Principles of Biology Chapter 1 Notes REVISED
Principles of Biology Chapter 1 Notes REVISED Bio 301
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Nichols on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 301 at Calhoun Community College taught by Felecia Ewing in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at Calhoun Community College.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Principle of Biology - Felicia Ewing 5/24/2016 Important Words or Definitions Important People Important Concepts Chapter 1 The Science of Life o Science is an organized body of knowledge consisting of demonstrable truths obtained by careful observation, experimentation, and reason Scientific Method (the process of science) o Aristotle – considered the father of the scientific method o Making Observations Insight or observation that makes you curious The internet can be used to look up past experience Libraries, conversations, the internet, etc. Smell, touch, sight, sound Instruments such as microscopes can enhance senses o Formulating a Hypothesis Based on existing knowledge Informed, “educated guess” Wild Chips – anal leakage and greasy flatulence Inductive reasoning – using isolated facts to make sense of a whole idea On the basis of data the hypothesis is either accepted or rejected o Performing experiments and making observations Experiment – a series of procedures to test a hypothesis o “There is an ingredient in the chips that makes them have this effect on people” o Hypothesis - Olean causes anal leakage Experimental value – purposely changed to produce a different outcome The Olean fried chips Test Group – any group that is exposed to the experimental variable. Receives the same treatment as the control group, except for the experimental value. Got the Olean fried chips Control group – not exposed to any experimental variables Got the regular chips Dependent Variable – A part of the experiment affected by independent variable (aka results) Independent/Experimental value – purposely changed or manipulated by the scientists to produce a different outcome The Olean fried chips Model – a representation of an actual object Data – results of the experiment or observation Dependent Variable Experimental Value o Coming to a conclusion Penicillin was discovered by chance and is produced by mold o All Organisms: Consist of one or more cells Stay alive through ongoing inputs of energy and raw materials Chemical and solar energy from the environment can be transformed into raw materials necessary for life o Glucose Living things metabolize (energy transformations) 1 6H 2 + 6CO + 2olar Energy -> (C H O 6 12(66 ) 2 Anabolism – creating big things from molecules o Photosynthesis Catabolism – breaking down big things to form molecules All sense and respond to change (stimuli) Temperature, light, chemical, physical, etc. Living things are irritable Unconscious – Homeostasis o Sweating, goosebumps Conscious – fanning yourself Inherit DNA Reproduce (asexual and sexual) Living things can replace themselves in the environment through reproduction Single cell organisms copy themselves by binary fission Living things evolve and change through time because of evolution Living things show adaption to local environments Scientific Theory – accepted explanations or concepts for how the world works o Result of innumerable observations and experiments support a scientific theory o 5 basic theories of biology: o Cell All organisms are composed of cells, and new cells come only from preexisting cells 1 Glucose Atoms > Molecules > Cells > Tissue > Organ >Organ System > Organism > Population > Community > Ecosystem > Biome > Biosphere 9 10 Energy – the capacity to do work The ultimate source of all energy is the sun Metabolism – chemical reactions that occur in a cell Photosynthesis – a process that transforms solar energy into the chemical energy of organic nutrients o Gene All organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior Gregor Mendel Father of genetics James Watson and Francis Crick Discovered that Genes are composed of DNA Responsible for everything that happens in a cell Controls the structure and function of cells and organisms by coding 11for proteins o Homeostasis Cells and organisms have an internal environment and that living systems regulate this environment so that it stays fairly constant Response to stimuli – plants bending towards light o Ecosystem Organisms form units in which they interact with living and nonliving components of the environment. Characterized by the cycling of chemicals and flow of energy Biomes Tropical rainforests and coral reefs are the most diverse because of the amount of solar energy they get Taxonomy – identifying, naming, and classing organisms according to certain rules. Two part system Designed by Carolus Linnaeus (Swedish Botanist) Binomial Nomenclature o The first word is the Genus, the second is the Species o Genus – a group of closely related organisms that can reproduce non fertile offspring 2Atoms – the most basic unit of matter. They interact with each other to from molecules. Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 3Molecules – smallest unit of a compound that still retains its properties 4Tissue – group of cells with a common structure and function 5 6Organ – Composed of tissues and organized for a particular task Population – several organisms of the same kind in a particular area 7Community - Interacting populations in a particular area 8Ecosystem – populations and communities interacting with one another and the environment 9Biome – ecosystems that cover large areas (desert, grassland, forests, etc.) 10Biosphere – any area that can sustain life. Collection of all the biomes. 11Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine o Species – a group of closely related organisms that are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring o Least inclusive to most inclusive: Species > genus > family > order > class > phylum > kingdom > domain (Dumb King Phylum Came Over For Good Soup) Human ( Eukarya, Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo, H. sapiens) Specific epithet – the second part of the scientific name, descriptive Domains Bacteria – unicellular prokaryotes Does not have a nuclear membrane Found everywhere o Water, soil, atmosphere, skin, mouth, intestines Archaea – unicellular prokaryotes Live in aquatic environments that lack oxygen, are salt, too hot, or too acidic for most other organisms (Extreme conditions) o Extremophiles Halophiles – Salty environments Psychrophiles – cold Thermophiles - hot Eukarya – eukaryotes (has a nuclear membrane) Plantae o Multicellular o Photosynthesis Animalia o Multicellular o Ingest Protista o Unicellular and multicellular o Some photosynthesize, absorb, and ingest Fungi o Mostly unicellular o Mold, mushrooms, yeast, ringworms o absorbs o Evolution Organisms have shared characteristics because of common descent Evolution tree o Like a family tree, traces to a group of common ancestors Molecular data, fossil record, anatomy and physiology of organisms, and embryonic development of organisms Natural selection & Adaption Artificial selection – Humans select the desired traits by selectively breeding o Fruits and vegetables, dogs, flowers, cows, etc. o However, this can backfire, in the case of pesticides (insects that are resistant reproduce more, and therefore the pesticide no longer works) Pea plants DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid Made up of nucleotides DNA can mutate Gene theory – genes are hereditary units composed of DNA. Genes control the structure and function of cells and organisms by coding for proteins Protein – Cellular molecules that determine what the cell and organism are like RECAP: o Life: Is Organized Uses materials and energy Reproduces Is homeostatic Responds to stimuli Forms ecosystems Evolves
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