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Exam 4 Notes: Set 2

by: Murry

Exam 4 Notes: Set 2 Bio 1144

GPA 3.68

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of the Urinary System (structure of nephrons and differences in nephrons between vertebrates) and all of the Endocrine System. Important terms highlighted.
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Class Notes
Biology, kidneys, URINARY SYSTEM, nephron, nephrons structure, tubule, Endocrine system, ammonia, urea, urine, waste, Hormones, glands, ducts
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Exam 4 Notes: Set 2 The Urinary System Cont. • Organs of the Urinary System: o Kidneys § Structure of a Nephron • Blood is filtered in the Glomerulus and pushed into Bowman’s Capsule • 60% of reabsorption takes place in Proximal Tubule; this process requires active transport (ATP) • Reabsorption occurs along entire length of tubule, but mostly along beginning portion • Lower loop between PT and DT   • Secretion takes place in the Distal Tubule; also requires active transport (ATP) • Collecting Duct removes as much water as possible and drains waste § Vertebrate Nephron Differences: • Freshwater Fish o Freshwater fish have lower concentration of environmental ions than body ions, because the water concentration (their environment) is greater than the water concentration in their body. o Freshwater fish have a constant intake of water, so they do not drink water o Have a LARGE Glomerulus for filtering extra water out o Have a short tubule so tons of water is NOT reabsorbed o Waste material (ammonia) is very dilute • Saltwater Fish o Saltwater fish have higher concentration of environmental ions than body ions, because they live in salt water. Therefore, their body has higher water concentration than environment. Water is trying to leave their body. o Have a constant loss of water by osmosis, so will actively drink the saltwater o Store ions in tissues of body (urea) o Small Glomerulus to low levels of filtration o Long tubule for reabsorbing max amount of water o Highly concentrated waste • Mammals o Most efficient of all vertebrate kidneys o Loop of Henle – constricted portion of tubule (loop) in the kidney to slow the force of the GF moving through, and therefore absorbs more water and nutrients while secreting more waste o Waste in 20x more concentrated o Waste product of mammals is urea (urine) The Endocrine System • Hormonal control of bodily functions • Signaling Molecule Types: o Neurotransmitters o Pheromones o Hormones § Specific target § Transported in blood stream • Endocrine glands – ductless glands; lack tube to transport hormones; secrete hormones directly into bloodstream • Exocrine glands – have ducts • Vertebrate Endocrine Glands and Associated Hormones o Hypothalamus – produces “releasing hormones” that regulate pituitary hormones § Follicle Stimulating Hormone – releasing hormone (FSH-RH) § Leutenizing Hormone – releasing hormone (LH-RH) o Pituitary (anterior) – secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine glands § Gonadotropins – act on gonads; FSH-RH and LH-RH § Thyrotropins – act on the thyroid gland (an important metabolic gland) § Adrenocorticotropins – act on the adrenal glands § Growth hormone – stimulates cell division § Prolactin hormone – stimulates mammary glands to produce milk § Melanophore-stimulating hormone – pigment dispersion; created in reaction to sunlight o Pituitary (posterior) § Vasopressin – acts on the kidney to reduce urine flow § Oxytocin – stimulates release of milk in mammary glands and stimulates muscles of the uterine lining to contract during birth o Metabolic Hormones and Associated Glands: § Thyroid Gland o Thyroxine – promotes normal development of the nervous system § Adrenal Glands (one on each kidney) o Cortisol – an anti-inflammatory hormone o Aldosterone – promotes reabsorption in the tubules of the kidney o Epinephrine (adrenaline) – tunes up body in emergency response o Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) – antagonist to epinephrine § Digestive Hormones • Gastrin – stimulates the secretion of HCl into the stomach • Cholycystokinin – stimulates gall bladder to release bile salts into the small intestine; stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymatic juices into the small intestine


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