Chapter 2 Reading & Tragedy of the Commons Lecture
Chapter 2 Reading & Tragedy of the Commons Lecture Pols 328
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Kienle on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 328 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Professor Arceneaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Politics of Developing Nations in Political Science at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Arceneaux- Chapter 2 Reading Pillars of Democracy: State and Nation o these words are often used interchangeably but actually mean different things o The state: is a political unit that monopolizes the legitimate use of force over a relatively stationary territory and people Uses force to maintain order and all states possess sovereignty They hold responsibility and power over their own affairs All about order Concept of the state indicate who has the right to assert authority o The nation: a group of people that share a common identity through race, ethnicity, language, religion or history Are all bound by a common culture Identity and communal bonds o Nation-state: a sovereign group of people bound by a common culture Many nations do not enjoy sovereignty o Regime: institutional arrangements of a country that define how politics is organized Focused on how to achieve the order that is the goal of the state o Government: group of people in a state that have the authority to act on its behalf o If we draw all of these concepts together: The state requires positions of leadership to be filled, the regime dictates how those leaders will govern and behave, the government identifies who those leaders are, and the nation is the people over which the government will govern Land and People in the Pre-Columbian Period o Olmecs- first notable civilization formed in Mexico in about 1,200 BCE o Mayans- second notable civilization, intimately linked to the Olmecs Settled in the Yucatan Peninsula in central Mexico and acted as middlemen in the trade networks formed by the Olmecs By the time of their height in 300-800 CE the Mayans had developed a network of city states and social classes/ hierarchies Made huge scientific, technological, and mathematical advances Mayan calendar Architectural phenomena Spanish destroyed most of this upon conquest Mayan and Olmec decline was attributed to war and geographical aspects Both of these civilizations were centered in lowlands, which offered poor soil and humid, tropical climates This made it difficult to sustain crop growth for large populations or manage loss of harvest due to climate Civilizations flourished in the highlands because of this, where the soil was more fertile and the climate more temperate o Aztecs Developed in the highlands of central Mexico into a huge civilization of about 300.000 people o Incas Settled in the Andes mountains of Chile, Peru and Ecuador The second largest highland civilization behind the Aztecs at the time of Spanish conquest Architectural advances were incredible, and are still marveled at today o Aside from these civilizations, there were millions of other inhabitants that supposedly lived in the Americas In North America, there was less civilization and more nomadic groupings The land was not untouched as the Europeans had thought it was when they arrived in the "New World" o Spanish and European Conquest The Spanish gave value to the highlands due to the abundance of gold, silver, and , mercury found in the mountains Upon stumbling on indigenous civilizations, they quickly used them as minors and laborers for their cause Wiped out many of them due to accidents, diseases that they had no immunity to, mercury poisoning With the steady flow of europeans migrating, there were always new, infectious diseases being spread and killing the indigenous peoples By 1800, 50 percent of their population was gone The English, French, and Dutch established settlements in North America, whereas the Spanish and Portuguese settled in South America The two engaged in illicit trade with each other which caused tensions The Colonial Period o The arrival and Conquest Columbus arrived in Hispanola, modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic, in the 1500s Tales of quick wealth and untouched land attracted others, only to leave them disappointed at the lack of riches that they found Began to exploit the indigenous populations for their labor when they realized they could not find quick riches Many died from brutal tactics or succumbed to diseases working in the sugar fields or in the mines Puerto rico, Cuba, and Jamaica were all settled in the early 1500s by the Spanish following Columbus's arrival o Expansion Within a few years, the Aztec and Incan empires were subdued by the Spanish with small amounts of men- how? Military technology, strategy, advancement, and disease played a huge role in the easy defeat of the indigenous They welcomed them as Gods instead of intruders as well, creating a sense of false trust Colonial Institutions o Spanish colonialism was usually motivate by 3 things: God, gold, and glory The Spanish Crown did not want the conquistadors to have nobility or prestige for conquering an area; they wanted to remain the only authority over the new land and indigenous peoples To protect these interests, an institution called encomiendas were created to give incentives to the conquistadors Encomienda: a royal grant of labor intended to incentivize conquistadors and "spread the Christian faith" to the indigenous people The indigenous were looked at as subjects of the King Conquistadors were granted this labor and instructed to give religious instruction to the indigenous as well as use them for their labor The Church was part of this as well Encomiendas limited the ability of a new noble class to rise in the Americas like it had in Europe In 1542 new laws were passed placing restrictions on indigenous labor treatment, increased payment, and eliminated all new encomiendas, making it non hereditary Mercantilism An economic theory that envisions the accumulation of wealth, primarily through precious metals, as a zero-sum game between states Rich silver found in Mexico and Peru solidified the mercantilist interests of the Spanish Economic development occurs through the accumulation of mineral wealth rather than trade or capitalism To ensure a steady workforce, the Crown created a new government position called corregidors Corregidors had direct authority over an indigenous population and could require a certain percentage of them to work in the mines or the fields for a certain amount of time This allotment of labor was known as a repartimiento More about a collective responsibility to provide a portion of their population for work Corregidor offices were put up for sale to raise funds for the Spanish crown in the late 1500s They could now own land, use labor for private purposes, extract tribute, and more Created much to purchase this position and increase brutality, as it could only be held for 2-3 years To facilitate acess of labor, the Spanish uprooted indigenous villages and placed them in larger settlements called reduccions Indigenous were also targeted for tribute payments Estimated about 70 percent of fiscal resources in the 17th century The hacienda another institution that clashed with the corregidors Hacienda were larger landed estates farmed or ranched primarily for the colonial domestic market They were used as encouragements for Spanish settlements and expanded rapidly through annexations of indigenous lands Over time, hacienda owners convinced the crown to impose a tax system directly to the indigenous so that they were included into the Spanish economy ' Indigenous then had no choice but to work on haciendas to gain an income, which allowed the owners to create many ways to keep them there Spanish Crown created a network of office positions to administrate the colonies Make rules, enforce those rules, and dictate affairs Spanish created 35 governorships in Latin America which laid the foundation of modern Latin American states The Crown Home and Abroad As the monarchy consolidated its power at home, it needed to create new institutions to keep their authority abroad The Council of the Indies was created to draft and administer royal decrees to the colonies, but the Spanish Crown was too far away to enforce these decrees quickly enough Viceroys were created Viceroys played the role of the King in the colonial areas Literally means "vice-king" Were there to remind the people of the authority behind the parchment Only had administrative powers in Spanish America Audiencia was an independent judicial power that acted as the final court in their specific regions There were many checks and balances on the viceroys by the Crown and the audiencia through hierarchichal networks o Religious Institutions in Colonial Latin America Catholic Church is a big influence in Colonial America Requerimiento: document that justified the sinning of the Spanish against the indigenous if they didn’t convert or comply with Christianity Religious orders had to go through the Spanish crown when regarding the indigenous populations The monarchy had the authority over high ecclesiastical positions and religious affairs through the Pope The Church worked with regional governments on an irregular basis The Road to Independence o Mercantilism proved to be a frustrating and inefficient way of economy Spanish economy and metals could not keep up with the emerging economies and manufactured goods of Europe o In the Americas, the Creoles were gaining more power and representation in the military and the government They began to see themselves as a distinct class from the Peninsulares Peninsulares: spanish born and migrated to America Creole: second generation peninsulares who were born in the Americas, but are still of Spanish descent Didn’t have much ties to Spain geographically or biogrraphically This played a role in pushing the colonies towards trying to achieve independence o After the war of the Spanish Succession ended in 1714, the Bourbon empire succeeded the throne Bourbon Reforms: reforms implemented by the Bourbons to centralize authority in the Spanish Empire New offices were created to sidestep the viceroys and the audiencias and give these government officials direct contact with the monarchy Higher taxes, stricter regimes The Reforms needed force to be enacted and for Spain to protect their extensive Empire Spain followed France in 1761 to protect each others interests and were quickly shot down by the powerful British Navy Spain rethought its military regime and quickly realized that they needed to recruit more colonials into the army 60 percent of the armed forces was then Creole, making it a more "American" institution Conversely, the pennisulare government became more foreign and illegitimate The Creoles quickly became a powerful force in the authority of the Spanish Empire They were the swing vote between classes, essentially Could tip the power towards the lower classes or the peninsulares and Spain When the French Revolution occurred in the late 1700s, this took a huge toll on Spain and the colonies Spain was compelled by France to ally with them in the 1790s and again were defeated by the British Battle of Trifalgar sealed Spains fate with the colonies, as it's defeat severed its economic sanctions and ties In 1808, Napolean turned on Spain and placed his brother on the throne None of the Creoles in the Americas supported Joseph Bonaparte This led to more feelings of wanting to achieve independence The Spanish people fiercely resisted and created juntas to locally govern and defend themselves from the new Spanish (French) crown Small battles and wars waged on across the continent, and Napolean was defeated in 1814 and Ferdinand VII was restored to the Spanish throne Many creoles withdrew their support for independence now that Ferdinand was back Bolivar and San Martin continued their fight for independence in the periphery, not directly engaging with royal forces Independence became a conservative cause for some Independence was finally almost guaranteed in 1821 when Mexico declared their independence through a new Emperor, and when Spain responded to new advances by Bolivar with a truce In 1824 Spain held its last stand in Peru Afterward, Cuba and Puerto Rico were all that remained of the empire that had once spread from North America to Tierra del Fuego Tragedy of the Commons- Baseball Lecture Resources that are acceptable to everyone, giving the illusion that there is enough to go around, causing inevitable overuse o Water, cattle, pollution, deforestation o Baseball? United States going into Latin American countries and "using up baseball" Tragedy of the commons introduced in the 1960s, very influential o Led to governments wanting to regulate different common goods unsuccessfully o Types of resources / goods: Subtractability: when you have a resource and you use it, you have less of it Excludabiity: what goods can you be exclude from other people Excludbility low Hi Subtractability Private goods Common pool resources hi low Toll goods Public goods Elinor Ostrom o Tragedy of the commons is not inevitable There are many factors that come into play and can be controlled Is Player Recruitment a Common Pool Resource? Tragedy of the commons scenario? o Rules and problems surrounding the stock pf a good: Interest in baseball Player development o Rules and problems surrounding the flow of a good Open scouting Farm system Academy system Draft Decline of baseball o African American player decline In 1947 when the MLB became integrated the negro league was gone Still had minor leagues o Broadcast television changes baseball as people can stay home to watch th
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