Lecture Notes: 4/8
Lecture Notes: 4/8 BIOL 201
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Ari Jumpponen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Organismic Biology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
BIO 201 Spring Botany 4/8 Phylum Rhodophyta: red algae color due to ... red because of chlorophylls that allow them to photosynthesize deeper in the water; utilize blue light to survive filamentous structure complex life cycle with 3 thallus structures: ... ?) algae are... not monophyletic; in protista, not Bidlack; plants only as a common ancestor; E none of the above Bryophytes: ?) red tides are caused by... C Dinoflagelates Animal life cycle: no Alt of Generations; dominant diploid phase Difference between animal and plant life cycle: ovum (animal) is an independent structure in plant life cycle Plant life cycle: shared with some algae; Alt of Generations present; either haploid or diploid dominant; "In ferns it turns..." after ferns, there is a diploid dominant phase Alternation of Generations: meiosis in diploid sporocyte; mitosis between spores and gametophyte; mitosis from gametophyte to produce gametes; fertilization ?)In Alt of Gen... gametophytes are haploid; gametophytes produce gametes but do not go through meiosis Simple evolution in plants: algae -> movement onto land -> vascular tissue -> seed production -> flowers (see slide for pic) Colonizing Land (problems): ~resist drying out - dessication (need cuticle but not covering everything) ~source of nutrition ~intense sunlight - won't be able to swim deeper when light is too intense ~soak up CO2 from water - need mechanisms for photosynthesis ~higher concentrations of oxygen Some solutions: ~cuticle to reduce water loss ~gametangia are surrounded by parents cells - archegonium surround the eggs; antheridium surround sperm ~zygote developes in the parent plant for the first part of it's life Plants and green algae share: chlorophylls (a and b); caretenoids; starch as food reservel cellulose on cell walls; phragmoplast and cell plate during mitotic cell division (phragmoplast is similar to scaffolding that helps the cell walls develop back to back) ^ this suggests a common ancestor > 400 million yrs ago is when the first land plants appeared, and it is thought that the ancestor progressed from aquatic to land before that Arbusular mycorrhizas and bryophytes: 1st terrestrial plants were similar to bryophytes (no vascular tissue or roots) Bryophytes: non-vascular; thought of as algae that colonized land; flaggelated sperm; chlorophylls (a and b); starch as storage; cellulose cell walls; no lignin; no or very primitive vascular tissue (hydroids and leptoids; water/ nutrients absorbed through plant body; no leaves or roots) rhizoids (anchors) Bryophyte life cycle: asexual reproduction by gametophyte fragmentation; gametophyte is dominant; gametophyte is nutritionally independent; sporophytes usually not photosynthetic (hornworts are the exception); Alt of Gen (in mosses, leafy plant is major part of gametophyte generation) Gametophytes produce gametes; Sporophytes produce spores Bryophytes may have evolved independently from algae Phylum Hepaticophyta: liverworts ~Marchantia: upper surface is divided into diamond shaped segments; each segment was a small pore opening to the chamber; they need chambers because they have to be able to take in air; part of asexual reproduction by gemmae Gemma: tiny, lens shaped; tissues that become detached from the thallus (vegetative body) Sexual Reproduction through Marchantia: Gametangia formed on gametophores; female: archegoniophore (eggs hang down beneath spokes of archegoniophore); embryo dependent on gametophyte for nutrients; seta: short stalk; ...... Spores do not need water like sperm and fertilization
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