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Biology 1114 chapter 23

by: hannah warren

Biology 1114 chapter 23 bio1114

Marketplace > Biology > bio1114 > Biology 1114 chapter 23
hannah warren
GPA 3.86
professor nelson

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biology 1114, continued evolution lecture
professor nelson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by hannah warren on Monday February 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to bio1114 at a university taught by professor nelson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 183 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/15
Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations Professor Nelson Biology 1114 Darwin s definition of evolution descent with modification Modern Synthesis definition generation to generation change in a population s genetic structure this definition makes the problem of what species are and how they arise become problems in population genetics population group of individuals of the same species in the same area at the same time gene pool total set of alleles in a population at a given time genotypeallele frequency relative abundance of a given genotypeallele phenotype observable characteristics of an individual frequency of allele A p Each AA has 2 A alleles Each Aa has 1 A allele Each aa has 0 A alleles HardyWeinberg Equilibrium requires certain conditions that are no evolution conditions no change in allele frequencies from generation to generation evoution can occur if conditions are violated ex You have 500 flowers 1000 alleles 320 are red RR 160 are pink Rr and 20 are white rr Find each genotypic frequency 32050064 RR 320x2640 because to big R s 16050032 Rr 160 because one big R 2050004 rr 8001000 800 big R alleles out of 1000 total alleles 20x240 because 2 small r alleles 401000 40 small r alleles out of 1000 total alleles p summarizes a lot of info specifies frequency of q specifies expected frequencies provides null model for tests of evolution Assumptions of HardyWeinberg No mutations Random mating Large population size No gene flow No selection WPP N Bottleneck effect population goes through constriction in size Ex Only a few members of a populations survive a forest fire Dispersal exchange with other populations will change the population gene pool under study Natural Selection occurs when individuals differ in heritable traits and those traits correlate with differences Fitness relative contribution of a genophenotype to subsequent generations only relative to other genotypes in a population depends on what other alleles are available genetic drift random9nonadaptive gene flow random nonadaptive selection9not random adaptive Modes of Selection Stabilizing selection against extremes Directional towards one end of distribution Disruptive against median Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection g 39 llcsCcn mon 39 39 quot2 i As39erg L Jumvu t 7 Ar i v quotI I IIquot 1 I a I 391 39 3 F a 39 I 39 39 i 1 V nl lld a an E l 39 l 39 g aim am on g I a l v 1 m A a j 9 1 squot 39 quotL a 3 Em we I l 4 in v Eulall quot I V f a by i u r a a 39 a 391 V L I 1 l I A If h z I I quot1quot I ner a disruptive a small population with strong directional selection is most likely for evolution to occur Sexual selection individuals differ in their ability to acquire mates intrasexual competition for mates within a sex body sizeaggressiveness mostly males intersexual limiting sex exercises choice of mates elaborate displaysvocalizations female chooses preference Sexual dimorphism sexes differ in appearances and behavior Ex Male versus female finches in color Males are bright yellow females more brown sexual selection can explain the existence of charactersistics that must be costly showy plumage loud songs sexualy selected characteristics are often important in recognizing species for animals and scientists variabiity generated by mutation gene duplication and sexual recombination Sexual vs Asexual Reproduction sexua allele is at a 50 reproductive disadvantage repair DNA mask deleterious mutations more variation for natural selection to act upon in an unpredictable environment variabiity preserved by heterozygote advantage frequency dependent selection evolution does not produce perfection Reasons for nonperfection in evolution natural selection has no goal not all evolution is adaptive environment may change evolution may not keep up adaptations are compromises historica constraints limit possible future designs evolution is a quottinkererquot not an engineer


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