Psychology Notes Exam 3 3/31/16
Psychology Notes Exam 3 3/31/16 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Existential theories Existential theories differ in many ways, but they all emphasize that essence is more important than existence. Essence vs existence o Essence- the way we define something. o things can be the same but have separate existence/history. o Existence sometimes has sentimental value; ex: you have a favorite ring and lose it. It is replaced with another ring, that is the same essence but has a different existence. o Scientists would focus on essence so they can apply theories to the whole group. o Existentialists reject that theory and say that the individual (existence) is more important. Fyodor Dostoyevsky o Science cannot predict human behavior o If there was a theory about all human behavior, humans would change behavior because they see it is a threat to their freedom. People don’t want to feel predictable. o Because of the need to have freedom, there could never be a theory on how humans are going to be have. Jean-Paul Sartre o Did not like conventional ways of classroom teaching; would want to students in cafeteria and talk about everything besides school. o In-itself vs for-itself: in-itself entity doesn’t have ability to make choices for itself, for-itself does. Humans are for-itself. o Anything you do is a choice if you could have done something else; doesn’t matter if its conscious or not. o The only thing humans don’t have the choice in and the only limit on freedom is death. o Self deception: Usually we aren’t aware of the full extent of our freedom and we do things without questioning it. We deceive ourselves by thinking that we have to do the things we do. This reduces anxiety about making choices and weather or not we are making the right choices. According to Sartre, if a person is stressed they are more aware of what is going on and their choices. o Fear of Freedom: some people find freedom threatening because they are afraid of responsibility. If you are fully free you are the “author of your own life”. People don’t like this idea because they like to blame things other than themselves when they run into problems. o Responsibility: we are responsible for everything that happens to us. The way we experience things is the outcome of our actions which are the choices we made and we are responsible for those outcomes. § We are responsible for everything in the world because something could have been different if we chose to do something else. Things are the way they are because we made them that way and we are responsible. Irvin Yalom Denial of death: Yalom worked with terminally ill patients and thought they would be depressed and talked about death but found they talked about things they liked doing and wanted to make most of time they had left. o He argued that most people live in denial when it comes to death. We live under the illusion as if we’re going to live forever, this reduces anxiety about death. o By living like this, we lose sight of the important things and get hung up over meaningless stuff. o He argued that People have psychological problems because they take life for granted and don’t appreciate its importance. o In his therapy he tried to get people to focus on and do more meaningful things. Because we are in denial of our death, we never tell people things we really want to or do things we really want to do
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