Psychology Week 12 Notes
Psychology Week 12 Notes PSY 2301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Aneeqa Akhtar April 4 , 2016 Chapter 13: Social Psychology Continued Prejudices Overt vs Covert Prejudices o Overt prejudice has diminished over the last half century. Explicit Stereotypes o Controlled response, expressed with awareness o Constrained by social desirability Implicit Stereotype o Priming studies (Implicit Association Task) o Automatic response, activated without awareness IAT Effect o It is presumed that the larger IAT effect – or larger gap between congruent and non- congruent reaction times – shows that the individual has a stronger association in memory between the specific concept pairings that make the judgement faster Attraction ~ Proximity We like those we are close to both physically and functionally Proximity increases familiarity and is often linked to similarity Cognitive consistency o It’s easier to be around those we like, therefore we feel a need to get along with people we see often. o Proximity: Impact Study: 270 MIT students randomly assigned to apartments in 17-building complex. Asked to name 3 closest friends within the complex -> 65% of friends mentioned from the same building. Attraction ~ Familiarity Simply seeing a person more frequently can increase our liking of that person This only works if our initial reaction is either neutral or positive o Seeing a negative stimulus repeatedly just makes us dislike it even more Mere Exposure Study: Visited by female. The more they saw a woman, the more attractive they thought she was. Attraction ~ Similarity Matching principle: the tendency to choose similar partners Friends: social class, educational level, and religious backgrounds Romantic Partners: age, social class, ethnicity, religion Why does the similarity effect occur? o Similar others are easier and more pleasant to be around Expectancy-Value Theory: people decide whether to pursue a relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectation... Halo Effect of Beauty: attractive people are judged more favorable on other traits than are less attractive people Pretty people are assumed to have better social skills, intellectual competence, greater integrity and concern for others Not true, but some evidence for better social skills Aneeqa Akhtar th April 4 , 2016 Chapter 14: Developmental Psychology The focus of developmental psychology is on age-related changes in behaviors throughout the life span Key Developmental Issues include: o Nature versus nurture o Stability versus change To what extent are behaviors constant over the life span o Continuity versus stages Continuity suggest that change is uniform and gradual Stages theory suggests that change can be rapid with qualitatively different stages evident across the life span Why study development? To better understand adults ( and ourselves) o Development as a foundation To foster development and well-being o Enhance teaching and parenting o To identify what is atypical and inform remediation Inform decisions about social-policy questions Early Physical Development - Prenatal Development 3 stages: o Germinal Stage (0-2 weeks( Implantation – formation of zygote o Embryonic Stage (3 week to 8 week) o Fetal Stage (9 stage to birth) Physical Development o Many environmental influences o Teratogens: agents that have potential to cause harm Chemicals and environmental toxins (lead) Maternal disease (rubella, STDs) Drugs (nicotine, alcohol, etc.) o Timing, amount, and length of exposure Early Motor Development o Newborns have limited motor abilities “reflexes”: the basis of first interaction with the world o Voluntary motor activities Gross and fine Early perceptual Development Newborns can o Distinguish between sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes o Distinguish ‘pleasant’ and ‘unpleasant’ odors o Sensitive to touch; hands and mouths most sensitive parts Feel pain (increases over 1 week) o Discriminate tones (pitch and loudness) Aneeqa Akhtar April 4 , 2016 Female voices, mothers’ voice o Prefer stories and voices learned during prenatal period o But sight is blurry and not in full color until 2-3 months1 Early Cognitive Development Methodology: o Habituation procedures Understanding of objects o Perception of occluded objects (~4 months) o Support Social-Emotional Development Attachment is defines as an active, intense, emotional relationship between 2 people that endures over time Attachment as “contact comfort” o Harry Harlow found that infant monkeys preferred contact with the cloth surface over access to food o Babies spent 17-18 hours a day with cloth mother but less than an hour with wire mother. o Mother as a food source is not the basis of attachment o Feeding alone without sensitive caregiving can produce developmental delays (ex: Romanian orphans) Aneeqa Akhtar April 6 , 2016 Chapter 14: Developmental Psychology Attachment Three functions of attachment: o 1) Ensures the infant’s survival o 2) Promotes an “internal working model” of relationships that affects future relationship expectations o 3) The attachment figure provides a secure base from which the infant can explore and learn. Types of Attachment: o Secure attachment: a child who experiences responsive, nurturing, and consistent caregiving. Develops an expectation of trust and security Predicts social skills, emotion regulation skills, relationship quality o Insecure attachment: a child who experiences inconsistent, unresponsive, or insensitive caregiving Internal working model that perceives themselves… Measuring Attachment in Humans Strange Situation Task (Ainsworth) o 8 episodes Exploration Separation Reunion o 12-18 month olds Self-Awareness Distinguishing self from others leads to the beginning of social behaviors o Social referencing: looking to others to know how to react Physical Self-Awareness Verbal Self-Awareness Theory of Mind: understanding that other people have different thoughts, belief, and desires – in essence, they have different “minds” from your own Emotion Regulation Manage or control emotion arousal Shift from external to internal o Caregiver regulation o Self-soothing o Monitoring and masking facial expressions Temperament: biologically rooted individual differences in behavioral style Relatively stable over time Classifying Infant Temperaments Thomas and Chess (1977) o Easy (40%), difficult (10%), slow-to-warm up (15%) o 1/3 of children couldn’t be classified Parenting Aneeqa Akhtar April 6 , 2016 Authoritarian parents can produce children with low independence, low self-esteem Parent style -> child’s behavior Jean Piaget and Cognition How do infants develop into sophisticated thinkers in later childhood and adulthood? Cognition is primitive at birth and changes from infancy to adulthood Schemas are our cognitive organization of related concepts o If they are sufficient for understanding, there is equilibrium o But if something is new, the child has to adapt by: Assimilation: allows an existing schema to adapt to the environment o New knowledge is assimilated into an already existing schema Accommodation: allows the schema to change in order to have a new environmental situation Piaget: Four Big Stages Stage Theory: o Major qualitative differences between stages. Big “leaps” happen to get to the next one 1) Sensorimotor Stage o Birth to ~2 o Reflexes to goal-orientated behavior o No ability to think about anything outside of the immediate experience o Acquisition of mental representation marks the end of this stage o Sensorimotor Stage: Object Permanence The principle that objects continue to exist even when out of view (at about 9 months) Demonstrates the ability to form mental representations 2) Preoperational Stage o ~2-7 years o Simple mental representation Use of symbols Acquisition of language Pretend play: blocks become castles, bananas become phones, role-playing Still, severely limits and inflexible Centrism: inability to consider multiple characteristics at once. Conservation: the ability to recognize that a given quantity, weight, or volume stays the same despite changes in how it looks 3) Concrete Operations o ~7-11 years o Use mental operations to solve concrete problems Manipulate mental images Ability to con… 4) Formal Operations o ~12 and above o Abstract and flexible thinking Algebra Aneeqa Akhtar th April 6 , 2016 Lofty goals upon entering phase Past -> present, future Other criticisms of Piaget’s theory o Stages are not universal Formal schooling = formal operations o Differential development across domains Favorite topics o Ignored the social context Vygotsky: zone of proximal development
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