Psychology 220 Week 11 Notes
Psychology 220 Week 11 Notes Psych 220
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #11 NOTE: I am posting notes for Chapter 11 twice because we covered it more extensively this week as opposed to last week; much of the notes will look the same however there are additions to the ADHD portion as well as other disorders and aggression research. 4/5 Chapter 11: The School Years: Biosocial Development Overview Healthy growth and activity Health problems in middle childhood Brain development Developmental psychopathology Special Education Middle Childhood The period between early childhood and early adolescence Roughly between ages 6/7 and 11 Size and Shape Rate of growth slows o Gaining 5-7 pounds a year and 2 inches in height as opposed to doubling in weight during infancy Skills grow steadily Better control of motor skills o Fine and gross Physical Activities Benefits and concerns of sports for younger children: Concerns 1. Makes them too competitive 2. They could get seriously injured -Concerns include too much competition at a young age, increased stress, critical parents, risk of physical injury Benefits 1. Learning to work with others 2. Hand-eye coordination / general better health 3. Discipline, respect -Benefits of sports programs include exercise, fun, teamwork, and sportsmanship **Time for physical education at school has decreased significantly especially in the United States, as well as safe neighborhood places to play. Health Problems th Childhood overweight- BMI above the 85 percentile Childhood obesity- BMI above the 95 percentile IN 2012 18% OF CHILDREN AGES 6-11 WERE OBESE Asthma- chronic inflammatory disorder of the respiratory system that narrows airways from the nose and mouth to the lungs Symptoms include: wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing IN 2013 14% OF CHILDREN AGE 5-7 HAVE BEEN DIAGNOSED WITH ASTHMA Brain Development Advances include: Myelination Self-control o Lateralization o Corpus callosum Reaction time o The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically or cognitively Example: dodging a ball or answering a trivia question Selective attention o The ability to concentrate on a stimuli while ignoring others; concentrating on “what's important” Automatization o A process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought o A combination of maturation and experience Measuring the Mind IQ IQ tests can help detect learning disabilities, giftedness, and other special needs IQ scores predict later school achievement and to some degree, career attainment in adulthood. Flynn Effect- the rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations Aptitude Tests The potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge Reaction time, selective attention, and automatization are the foundation Achievement Tests A measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or another subject Criticisms of Testing: -Doubting that any single test can measure the complexities of a human’s brain Multiple intelligence: the idea that human intelligence is composed of a varied set of abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one Developmental Psychopathology Study and prediction of maladaptive behaviors and processes across time Maladaptive 4 PRINCIPLES 1. Abnormality is normal –Most children act oddly; children with disorders typically do not 2. Disability changes year by year -Comorbid: the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person 3. Life may be better or worse in adulthood -Certain disabilities produce productive adults while some conditions are more disabling in adulthood 4. Diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context -Interaction with their surroundings can modify, worsen, or even create psychopathology Externalizing disorders: -Acting out, behavior excess -Insufficient control *External are more easily noticeable than internal Internalizing disorders: -Behavior deficits, withdrawal -Anxiety, shyness, depression Multifinality: a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one cause can have many final manifestations Equifinality: a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one symptom can have many causes Bi-polar Disorder Characterized by extreme mood swings –euphoria to depression Rapid increase in diagnosis –observer error Hard to diagnose especially in children –symptoms are similar to ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) -A conditions characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or by hyperactive or impulsive behaviors -Interferes with a person’s functioning or development Core symptoms: Inattention Impulsivity Hyperactivity o Some hyperactivity must be present before the age of 7 o Must present in at least two settings; i.e. school and home o Clear evidence of interference with normal development Expressed symptoms: High energy level Poor organizational skills Lack of persistence Poor social skills Frequent shifting of attention Difficult to console as babies st o 1 symptoms appear in toddlerhood/preschool years -High levels of arousal, irritability, and difficulty in consolation -Signs first shown in toddlerhood (preschool years) -More likely to persist when occur with aggression or noncompliance -Difficulty making transition to first grade -More likely to be rejected by their peers -Often oblivious to cues of other children -Hard time cooperating with others to reach goals Issues involving ADHD: Misdiagnosis –if ADHD is diagnosed when it is a different problem, treatment might make things worse instead of better. Drug abuse –children on drugs for ADHD may become addicted easier than if alternative treatments are used Normal behavior considered pathological –could change the self- concept of the child to think they are abnormal Over half of ADHD kids meet criteria for another disorder: (Back to idea of comorbidity: the tendency of kids diagnosed with one disorder to manifest symptoms of another disorder) Conduct Disorder Lying Fighting Stealing Vandalism Antisocial behavior Repetitive and persistent behavior *3 or more characteristics must be present over a year to diagnose *Problem patterns usually occur around the age of 13 Types of Conduct disorder: o Aggressive conduct o Nonaggressive conduct o Deceitfulness or theft o Violation of rules Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) o Negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile toward authority o Easily lose temper o Arguing with authority o Actively defying rules o Deliberately doing things that will annoy others o Blaming others for their mistakes or misbehavior *At least 6 behavior symptoms must persist for at least 6 months in order to diagnose Risk factors for ODD: ADHD or other learning disabilities Childcare disrupted by succession of different caregivers Families with harsh, inconsistent, or negative child-rearing practices More common in boys Hostile Attribution Bias: interpreting neutral or ambiguous events as attacks on self; integrity Trouble inhibiting responses Don’t anticipate outcomes of action Do except positive outcome for aggression -Aggressive kids are less likely to become persistent offenders than kids who are both aggressive and hyperactive -Younger onset of CD is associated with greater persistence, possible adult psychopathy Aggression Research -Social Cognition and Children’s Aggressive Behavior (Dodge, 1980) Cue-utilization deficiency: a lag in ability to integrate intention information into behavior Cue distortion: child distorts perception of intention, which is related to expectations about the intention of others Puzzle-Assembly Experiment: Hostile condition o Both responded similarly with hostility Benign condition o Aggressive boys showed more helping behavior Ambiguous condition o Aggressive boys reacted as if the peer had acted with hostile intents (with aggression) o Non-aggressive boys behaved as if the peer had acted benignly (refrained from aggression) Hypothesis -If a peer is known to be aggressive, then children will be more likely to attribute hostile intentions to him in an ambiguous situation than if the peer is known to be nonaggressive. Results -As in the other research, aggressive boys attributed a hostile intention to the peer 50% more often than did nonaggressive subjects -If perceived hostile intention (both), would retaliate aggressively 60% of the time -If perceived benign intention (both), would retaliate aggressively 26% of the time Specific Learning Disorders -A marked deficit in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by an intellectual disability, or by an unusually stressful home and environment Dyslexia: unusual difficulty with reading, thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment. -Dyslexia is the most common learning disorder Dyscalculia: unusual difficulty with math, probably originating from a distinct part of the brain. Dysgraphia: unusual difficulty with spelling and writing Autism Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): a developmental disorder marked by difficulty with social communication and interaction – including difficulty seeing things from another person’s point of view –and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. 3 Core sets of symptoms: Impaired reciprocal social interaction o Seeing things from another person’s perspective Delayed language o Of social interaction/communication, not vocabulary Aberrant activities o Rigid routines, motor stereotypies (excessive repetition), restricted interests Autism can be diagnosed as early as 1 year typically diagnosed around 3 years old Signs: -First clear signs of autism in failures of joint attention: Problem initiating joint attention, responding to it, and producing emotional expression Will show imperatives but not declaratives Social referencing is impaired -Autistic kids do establish attachments, and seek comfort/reunion Socially responsive to adults who initiate interaction o BUT: autistic kids are passive and depend on the caregiver to initiate interaction -Delayed in language Particularly aspects that deal with social, communicative function of language DO acquire vocabulary and grammar in a normative way -Succeed at conservation and seriation tasks normatively BUT: impaired on appearance/reality tasks and false belief task Neurodiversity: the idea that people have diverse brain structures, with each person having neurological strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated, in much the same way diverse cultures and ethnicities are welcomed. A person who is adept at numbers and systems but inept in social skills and metaphors might be recognized as having unusual gifts, rather than pitied for having an autism spectrum disorder Special Education Least restrictive environment (LRE): a legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn. -Children are not segregated unless it is not possible to remediate problems within a regular classroom Response to Intervention (RTI): an educational strategy intended to help children who demonstrate below-average achievement in early grades, using special intervention. -Practice and individualized teaching for those who do not master the skills along with the other students in the regular classroom Individual Education Plan (IEP): a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs -“Design learning pathways for each individual sufferer” Gifted and Talented Accelerated learning: educating gifted children alongside other children of the same mental, not chronological, age. 4/7 Chapter 12: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Early childhood has “magical thinking” Transition into middle childhood develops: Concrete Operations -The ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions Can manipulate symbols mentally Can perform true operations Can perform coordinated mental actions Piaget: middle childhood is the development of mental actions for concrete operation (concrete objects they can actually see; still developing abstract thinking/ hypotheticals) Direct events or things they can process only when experienced Become more systematic and more objective What Can Kids Do? The physical world becomes more predictable due to experience o Taking “leaps in logic” to find an unspoken link between factors Thinking more organized and flexible Can reverse think Start to consider alternatives (however not exhaustively) *Now children can conserve various object properties across transformations Understanding Transformation Logical necessity -Quantity must remain the same despite changes in appearance: *Conservation Compensation Classification -The logical principle that things can be organized into groups according to some characteristic they have in common Mentally reverse Seriation -The concept that things can be arranged in a logical series, such as the number sequence or the alphabet “Two-sided” thinking in middle childhood Think about objects from other perspectives (Recall the three mountains test with early childhood and egocentric thinking) Hold two things in mind at the same time Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky stresses the centrality of instruction for cognitive growth. He believes peers and teachers provide a bridge between developmental potential and needed skills via guided participation in the zone of proximity Metacognition -“Thinking about thinking,” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, then monitor and adjust one’s performance on said task. -More comprehensive, more transcending The ability to think about one’s own thought processes o Not only do people hold thoughts different from one’s own, but they can think about the thoughts they have for themselves Knowing how difficult it will be to solve a problem Knowing how to choose strategies to solve a problem Control Processes: mechanisms that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis flow of information within the information-processing system. Executive Function: the cognitive ability to organize and prioritize the many thoughts that arise from the various parts of the brain, allowing the person to anticipate, strategize, and plan behavior. Metamemory -The ability to think about one’s own memory Metamemory research: -Testing each group with recall; asking them how many they think they can recall (out of 10) and then testing it Mean Age Preschool 3 Grade College (4.6) (8.9) (20.2) (no-norm) n = 24 24 24 Mean 8.24 7.45 5.95 Predicted Recall Mean 3.41 4.70 5.61 Actual Recall # of 10 Guessers 14 1 1 Metamemory and 8 year olds Have a better understanding of memory than 5 year olds Know that they need to study and test themselves in order to remember things Know to remember –consistently rehearse Still lacking in middle childhood: Formal operations –cannot consider all possible combinations or solve problems systematically; fully considering the variety of strategies Hypothetical reasoning –generating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and thinking about situations that are contrary to fact (what could happen) Combination-of-Chemicals Problem 7 year olds cannot exhaust all possible combinations Adolescents know –combine exhaustively, systematically Memory Sensory memory: the first component of the human information-processing system; stores incoming stimuli for a split second, allowing for it to be processed. *Sensory memory is already quite good in early childhood Working (or short term) memory: the component in which current, conscious mental activity occurs; when sensations become perceptions *Improves markedly in middle childhood Long term: last component in the information-processing system where virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely; involves storage and retrieval *The capacity of long-term memory is huge by the end of middle childhood Language -If a child learns only one language in the early years, but then masters a second language during middle childhood, the brain must adjust. A study found no brain differences between monologue and bilingual children if they spoke both languages from infancy. However, starting at about age 4, the older children are when they learn a second language, the more likely their brains will reveal adaptations from accommodating dual languages. English Language Learners (ELLs): Children in the US whose proficiency in English is low –usually below a cutoff score on an oral or written test. English as a Second Language (ESL): A US approach to teaching English to non-English speaking children. Their first language is never used Bilingual schooling: a strategy where school subjects are taught in both the learner’s original language and second (majority) language Immersion: a strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (majority) language that a child is learning