Sociology Notes SO 1003
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Kelly on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Kimberly Kelly in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
M K C Sociology Notes: FINAL EXAM CHAPTERS: 13,14, 16, AND 20 CHAPTER 13- Gender: Gender: refers to the personal traits and social positions that members of our society attach to being male or female Gender Stratification: The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and woman Gender Around the World The world of anthropologist Margaret Mead in New Guinea; 3 different societies Men and women both equal, with both sexes cooperative and sensitive Both sexes were equal but selfish and aggressive Different gender roles, but flipped from the gender roles in the U.S. Work of George Murdock: Studies numerous societies, found agreement of cultural tasks by sex- in congruence with what we studied about hunting and gathering societies How are gender relations organized? Patriarchy: a form of social organization in which males dominate females U.S. ranks 44 out of 195 nations in terms of equality The ideological backing for patriarchy? Sexism: the belief that one sex is superior to the other Practiced by individuals but ALSO institution In employment: the glass ceiling In the legal System: Domestic Violence Where do we learn gender? Socialization! – the process by which we learn our culture and meaning Gender roles: attitudes ad activities that society links to each sex Males: competitive, ambition, leadership Females: emotional, cooperative, nurturing Men pushed into activities with winner and losers Girls pushed into activities that encourage communication 1 M K C Media: Males and females portrayed differently in the media Men are the leaders and protagonists- dominant and competitive Women play supportive and sexual roles- childlike, submissive, sexual How do we stratify by gender? Occupations and work Men and women do different kinds of work with different levels of income and prestige Women often in jobs that pay little and offer few opportunities for advancement 12 of the fortune 500 companies have a female CEO Gender, income, and wealth: women make less money tan men - median of women working full time: 36K, for men 47K - they earn less because of the type of work they do- clerical and service jobs pay very little - Women get pregnant: put them out of the workforce, influences the jobs they choose - Caring for children and aging parents - Household work also Institutional Discrimination: the glass ceiling Gender, education, and politics: Percentage of women getting a college degree is increasing - Now receives 59% of all associates and bachelor’s degree - 61% of master’s degrees and 51% of PhDs Politically, progress but still far behind men Overall, women are a minority population, not in terms of numbers, but rather due to lower levels of income, wealth, and power than men Intersectionality: an analysis of the interplay between race, class, and gender Theories of Gender: Structural functionalism: - Gender serves a specific role, which helps to maintain stability - Change can happen, but roles are rooted in the culture 2 M K C - Talcott Parsons: women manage the household, and men make the money and introduce the family to greater society Symbolic Interactionism: - What kinds of rules do genders have with social interaction? - Women hold more eye contact than men, and often defer to men - Men tend to have the power of interaction- they often initiate interaction, set topics of discussion, and control the outcomes - Men are more apt to try and control more likely to interrupt others Social Conflict: - Power differences with how we do gender - Frenderich Engels: (writing buddy of Karl Marx): equality in early societies, but surplus and specialization resulted in power differences - The role of capitalism in gender inequality: more wealth created, but it generally goes mostly to men With women at home making no wages, they are under control Feminism: Feminism is the support for social equality for women and men In opposition to patriarchy and sexism Support 5 general principles: - Working to increase equality - Expanding human choice - Eliminating gender stratification - Ending sexual violence - Promoting sexual freedom Chapter 14: Race and ethnicity: Race: a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of society consider important - The biological traits: skin color, hair, facial features, and body shape - Physically diversity results from previous inhabitation patterns and physical patterns Ex: melanin Race is a Social Construction: - The differences and meaning we attach to races are socially constructed: race only matters when we decide it does - Race and the meaning of it change over time and by culture o US vs. Brazilian racial scheme 3 M K C - The case of the European immigrants; non-white became white - The role of the state o The US census as producing race Why make so much of race? - Race has no genetic base - Not one characteristic, trait, or gene distinguishes all members of a race from members of another race - Of the small amount of total human genetic variation- 85% exists within any local population Ex. 2 random Koreans are likely to be as genetically different than a Korean and Italian - Formation of race hierarchy in which some people have more money, power, and prestige than others. Ethnicity: shared cultural heritage - About ancestry, language, or religion that promotes a distinctive social identity - Constructed from cultural traits, whereas race is about physical traits Minorities: any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart ad subordinates - Minorities are the numerical majority in 4 states Prejudice: a rigid an unfair generalization about an entire category of people - Often based on stereotypes Racism: the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Discrimination: unequal treatment of various categories of people - Prejudice refers to attitudes, discrimination refers to ACTION Institutional: built into operation of society’s institutions, including schools, hospitals, the police, and the workplace EX: bank lending White privilege: - Peggy McIntosh: unpacking the invisible knapsack - Discuss everyday instances of white privilege - If discrimination exists to minorities and represents social disadvantage, then the lack of for whites represents advantage Race and Discrimination over time… - early US history- and slavery - Jim Crow era (end of slavery to civil rights movement) Slavery Era: 4 M K C - Blacks seen as intellectually inferior ad categorized as “other” - Blacks were not given the same freedom and equality (contrasting US ideals) but they were not seen similar to white - Even up North, seen as immature and good for little Jim Crow Era: - Legal separation of races - Public accommodations, legal housing, segregation, school segregation, and the workplace - The great migration up north- pull and push factors - Culminated in the civil rights movement Era of Colorblind Racism: - Post civil rights movement - Racism still exists, but much more covert - Avoidance of racial terminology by whites formally race neutral political agenda 4 Central frames of color blind racism: - abstract liberalism: a frame that uses ideas associated with political liberalism (equal opportunity; so force should not be used to achieve social policy) and economic liberalism (choice) in an abstract manner to explain racial matter - naturalization: a frame that allows whites to explain away racial phenomena by suggesting they are natural occurrences - cultural racism: a frame that relies on culturally based arguments such as “Mexicans do not put much emphasis on education” to explain the standing of minorities in society - minimization of racism: a frame that suggests that discrimination is not longer a central factor affecting minorities life chances “How to be racists without sounding racist” We communicate racist views differently: “I am not racist but…” “Some of my best friends are black…” “I am not black, so I don’t know…” “They are the racist ones…” Chapter 16: The Economy and Work: The economy: is the social institutions that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumptions of goods and services. 5 M K C Goods: commodities ranging from necessities to luxury items Services: activities that benefit others - economies of modern high income nations are the result of centuries of social change - 3 technological revolutions that reorganized production and transformed social life Agricultural Revolution: - Economy as a distinct social institution: o Agricultural technology -permanent settlements o Job specialization - trade The Industrial Revolution: - By the mid-18 century a new revolution was under way. First in UK, then in North America - New sources of energy: steam-fueled machine operation - Centralization of work in factories: impersonal factories replaced cottage industries - Manufacturing and Mass production: raw materials into a wide range of products - Specialization: diverse division of labor and lower overall skill requirements - Wage labor: working for strangers with intense supervision The information Revolution and Postindustrial Society: - By 1950, the nature of production was changing again - The US creating a post-industrial economy, a productive system based on service work and high technology - Automated machinery reduced to the role of human labor in factor production system - This era is marked by a shift from industrial work to service work Postindustrial economy: a system of service work and high technology - A third breakthrough: the computer Information revolution altered fundamental character of work in three ways: - From tangible products to intangible ideas - From mechanical skills to literacy skills - From factories to almost anywhere SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY: Primary sector 6 M K C - Generates raw material from the environment: especially I low income nations - Agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry - 26% of the economic outcome of low income counties based on primary sector - 10% for middle-income nations - 2% for high income nations Secondary Sector: - Part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods - This sector grows quickly as societies industrialize - Refining petroleum into gasoline, turning metals into tools and automobiles Tertiary sector - Part of the economy that generates services rather than goods - Grows with industrialization - 49% of economic output in low income countries - 55% for middle income countries - 73% for high income counties - About 85% of the US labor is in service work including food service, sales, law, health care, teaching. THE GOBAL ECONOMY New information technology drawing people around the world close together and creating a global economy Global economy: expanding economic activity with little regard to national borders This activity has 5 major consequences: Global division of labor - The worlds poorest nations specialize in producing raw materials - Richest nations specialize in the production of service sector Products pass through many nations - Your morning coffee may be grown in Columbia, and transported to New Orleans, etc. - National governments no longer control the economic activity within their borders A small numbers of businesses now control a vast share of the worlds wealth - 1,750 largest multinational companies account for half the economic output in the globe Raises concerns about the rights and opportunities of workers - higher unemployment in the US and poverty workers abroad face extremely low wages and no work security - capitalism threatens the well-being of workers throughout the globe 7 M K C Capitalism: an economic system in which natural recourses and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned Justice in a capitalist system amounts to marketplace freedom 3 features of Capitalism: 1. private ownership of property - individual can own almost everything. 2. Pursuit of Personal Profit - Capitalist society seeks to create profit and wealth. The profit motive is the reason for people to take new jobs, open new businesses 3. Competition and Consumer Choice: - Capitalist economy based on free-market system with no government interference - Consumers regulate a free-market economy by selecting the goods and services offering the greatest value (Adam Smith). SOCIALISM: Its is an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned Justice in a socialist context is meeting everyone’s needs in roughly equal nammer 3 distinct features: 1. Collective ownership of property - Limits rights to private property - Government controls such property and makes housing and other goods available to all 2. Pursuit of Collective goals - What capitalists celebrate entrepreneurial spirit, socialism condemns as greed 3. Government control of the economy - Government and socialism CAPATALISM VS. SOCIALISM Economic Productivity - GDP is $13,500/ 5,000 Economic Equality - More economic disparity/ less economic disparity Personal Freedom - Emphasis freedom to pursue personal self-interest/ emphasizes freedom from basic want WORK IN THE POSTINDUSTRIAL ECONOMY 8 M K C The dual Labor Market - Primary labor market: jobs that provided extensive benefits to workers Medicine and law, as well as upper management positions - Secondary labor market: jobs that provide minimal benefits to workers Low skilled, blue-collar jobs, and low-level sector jobs Labor Unions - Organizations of workers that seek to improve wages and conditions through various strategies Decline of Unions: - Shrinking industrial sector - Service jobs are unlikely to be unionized SELF EMOLYOMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT, AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT Self-employment: earning a living without being on the payroll of a large organization Every society has some unemployment Jobs disappear as: - Occupations become obsolete - Businesses change the way they do business - Companies downsize or close Underemployment: lower salaries, fewer benefits, and reduced/no pensions Many workers agree to cuts in pay and/or benefits The Underground Economy: - Most of us occasionally participate in the underground economy in small ways - Much of the underground economy is due to criminal activity - Largest segment: people who fail to report legally earned income on their tax returns CHAPTER 20: EDUCATION: Education: the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms ad values Schooling: formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers Typically, the level of schooling is based on level of economic development Lower and middle income countries- schooling is not a priority 9 M K C - About a quarter of children in poorest countries get any school - More than 1/3 of children (globally) never reach high school - 1/6 of the worlds population cannot read or write SCHOOLING AROUND THE WORLD: Japan - Praised for producing high achieving students - Higher high school grad rate: 95% vs 87% - Competitive exams to get into college are different th - Japan ranks #4 in the world for the education system, US is 26 Great Britain - Very much tied to the class system - Wealthy kids went to private boarding schools - The non-wealthy go to state sponsored schools - Also have competitive entrance exams, but often wealthy students end up in prestigious universities regardless US - One of the first counties to set a goal of mass education - By 1918, all states had a mass education law- attend until age 16 or through 8 grade - High school completion rate- 87%, 29.5% hold a 4-year degree - Very much tied into equal opportunity Sociological analyses of US education - Structural functional perspective - 5 main functions to maintain stability of society: socialization cultural innovation social integration social placement other latent functions: child care, labor market, postponement, networking Social Conflict and Education - Education plays a key role in social stratification - The separation of good and bad students - Steering to job specialization - Tracking/standardized tests School Inequality - Significant differences between schools and education one receives - Private schools: o Religious based schools, non-religious based schools 10 M K C Students from private school typically outperform others academically Smaller classes, more demanding coursework, greater discipline - Public schools: o 89% go to public schools - what else matters? Some districts do spend more per student and still have poor graduation rate - Coleman Report: (1966) o Not all about the school, but also cultural capital available in the hoe and community o High income students learned more quickly during the school year, but most gains were made over the summer Access to higher education: - Passive students o Instructor does the talking, students take notes and listen o 10% of class time dedicated to discussion - School dropouts o Strain on welfare and prison system, disproportionally non- white students 11
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