  relevant  species     –    Lactobacillus   –    Pediococcus   –    Leuconostoc   •    Leuconostoc  oenos     –  ML-­‐34  strain     –  PSU-­‐1  strain                                 •    Reduces  the  acidity  of  wine   •    Eliminates  malic  acid  for  stability   18       •    Contributes  “buttery  flavor”  –  Caused  by  the  compound  diacetyl   •    Generates  CO2,  bubbles   •    You  don’t  want  this  to  happen  in  the  bottle!     Oenococcus  oeni   •    A  type  of  bacteria  that  converts  Malic  acid  to  Lac1c  acid  and  CO2   (Malolac1c  fermenta1on)     Malolactic  Fermentation  (MLF)   •    Occurs  naturally  in  some  wines  (with  low  ini1al  acid)   –    Almost  always  occurs  in  wooden  containers   •    Occurs  in  most  red  wines  and  ~20%  of  white   wines   –    Especially  barrel  fermented  Chardonnay   •    Can  inoculate  with  ML  bacteria  to  encourage   •    Can  prevent  MLF  with  SO2  or  sterile  filtrati on   •    High  acid  wines  tend  to  be  the  excep1on     Acetic  Acid  Bacteria   •    Acetobacter  species   –  “Vinegar  Bacteria”     –  Alcoholàace1c  acid  à  ethyl  acetate     Acetic  Acid  Bacteria   •    Usually  present  in  all  wineries   •    Requires  O2   •    Control  by  excluding  air   •    Inhibited  above  14%  EtOH   •    SO2  sensi1ve   19     Brettanomyces  -­‐  a  Wild  Yeast     •   –“Horsey”,  “sweaty”  or  “leathery  smell,  “barnyard”...   –    Hard  to  control  because  EtOH  tolerant,  just  like  wine  yeast   –  More  SO2  sensi1ve  than  wine  yeast   –    Can  be  controlled  by  SO2  or  filtra1on   •   Characteristic  of  some  wines     -­‐“Burgundian  terroir  character”     -­‐  Common  in  organic  wines     SUMMARY   •    You  Should  Know  About:   –  Differences  between  Wild  Yeast  and  Commercial  Yeast   –  Requirements  for  good  fermenta1on   –  Yeast  growth  and  the  differences  between  respiration  and   fermentation   –  Heat  and  Ethanol  generated  in  fermentation   –  Malolactic  Fermenta1on   –  Other  important  (good  or  bad)  microorganisms  such  as  O enococcus,   Acetobacter,  and  Brettanomyces     End  of  notes  Day  4     20  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.